Friday, December 31, 2010

Sri Krishna Committee Report On Telangana statehood Issue

Justice Srikrishna committee on the Telangana statehood issue submitted its report on the feasibility for carving out a separate state out of Andhra Pradesh to Union Home Minister P Chidambaram on December 30.

Justice B N Srikrishna has handed over his report to the government – 10 months after he was appointed head of a special committee to talk to different political parties and “all sections of society.

Earlier this week, Justice Srikrishna, a former Supreme Court judge, said that he believes his report offers “a permanent solution” to the divisive Telangana debate. He said it is up to the Centre to decide what happens next.

Telangana region consists of 10 districts including Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar (its biggest district), Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak and Hyderabad.

The Congress has 21 MPs from Andhra Pradesh and 12 of them are from Telengana region. The state elects 33 Lok Sabha MPs.

The 12 Telengana MPs belonging to the Congress are under pressure to quit over the issue of a separate state for the region.



Sunday, December 26, 2010

Number of Players in Sports

Sports Number of Players
Ice Hockey
Rugby football 15
Polo 4
Water Polo 7
Kho Kho 9
Kabaddi 7
Hockey 11
Football (Soccer) 11
Cricket 11
Netball 7
Volleyball 6
Badminton 1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)
Tennis 1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)
Table Tennis 1 or 2 (Singles & Doubles respectively)
Basketball 5
Gymnastic Several individuals compete simultaneously
Billiards/Snooker 1
Boxing 1
Chess 1
Bridge 2
Croquet 13 or 15
Golf Several individuals compete simultaneously
Lacrosse 12

Court/Campus/Field Games/Sports
Court Tennis, Badminton, Net Ball, Handball, Volleyball, Squash, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi
Diamond Baseball
Ring Sketing, Boxing
Course Golf
Pool Swimming
Board Table Tennis
Mat Judo, Karate, Taikwondo
Arena Horse riding
Vellodrome Cycling
Field Polo, Football, Hockey
Track Athletics
Pitch Cricket
Greens Bowls
Rink Curling, Ice Hockey
Range Shooting, Archery



Angled Drive Serve, Backhand Low Serve, Bird, Deuce, Double Droup, Fault, Flick Serve, Forehand Smash, Let, Lob, Love All, net Shots, Rush, Smash.


Base, Battery, Bunting, Catcher, Diamond, Hitter, Home Infield, Outfield, Pinch, Pitcher Plate, Pullout, Short Stop, Strike.


Ball, Basket, Blocking, Dribbling, Free Throw, Held Ball, Holding, Jump Ball, Multiple Throws, Pivot.


Baulk Line, Break, Bolting, Cannon, Cue, Hazard, In-off, Jigger, Long jenney, Pot, Scratch, Screw Back, short Stop, Strike.


Ausiliary Point System, Babit Punch, Break, Cut, Defence, Down, Hook, Jab, Lying On, Knock, Seconds out, Slam, Upper Cut, Weight In, Win by Knock-out.


Auction, Bid, Chicane, Cut, Declarer, Doubleton, Dummy, Finesse, Grand Slam, Little Slam, Notrumps, Over-trick, Revoke, rubber, Ruff, Shuffle, Suit, Vulnerable.


Bishop, Capture, Castling, Checkmate, En Passant, Gambit, Grand Master, King, Knight, Pawn, Queen, Rook, Stalemate, Under Promoting.


Ashes, Banana, Boundary, Bowling, Caught, Chinaman, Cover Drive, Crease, Doosra, Duck, Duckworth-Lewis Rule, Fine Leg, Follow On, Full Toss, Gardening, Googly, Gully, Hat-trick, Hit Wicket, Inswinger, l.b.w., Leg-break, Leg-bye, Leg Glance, late Cut, maiden Over, No Ball, Off Break, On Drive, Out, Outswinger, Over, Mandatory Over, over Pitch, Popping Crease, Rubber, Run Down, Run Out, Short Pitch, Silly Point, Slip, Square Leg, Stone Walling, Straight Drive, Stumped, Short leg, Spin, Swing, Thirdman, Yorker.


Hoops, Mallet, Peg Out.




Advantage Clause, Blind Side, Centre Forward, Corner Kick, Dead Ball, Direct Free Kick, Dribble, Goal kick, Golden Goal, Hat-trick, Marking, OffSide, Penalty Kick, Penalty Shootout, Red Card, Striker, Throw In, Tripping.


Best-ball Foursome, Bogey, Bunker, Caddie, Dormy, Fairway, Fourball, Foursome, Greed Holes, Links, Niblic, Par, Put, Rough, Stymied, Tee, Threesome.


A-bars, Ariel, Blocks, Cone of Swing, Dish, Flairs, Giants, Inlocate, Kip, Planche, Tariff, Tumble, Virtuosity, Wrap.


Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Cary, Centre Forward, Corner, Dribble, Flick, Free-hit, Goal Line, Green Card, Halfway Line, Hat-trick, Off-side, Red Car, Roll -in, Scoop, Short Corner, Sixteen-yard hit, Square Pass, Stick, Striking Cirele, Tackle, Tie-breaker, Zonal Marking.

Horse Racing

Jockey, Punt, Steeplechase, Thorough Bred.


Ashi-waza, chui, Dan, Dojo, Gyaku, Hajime, Ippon, Jigotai, Kaeshiwaza, Koka, Makikomi, Nage-waza, O-goshi, Randori, Scarf, Tani-Otoshi, Uchi-komvi, Waki-gatame, Yoshi, Yuko.


Age Zuki, Ai-uchi, Aka, Chakugan, Dachi, Encho Sen, Fudotachi, Gedan, Geri, Hajime, Ibuki, Jion, Kakato, Koka, Makiwara, Nidan, Obi, Rei, Sanbon, Shiro, Tobigeri, Ude, Waza-ari, Yoko-geri, Zanshin, Zen-no.


Bunker, Chukker, Mallet.


Bow, Bucket, Cow, Ergometer, Feather, Paddle, Regatta.

Rugby Football

A Trackle, Lines, Scrum, Touch, Try.


Bag, Bull's Eye, Marksmanship, Muzzle, Plug.




Breast Stroke, Crawl.

Table Tennis

Anti Loop, Backspin, Chop, Loop, Penhold Grip, Push, Spin, Twiddle.


Ace, Backhand Stroke, Deuce, Deep Volley, Deuce, Double Fault, Fault, Ground Stroke, Half Volley, Let, Love, Slice, Smash, Volley


Ace, Base-line, Blocking, Doubling, Foot Fault, Heave, Holding, Jump Set, Lob Pass, Love All, Point, Quick Smash, Scouting, Service, Spike, Tactical Ball, Volley, Windmill Service.


Half-Nelson, Head Lock, Heave, Hold, Rebouts, Scissor.



Monday, December 20, 2010

Awards give in India

Bharat Ratna Award

India has produced a legacy of brave hearts since times immemorial. Probably there is not enough space to measure their sacrifices. However, we cannot close our eyes to those people who have made our country proud by excelling in their own fields and bringing us international recognition. Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian honour, given for exceptional service towards advancement of Art, Literature and Science, and in recognition of Public Service of the highest order.
The original specifications for the award called for a circular gold medal, 35 mm in diameter, with the sun and the Hindi legend "Bharat Ratna" above and a floral wreath below. The reverse was to carry the state emblem and motto. It was to be worn around the neck from a white ribbon. This design was altered after a year.

Bharat Ratna Award

Bharat Ratna Award
(Reverse Side)
The provision of Bharat Ratna was introduced in 1954. The first ever Indian to receive this award was the famous scientist, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. Since then, many dignitaries, each a whiz in varied aspects of their career has received this coveted award.
In fact, our former President, Shri A. P. J Abdul Kalam is also a recipient of this esteemed honour (1997). There is no written provision that Bharat Ratna should be awarded to Indian citizens only. The award has been awarded to a naturalized Indian citizen, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, better known as Mother Teresa (1980) and to two non-Indians – Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Nelson Mandela (1990). It is also not mandatory that Bharat Ratna be awarded every year. The last time this award was given was in 2008, to Bhimsen Joshi.

Padma Awards
Padma Awards, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri are given for exceptional and distinguished service in any field including service rendered by Government servants. The recommendations for Padma Awards are received from the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations, Central Ministries/Departments, Institutions of Excellence, etc. which are considered by an Awards Committee. On the basis of the recommendations of the Awards Committee, and after approval of the Home Minister, Prime Minister and President, the Padma Awards are announced on the eve of the Republic Day.
View the list of Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri Awardees.

Padma Vibhushan Award:

Front Face of Padma Vibhushan Award Back Face of Padma Vibhushan Award

Padma Bhushan Award:

Front Face of Padma Bhushan Award Back Face of Padma Bhushan Award

Padma Shri Award:

Front Face of Padma Shree Award Back Face of Padma Shree Award

Gallantry Awards

The art of appreciating the brave and gallant is not new. They form one of the most important constituents of a nation’s stability. History defines gallantry as commanded respect and appreciation. The concept of emancipation of the brave is cognizant in our Epics too. In the Mahabharata, the merit of dying as a martyr in the cause of Dharma is all along appreciated as the easiest way to heaven. In fact, any kind of death on the battlefield was considered glorious.
Whether being the appointed head of a clan, raised memorials in honour of the martyrs/brave souls or granted titles, robe of honour, cash awards or medals etc., recognition of bravery has always been a very prestigious affair. The conclusion of British Rule in India saw the end of the old institution of British honours and awards. Independent India saw the introduction of awards such as Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra, Ashoka Chakra, Shaurya Chakra etc.

Param Vir Chakra (PVC)

This is the highest gallantry award for officers and other enlisted personnel of all military branches of India for the highest degree of valour in the presence of the enemy. Introduced on 26th January 1950, this award may be given posthumously. Literally, Param Vir Chakra means 'Wheel (or Cross) of the Ultimate Brave'. In Sanskrit, ‘Param’ means Ultimate, ‘Vir’ (Pronounced veer) means Brave and ‘Chakra’ means Wheel. The PVC is the equivalent award of the Medal of Honour in the United States, and the Victoria Cross in the United Kingdom.

Ashok Chakra

The Ashok Chakra series of awards are open to civilians also. Recommendations received in respect of civilians from the State Governments/Union territory Administra-tions and Ministries/Departments of the Central Government are processed by the Ministry of Defence for the consideration of the Central Honours and Awards Committee chaired by the Defence Minister. These awards are biannual and are given on the Republic Day and Independence Day.

Shaurya Chakra

This is awarded for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy. This award may be granted to civilians or to military personnel and may be awarded posthumously.

Bravery Awards

The national awards for bravery was started in 1957 by the Indian Council for Child Welfare (ICCW) to recognise and honour children who have performed outstanding deeds of bravery and selfless sacrifice. Every year the ICCW confers these awards to children below 16years of age.
Applications for these awards are acknowledged from Central/State government departments, Panchayats, Zila Parishads, school authorities as well as state and Union Territory councils for child welfare.
The selection is made by a committee constituted by the ICCW, comprising of representatives from the Secretariats of the President and the Vice-President, various ministries, as well as the Central Social Welfare Board, police, All India Radio, Doordarshan and leading NGOs such as the National Bal Bhavan, SOS, Children's Villages of India, R K Mission and experienced ICCW members.
The awards are announced on November 14 (Children's Day) and the Prime Minister presents the awards on the eve of Republic Day. The awardees receive a medal, certificate and cash as a token of their indispensable courage.
In addition to this, some of them are also granted financial assistance to complete their schooling (ICCW's sponsorship programme) and professional courses such as medical and engineering (under the Indira Gandhi scholarship scheme). Assistance is also provided to some till they complete their graduation.

Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards

The Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of awards are given for courage and promptitude under circumstances of great danger to the life or bodily injury of the rescuer, displayed in an act or a series of acts of humane nature, in saving life from drowning, fire, rescue operations in mines, etc. Recommendations for Jeevan Raksha Padak series of awards are received from the State Government/Union Territory, Administrations and Ministries /Departments of the Government of India.

IAS 2010 PRE GS Exam paper with Solution

1. For the Karachi session of Indian National Congress in 1931 presided over by Sardar Patel, who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Ans. b
In 1931, the Indian National Congress, at its Karachi session, adopted resolutions defining, as well as committing itself to the defence of fundamental civil rights, including socio-economic rights such as minimum wage, the abolition of untouchability and serfdom. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme.

2. Who among the following were official Congress negotiators with Cripps Mission?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel
(b) Acharya J.B. Kripalani and C. Rajagopalachari
(c) Pandit Nehru and Maulana Azad
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
Ans. c
Pandit Nehru and Maulana Azad were official Congress negotiators with Cripps Mission. The Cripps mission was an attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.

3. Which one of the following processes in the bodies of living organisms is a digestive process?
(a) Breakdown of proteins into amino acids
(b) Breakdown of glucose into CO2 and H2O
(c) Conversion of glucose into glycogen
(d) Conversion of amino acids into proteins
Ans. a
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components that can be absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. eg. Break-down of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into constituent units.

4. From the point of view of evolution of living organisms, which one of the following is the correct sequence of evolution?
(a) Otter - Tortoise - Shark
(b) Shark - Tortoise - Otter
(c) Tortoise - Shark - Otter
(d) Shark - Otter – Tortoise
Ans. b
Otters are semi-aquatic (or in one case aquatic) fish-eating mammals.

5. Consider the following statements:
1. Hepatitis B is several times more infectious than HIV/AIDS
2. Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. c
Hepatitis B is several times more infectious than HIV/AIDS because HIV is heat sensitive.
Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—a fatal disease with very poor response to current chemotherapy. The infection is preventable by vaccination.

6. Excessive release of the pollutant carbon monoxide (CO) into the air may produce a condition in which oxygen supply in the human body decreases. What causes this condition?
(a) When inhaled into the human body, CO is converted into CO2
(b) The inhaled CO has much higher affirnity for haemoglobin as compared to oxygen
(c) The inhaled CO destroys the chemical structure of haemoglobin
(d) The inhaled CO adversely affects the respiratory centre in the brain.
Ans. b
The inhaled CO has much higher affirnity for haemoglobin as compared to oxygen. Carbon monoxide mainly causes adverse effects in humans by combining with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in the blood. This prevents oxygen binding to hemoglobin, reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, leading to hypoxia.

7.. Consider the following statements:
1. Every individual in the population is equally susceptible host for Swine Flue.
2. Antibiotics have no role in the primary treatment of Swine Flu.
3. To prevent the future spread of Swine Flu in the epidemic area, the swine (pigs) must all be culled.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. b
People who work with poultry and swine, especially people with intense exposures, are at increased risk of zoonotic (bird and swine flue) infection. People in at-risk groups should be treated with antivirals (oseltamivir or zanamivir) as soon as possible when they first experience flu symptoms. Antibiotics have no role in the primary treatment of Swine Flu. The World Health Organization moved to put the pandemic alert to phase 5 confirms that the situation is not a pig problem but a human problem.

8. With regard to the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) The chances of transmission from female to male are twice as likely as from male to female
(b) The chances of transmission are more if a person suffers from other sexually transmitted infections
(c) An infected mother can transmit the infection to her baby during pregnancy, at childbirth and by breast feeding
(d) The risk of contracting infection from transfusion of infected blood is much higher than an exposure to contaminated needle
Ans. a
In high-income countries, the risk of female-to-male transmission is 0.04% per act and male-to-female transmission is 0.08% per act. The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth. Breastfeeding also increases the risk of transmission by about 4 %.

9. What are the possible limitations of India in mitigating the global warming at present and in the immediate future?
1. Appropriate alternate technologies are not sufficiently available.
2. Indian cannot invest huge funds in research and development.
3. Many developed countries have already set up their polluting industries in India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. a
No need of explanation.

10. Consider the following statements:
1. The Commonwealth has no charter treaty or constitution.
2. All the territories/countries once under the British empire (jurisdiction/rule/mandate) automatically joined the Commonwealth as its members.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. a (?)
Explanation: Membership is purely voluntary. A number of territories formerly under British jurisdiction or mandate did not join the Commonwealth like Egypt, Iraq, Myanmar etc..

11. Examine the following statements:
1. All colours are pleasant.
2. Some colours are pleasent.
3. No colour is pleasant.
4. Some colours are not pleasant.
Given that the statement 4 is true, what can be definitely concluded?
(a) 1 and 2 are true
(b) 1 is false
(c) 2 is false
(d) 3 is true
Ans. b

12. In the context of bilateral trade negotiations between Indian and European Union, what is the difference between European Commission and European Council?
1. European Commission represents the EU in trade negotiations whereas European Council participates in the legislation of matters pertaining to economic polices of the European Union.
2. European Commission comprises the Heats of State or government of member countries whereas the European Council comprises of the persons nominated by European Parliament.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. d
The European Council is the institution of the European Union (EU) responsible for defining the general political direction and priorities of the Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of EU member states, along with its President and the President of the Commission. The High Representative takes part in its meetings, which are chaired by its President: currently Herman Van Rompuy.
While the European Council has no formal legislative power, it is an institution that deals with major issues and any decisions made are "a major impetus in defining the general political guidelines of the European Union".

13. The approximate representation of land use classification in India is
(a) Net area sown 25%; forests 33%; other areas 42%
(b) Net area sown 58%; forests 17%; other areas 25%
(c) Net area sown 43%; forests 29%; other areas 28%
(d) Net area sown 47%; forests 23%; other areas 30%
Ans. d (most correct answer)
Explanation: India 2010 page-308
According to State of Forest report 2005, the total forest cover of the country as per 2005 assessment is 20.65 of total geographical area of country.

14. With reference to the National Investment Fund to which the disinvestment proceeds are routed, consider the following statements:
1. The assets in the National Investment Fund are managed by the Union Ministry of Finance.
2. The National Investment Fund is to be maintained within the Consolidated Fund of India.
3. Certain Asset Management Companies are appointed as the fund managers.
4. A certain proportion of annual income is used for financing select social sectors.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 3 only
Ans. c
NIF would be maintained outside the Consolidated Fund of India and would be professionally managed by selected public sector mutual funds to provide sustainable return without depleting the corpus. 75% of annual income of NIF will be used to finance selected social sector schemes. The three AMCs (the UTI Asset Management Company Pvt. Ltd., the SBI Funds Management Pvt. Ltd. and the LIC Mutual Fund Asset Management Company Ltd.) have been appointed as fund managers for NIF, initially for two years, but extendable later on the basis of their performance. Separate agreements were signed with each fund manager.

15. In India, which of the following is regulated by the Forward Markets Commission?
(a) Currency Futures Trading
(b) Commodities Futures Trading
(c) Equity Futures Trading
(d) Both Commodities Futures and Financial Futures Trading.
Ans. b
The Forward Markets Commission (FMC) is the chief regulator of forwards and futures markets in India. It regulates commodity trade in India. It is headquartered in Mumbai and is overseen by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Government of India.

16. Which one of the following is not a feature of Limited Liability Partnership firm?
(a) Partners should be less than 20
(b) Partnership and management need not be separate
(c) Internal governance may be decided by mutual agreement among partners.
(d) It is corporate body with perpetual succession
Ans. a
LLP shall be a body corporate and a legal entity separate from its partners. It will have perpetual succession. Indian Partnership Act, 1932 shall not be applicable to LLPs and there shall not be any upper limit on number of partners in an LLP unlike an ordinary partnership firm where the maximum number of partners can not exceed 20, LLP Act makes a mandatory statement where one of the partner to the LLP should be an Indian. A minimum of two partners will be required for formation of an LLP.

17. With reference to the institution of Banking Ombudsman in India, which one of the statements is not correct?
(a) The Banking Ombudsman is appointed by the Reserve Bank of India
(b) The Banking Ombudsman can consider complaints from Non-Resident Indians having accounts in india
(c) The orders passed by the Banking Ombudsman are final and binding on the parties concerned
(d) The service provided by the Banking Ombudsman is free of any fee
Ans. c
The Banking Ombudsman is a senior official appointed by the Reserve Bank of India to redress customer complaints against deficiency in certain banking services.
The Banking Ombudsman can receive and consider any complaint relating to complaints from Non-Resident Indians having accounts in India in relation to their remittances from abroad, deposits and other bank-related matters; If one is not satisfied with the decision passed by the Banking Ombudsman, one can approach the appellate authority against the Banking Ombudsmen’s decision. Appellate Authority is vested with a Deputy Governor of the RBI.

18. With reference to India, consider the following:
1. Nationalization of Banks
2. Formation of Regional Rural Banks
3. Adoption of villages by Bank Branches
Which of the above can be considered as steps taken to achieve the "financial inclusion" in India?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. d
Explanation: Steps taken to achieve the "financial inclusion" in India-
a. A hugely expanded bank branch and cooperative network and new organizational forms like RRBs;
b. A greater focus on credit rather than other financial services like savings and insurance, although the banks and cooperatives did provide deposit facilities;
c. Nationalization of Banks

19. What was the immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and fight the Third Battle of Panipat?
(a) He wanted to avenge the expulsion by marathas of his viceroy Timur "Shah from Lahore
(b) The frustrated governor of Jullundhar Adina Beg Khan invited him to invade Punjab
(c) he wanted to punish Mughal administration for non-payment of the revenues of the Chahar Mahal (Gujarat, Aurangabad, Sialkot and Pasrur)
(d) He wanted to annex all the fertile plains of Punjab up the borders of Delhi to his kingdom
Ans. a
To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India and brought Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and other subahs on the Indian side of Attock under Maratha rule. Thus, upon his return to Kandahar in 1757, Amidst appeals from Muslim leaders like Shah Waliullah, Ahmad Shah chose to return to India and confront the Maratha Confederacy.

20. With reference to Pondicherry (now Pundchery), consider the following statements:
1. The first European power to occupy Pondicherry were the Portuguese.
2. The second European power to occupy Pondicherry were the French.
3. The English never occupied Pondicherry.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. c (?)
Joseph François Dupleix became the Governor of the French Territory in India on 15 January 1742 and brought Madras also under French control in September 1746; Madras continued under French rule for 30 years. Internal disturbances in Pondicherry gave the British the opportunity, in August 1793, to gain control of Pondicherry; it was administered as part of Madras till 1815. However, after the Treaty of Paris in 1814, the British restored the settlements, which the French had possessed on 1 January 1792, back to the French in 1816. French rule continued till 31 October 1954.

21. Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times.
1. Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism.
2. The invading tribes from Central Asia till the time of last Gupta king adopted Hinduism and presecuted Buddhists.
3. The Kings of Gupta dynasty were strongly opposed to Buddhism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. a
The successor Shungas reinstated the sacrifices and persecuted Buddhism. Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century following the White Hun invasion, who followed their own religions. The Gupta Empire period was a time of great development of Hindu culture, but even then in the Ganges Plain half of the population supported Buddhism.

22. Consider the following statements: The functions of commercial banks in India include
1. Purchase and sale of shares and securities on behalf of customers.
2. Acting as executors and trustees of wills.
Which of the statement given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. d
The modern Commercial Banks in India cater to the financial needs of different sectors. The main functions of the commercial banks comprise:
• transfer of funds
• acceptance of deposits
• offering those deposits as loans for the establishment of industries
• purchase of houses, equipments, capital investment purposes etc.
• The banks are allowed to act as trustees. On account of the knowledge of the financial market of India the financial companies are attracted towards them to act as trustees to take the responsibility of the security for the financial instrument like a debenture.
• The Indian Government presently hires the commercial banks for various purposes like tax collection and refunds, payment of pensions etc.
23. In India, the tax proceeds of which one of the following as a percentage of gross tax revenue has significantly declined in the last five years?
(a) Service tax
(b) personal income tax
(c) Excise duty
(d) Corporation tax
Ans. c
Explanation: Economic Survey 2009-10 page-42

24. Which one of the following authorities makes recommendation to the Governor of a State as to the principles for determining the taxes and duties which may be appropriated by the Panchayats in that particular State?
(a) District Planning Committees
(b) State Finance Commission
(c) Finance Ministry of that State
(d) Panchayati Raj Ministry of that State
Ans. b
Governor of a State shall after every 5 years constitute a finance commission to review the financial position of Panchayats in that particular State. State Finance Commission makes recommendation to the Governor of a State as to the principles for determining the taxes and duties which may be appropriated by the Panchayats in that particular State.

25. Consider the following statements: In India, taxes on transactions in Stock Exchanges and Futures Markets are
1. levied by the Union
2. collected by the States
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Some taxes are levied and collected by the Centre but the proceeds are to be distributed among States. These include succession and estate duties in respect of property other than agricultural land, terminal tax on goods and passengers, tax on railway fares and freights, taxes on transaction in stock exchanges and future markets, taxes on sale or purchase of newspapers and ads.

26. In India, during the last decade the total cultivated land for which one of the following crops has remained more or less stagnant?
(a) Rice
(b) Oilseeds
(c) Pulses
(d) Sugarcane
Ans. a (Economic Survey 2009-10 page-182)
In India, during the last decade the total cultivated land for rice has remained more or less stagnant.

27. Consider the following statements:
1. The Union Government fixes the Statutory Minimum Price of sugarcane for each sugar season.
2. Sugar and sugarcane are essential commodities under the Essential Commodities Act.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. b
The control on sugar is effected mainly through control orders issued under the Essential Commodities Act and some State legislation, like the one in Uttar Pradesh.
Central Government fixes the Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) of sugarcane for each sugar season under the Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 for each sugar factory. SMP is fixed on the basis of the recommendations of the commission on Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP ).Some State Governments announce State Advised Prices (SAP) for sugarcane for their sugar factories. SAPs are higher than SMP. SAPs are not fixed on any scientific basis. SAPs are not statutorily binding.
SMP is now replaced or supplemented by Fair and Reasonable Price (FRP) and State Advised Price (SAP).

28. With reference to Indian economy consider the following statements:
1. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has increased by four times in the last 10 years
2. The percentage share of Public Sector in GDP has declined in the last 10 years.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. d (?)
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has increased by three times in the last 10 years.

29. Consider the following which can be found in the ambient atmosphere:
1. Soot
2. Sulphur hexafluoride
3. Water vapour
Which of the above contribute to the warming up of the atmosphere?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. d
The main greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a global warming potential of 22,800[5] times that of CO2 when compared over a 100 year period. CO2 is resposible for 40% of earth warming and black carbon for 12%.

30. The International Development Association, a lending agency, is administrated by the
(a) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(b) International Fund for Agricultural Development
(c) United Nations Development Programme.
(d) United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Ans. a
The IDA is administered by the same officers and staff who administer the affairs of the IBRD. The president of the Bank also serves as the president of the IDA, and the governors and the executive directors of the Bank serve in the same capacity in the IDA. As in the IBRD, a member's voting power in the IDA is roughly proportionate to its capital subscription.

31. When you travel in certain parts of India, you will notice red soil. What is the main reason for this colour?
(a) Abundance of magnesium
(b) Accumulated humus
(c) Presence of ferric oxides
(d) Abundance of phosphates
Ans. c
Red soil is formed as a result of the wearing down of the old crystalline rocks. It is less clayey and more of a sandy nature and has a rich content of iron and small Humus content. Red soil is poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and lime. Reddish color of red soil is due to wide diffusion of iron.

32. Which one of the following is the appropriate reason for considering the Gondana rocks as most important of rock systems of India?
(a) More than 90% of limestone reserves of India are found in then
(b) More than 90% of India's coal reserves are found in them
(c) More than 90% of fertile black cotton soils are spread over them
(d) None of the reasons given above is appropriate in this context
Ans. b
Gondwana rocks are economically most important rock system in India containing about 98% of her coal reserve.

33. Which one of the following can one come across is one travels through the Strait of Malacca?
(a) bali
(b) Brunei
(c) Java
(d) Singapore
Ans. d
See any Atlas.

34. With reference to the river Luni, which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) It flows into Gulf of Khambhat
(b) it flows into Gulp of Kuchhh
(c) It flows into pakistan and mergers with a tributary of Indus
(d) It is lost in the marshy land of the Rann of Kuchchh
Ans. d
The Luni is a river of western Rajasthan state, India. It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range, near Ajmer and ends in the marshy lands of Rann of Kutch in Gujarat

35. Which one of the following pairs in not correctly matched?
Dam/Lake River
(a) Govind Sagar Satluj
(b) Kolleru lake Krishna
(c) Ukai Reservoir Tapi
(d) Wular Lake Jhelum
Ans. b
Govind Sagar- Gobind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh.The reservoir on the river Sutlej, was formed after the hydel dam at Bhakra was constructed and has been named in honour of Guru Gobind Singh. Kolleru lake- Kolleru Lake is the largest freshwater lake in India. It is located in Andhra Pradesh state, India. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari delta. Ukai Reservoir- Ukai Dam, constructed across the Tapti River, is the largest reservoir in Gujarat. Wular Lake- Wular Lake is a large fresh water lake in Bandipore district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and is fed by the Jhelum River.
36. A geographic region has the following distinct characteristics:
1. Warm and dry climate
2. Mild and wet winter
3. Evergreen oak trees
The above features are the distinct characteristics of which one of the following regions?
(a) Mediterranean
(b) Eastern China
(c) Central Asia
(d) Atlantic coast of North America
Ans. a
Mediterranean region is characterized by Warm and dry climate, Mild and wet winter and Evergreen oak trees.

37. Which reference to the National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007, consider the following statements:
1. This policy is applicable only to the persons affected by the acquisition of land for projects and not to the involuntary displacement due to any other reason.
2. This policy has been formulated by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. d
The new Bill provides for benefits and compensation to people displaced by land acquisition purchases or any other involuntary displacement. For large scale displacement, the government shall conduct a social impact assessment, and appoint an Administrator for Rehabilitation and Resettlement to formulate and execute the rehabilitation and resettlement plan. This policy has been formulated by the Ministry of Rural Development.

38. In the context of India's Five Year Plans, a shift in the pattern of industrialization, with lower emphasis on heavy industries and more on infrastructure begins in
(a) Forth Plan
(b) Sixth Plan
(c) Eighth Plan
(d) Tenth Plan
Ans. b (India 2010 page-809)
Strategy adapted during sixth plan was to move simultaneously toward strengthening the infrastructure for both agriculture and industries.

39. Two of the schemes launched by the Government of India for Women's development are Swadhar and Swayam Siddha. As regards the difference between them, consider the following statements:
1. Swayam Siddha is meant for those in difficult cicumstances such as women survivors of natural disasters or terrorism, women prisoners released from jails, mentally challenged women etc. whereas Swadhar is meant for holistic empowerment of women through Self Help Groups.
2. Swayam Siddha is implemented through Local Self Government bodies or reputed Vountary Organizations whereas Swadhar is implemented through the ICDS units set up in the states.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. d (India 2010 page-1059,60)
Swayam Sidha is based on formation of women into self help groups and programme is being implemented by ICDS machinery in most of States. The Swadhar Scheme purports to address the specific vulnerability of each of group of women in difficult circumstances through a Home-based holistic and integrated approach.

40. With reference to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, consider the following:
1. The Right to Development
2. The Right to Expression
3. The Right to Recreation
Which of the above is/are the Rights of the child?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. d
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international statement of the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children.

41. Three men start together to travel the same way around a circular track of 11 km. Their speeds are 2, 5.5 and 8 kmph respectively. When will they meet at the starting point for the first time?
(a) After 11 hours
(b) After 21 hours
(c) After 22 hours
(d) After 33 hours
Ans. d
= 2πr
= 69.14
Time taken by first person
=17.2 hours
Time taken by second person
= 12.57 hours
Answer should be more than 34.4 hours

42. With reference to the Consumer Disputes Redressal at district level in India, which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) A State Government can establish more than one District Forum in a district if it deems fit
(b) One of the members of the District Forum shall be a women
(c) The District Forum entertains the complaints where the value of goods or services does not exceed rupees fifty laksh
(d) A complaint in relation to any goods sold or any service provided may be filed with a District Forum by the State Government as a representative of the interests of the consumers in general
Ans. c
Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum to be known as the "District Forum" established by the State Government in each district of the State by notification: Provided that the State Government may, if it deems fit, establish more than one District Forum in a district. Each District Forum shall consist of,— a person who is, or has been, or is qualified to be a District Judge, who shall be its President; two other members, one of whom shall be a woman. Jurisdiction of the District Forum.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the District Forum shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services and the compensation, if any, claimed ''does not exceed rupees twenty lakhs.

43. King Cobra is the only snake that makes its own nest. Why does it make its nest?
(a) It is snake-eater and the nest helps attract other snakes
(b) It is a viviparous snake and needs a nest to given birth to its offspring
(c) It is a viviparous snake and lays its eggs in the nest and guards the nest until they are hatched
(d) It is a large, cold blooded animal and needs a nest to hibernate in the cold season
Ans. c
Before she is ready to lay her eggs, she uses the coils of her long body to gather a big mound of leaf litter. She deposits 20–40 eggs into the mound, which acts as an incubator. The female stays with her eggs and guards the mound tenaciously, rearing up into a threat display if any large animal gets too close. When the eggs start to hatch, instinct causes her to leave the nest and find prey to eat so that she does not eat her young.

44. As a result of their annual survey, the National Geographic Society and an international polling firm Gobe Scan gave India top rank in Greendex 200 score. What is this score?
(a) It is measure of efforts made by different countries in adopting technologies for reducing carbon footprint
(b) It is measure of environmentally sustainable consumber behaviour in different countries.
(c) It is an assessment of programmes/ schemes undertaken by different countries for improving the conservation of natural resources.
(d) It is an index showing the volume of carbon credits sold by different countries
Ans. b
National Geographic and the international polling firm GlobeScan have just conducted their second annual study measuring and monitoring consumer progress toward environmentally sustainable consumption in 17 countries around the world.
Consumers in India, Brazil and China again scored the highest for green behavior among the countries included the Greendex survey -- and U.S. consumers again scored the worst.

45. Consider the following statement:
1. The Taxus tree naturally found in the Himalayas.
2. The Taxus tree is listed in the Red Data Book.
3. A drug called "taxol" is obtained from Taxus tree is effective against Parkinson's disease.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. b
The Taxus tree naturally found in the Himalayas. The Taxus tree is listed in the Red Data Book. A drug called "taxol" is obtained from Taxus tree is is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy.

46. P, Q, R and S are four men R is the richest but not the oldest. Q is older than S but not than P or R. P is richer than Q but not than S. The four men can be ordered (descending) in respect of age and richness, respectively, as
Ans. b
Consider the following statement-
P is the oldest but not the poorest.
It excludes option c.
Consider the following next statement-
Q is older than S but not than P or R.
It excludes option a and d.

47. What causes wind to deflect toward left in the Southern hemisphere?
(a) Temperature
(b) Magnetic field
(c) Rotation of the earth
(d) Pressure
Ans. c
Moving objects on the surface of the Earth experience a Coriolis force, and appear to veer to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern. The Earth's rotation causes Coriolis force. The Coriolis Effect strongly affects the large-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation, leading to the formation of robust features like jet streams and western boundary currents.

48. Indiscriminate disposal of used flouorescent electric lamps causes mercury pollution in the environment. Why is mercury used in the manufacture of these lamps?
(a) A mercury coating on the inside of the lamp makes the light bright white
(b) When the lamp is switched on, the mercury in the lamp causes the emission of ultra-violet radiations.
(c) When the lamp is switched on, it is the mercury which converts the ultra-violet energy into visible light
(d) None of the statement given above is correct about the use of mercury in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps
Ans. b
Compact fluorescent bulbs are made of glass tubes filled with gas and a small amount of mercury. CFLs produce light when the mercury molecules are excited by electricity running between two electrodes in the base of the bulb. The mercury emits ultraviolet light, which in turn excites the tube’s phosphor coating, leading it to emit visible light.

49. If there were no Himalayan ranges. Which would have been the most likely geographical impact on India?
1. Much of the country would experience the cold waves from Siberia.
2. Indo-gangetic plain would be devoid of such extensive alluvival soils.
3. The pattern of monsoon would be different from what it is at present.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. d
Himalayan ranges effectively intercept the summer monsoons coming from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and cause precipitation in the form of rain or snow. They also prevent the cold continental air masses of central Asia from entering into India. The great rivers and their tributaries carry enormous quantities of alluvium. This is deposited in the Great Plain of North India in the form of fertile soils. It is therefore, often said it is Gift of the Himalayas.

50. In the context of space technology, what is "Bhuvan", recently in the news?
(a) A mini satellite launched by ISRO for promoting the distance education in India.
(b) The name given to the next Moon Impact Probe, for Chandrayan-II
(c) A geoportal of ISRO with 3 D imaging capabilities of India.
(d) A space telescope developed by India.
Ans. c
ISRO launched the beta version of its web-based 3-D satellite imagery tool, Bhuvan, on August 12, 2009. Bhuvan will offer superior imagery of Indian locations compared to other Virtual Globe software with spatial resolutions ranging from 10 m to 100 m.

51. The latitudes that pass through Sikkim also pass through
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Punjab
(c) Himachal Pradehs
(d) Jammu & Kashmir
Ans. a
See any Atlas.

52. A man fills a basket with eggs in such a way that the number of eggs added on each successive day is the same as the number already present in the basket. This way the basket gets completely filled in 24 days. After how many days the basket was ¼th full?
(a) 6
(b) 12
(c) 17
(d) 22
Ans. d
Available soon

53. The diameters of two circular coins are in the ratio of 1:3. The smaller coin is made to roll around the bigger coin till it returns to the position from where the process of rolling started. How many times the smaller coin rolled around the bigger coin?
(a) 9
(b) 6
(c) 3
(d) 1.5
Ans. c
Available soon

54. The difference between the interest received from two bank Rs. 500 for two years is Rs. 2.50. is the difference between their rate
(a) 0.25%
(b) 0.5%
(c) 1%
(d) 2.5%
Ans. a
Available soon

55. When ten persons shake hands with another, in how many ways is possible?
(a) 20
(b) 25
(c) 40
(d) 45
Ans. d
Available soon

56. A candidate attempted 12 questions and secured full marks in all of them he obtained 60% in the test and questions carried equal marks, then what is the number of questions in the test
(a) 36
(b) 30
(c) 25
(d) 20
Ans. d
Available soon

57. In how many ways can four children make to stand in a line such that two of them. A and B are always together?
(a) 6
(b) 12
(c) 18
(d) 24
Ans. b
Available soon

58. In a meeting, the map of a village was placed in such a manner that south-east becomes north, north-east becomes west and so on. What south become?
(a) North
(b) North-east
(c) North-west
(d) West
Ans. b
While rotating the map , answer can be fined.

59. Consider the following statements:
1. The "Bombay Manifesto" signed in 1936 openly opposed the preaching of socialist ideals.
2. It evoked support from a large section of business community from all across India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. c
Available soon

60. Among following, who was not a proponent of bhakti cult?
(a) Nagarjuna
(b) Tukaram
(c) Tyagaraja
(d) Vallabhacharya
Ans. a
Acharya Nāgārjuna was an Indian philosopher who founded the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

61. Due to their extensive rice cultivation, some regions may be contributing to global warming. To what possible reason/reasons is this attributable?
1. The anaerobic conditions associated with rice cultivation cause the emission of methane.
2. When nitrogen based fertilizers are used, nitrous oxide is emitted from the cultivated soil.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. c
Nitrous oxide is produced naturally in soils through the microbial processes of denitrification and nitrification. These natural emissions of N2O can be increased by a variety of agricultural practices and activities, including the use of synthetic and organic fertilizers. The greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide , water vapours, carbon particles etc. Growing rice has an adverse environmental impact because of the large quantities of methane gas it generates.

62. Sustaionable development is described as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In this perspective, inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with which of the following concepts?
(a) Social justice and empowerment
(b) Inclusive Growth
(c) Globalization
(d) Carrying capacity
Ans. d
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment. Thus Sustaionable development is intertwined with Carrying capacity.

63. Given below are the names of four energy crops. Which one of them can be cultivated for ethanol?
(a) Jatropha
(b) Maize
(c) Pongamia
(d) Sunflower
Ans. b
In India production of alcohol apart from molasses & sugarcane route the non-molasses route like maize, starch, corn grain, sweet sorghum, tapioca, sugar beet are also equally getting importance as the climatic conditions for such type of agricultural crops suits in India.

64. Consider the following pairs:
Protected area Well-known for
1. Bhiterkanika Salt water
Orissa Crocodile
2. Desert Great Indian
National Park Bustard
3. Eravikulam, Hoolak Gibbon
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. b
A huge population of saltwater crocodiles is present within the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary of Orissa and they are known to be present in smaller numbers throughout the Indian and Bangladesh portions of the Sundarbans. Great Indian Bustard is mostly found in the Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Rajasthan. It is mainly spotted in the the Desert National Park (Rajasthan) and the Lala-Parjau sanctuary in western Kutch (Gujarat). Hoolock Gibbons are found in several states of North East India - Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura and Nagaland.

65. Some species of plants are insectivorous Why?
(a) Their growth in shady and dark places does not allow them to undertake sufficient photosynthesis and theus they depend on insects for nutrition
(b) They are adapted to grow in nitrogen deficient soils and thus depend on insects for sufficient nitrogenous nutrition.
(c) They cannot synthesize certain vitamins themselves and depend on the insects digested by them
(d) They have remained in that particular stage of evolution as living fossils, a link between autotrophs and heterotrophs
Insectivorous plants are adapted to grow in nitrogen deficient soils and thus depend on insects for sufficient nitrogenous nutrition.

66. A person travelled a distance of 50 km in 8 hours. He covered a part of the distance on foot at the rate of 4 km per hour and a part on a bicycle at the rate of 10 km per hour. How much distance did he travel on foot?
(a) 10 km
(b) 20 km
(c) 30 km
(d) 40 km
Ans. b
Available soon

67. In the context of governance, consider the following:
1. Encouraging Foreign Direct Investment inflows
2. Privatization of higher educational Institutions
3. Down-sizing of bureaucracy
4. Selling/offoading the shares of Public Sector Undertakings
Which of the above can be used as measures to control the fiscal deficit in India?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 3 and 4 only
Ans. b (Economic Survey 2009-10 page -38)
"To bring the fiscal deficit under control, the government will initiate institutional reform measures which will encompass all aspects of budget such as subsidies, taxes, expenditure and disinvestment".

68. As per the UN-Habitat's Global Report on Human Settlements 2009, which one among the following regions has shown the fastest growth rate of urbanization in the last three decades?
(a) Asia
(b) Europe
(c) Latin America and Caribbean
(d) North America
Ans. a
As per the UN-Habitat's Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 has shown the fastest growth rate of urbanization in the last three decades.

69. In India, which type of forest among the following occupies the largest area?
(a) Montane Wet Temperate Forest
(b) Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen Forest
(c) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
(d) Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest
Ans. c
Montane Wet Temperate Forest-3.6%
Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen Forest2.5%
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest-37%
Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest-8%

70. Inclusive growth as enunciated in the Eleventh Five Year Plan does not include one of the following:
(a) Reduction of poverty
(b) Extension of employment opportunities
(c) Strengthening of capital market
(d) Reduction of gender inequality
Ans. c
Inclusive growth as enunciated in the Eleventh Five Year Plan includes reduction of poverty, extension of employment opportunities and reduction of gender inequality.

71. How many numbers from 0 to 999 are not divisible by either 5 or 7?
(a) 313
(b) 341
(c) 686
(d) 786
Ans. c
Available soon

72. Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of mill-make cotton yarn in the country. What could be the reason?
1. Black cotton soil is the predominant type of soil in the State.
2. Rich pool of skilled labour is available.
Which of the above is/are the correct reasons?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. b
Red soil is the predominant type of soil in the State. Rich pool of skilled labour is main reason for high production of mill-make cotton yarn.

73. Consider the following statements:
1. On the planet Earth, the fresh water available for use amounts to about less than 1% of the total water found.
2. Of the total fresh water found on the planet Earth 95% is bound up in polar ice caps and glaciers.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. a
Only 2.75 percent of the water on Earth is freshwater, about two-thirds of it is frozen in glaciers, a quarter is groundwater and only 0.005 percent of it is surface water.
Less than 1 percent of the world's freshwater is readily accessible.

74. Which one of the following reflects back more sunlight as compared to other three?
(a) Sand desert
(b) Paddy crop land
(c) Land covered with fresh snow
(d) Praire land
Ans. c
The albedo of an object is a measure of how strongly it reflects light from light sources such as the Sun. Snow have a very high albedo and can be as high as 0.9. Because trees tend to have a low albedo, removing forests would tend to increase albedo and thereby could produce localized climate cooling. dry sand have low albedo (0.35) as copare to snow.

75. Rivers that pass through Himachal Pradesh are
(a) Beas and Chenab only
(b) Beas and Ravi only
(c) Chenab, Ravi and Satluj only
(d) Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Satluj and Yamuna
Ans. d
The drainage systems of Himachal Pradesh are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall.

76. Who of the following shall cause every recommendations made by the Finance Commission to be laid before each House of Parliament?
(a) The President of India
(b) The Speaker of Lok Sabha
(c) The Prime Minister of India
(d) The Union Finance Minister
Ans. a
Finnance commission submits its report to the president who lays it before both the House of Parliament along with an explanatory memmorandum as to the action taken on its recommendations.

77. Which one of the following is responsible for the preparation and presentation of Union Budget to the Parliament?
(a) Department of Revenue
(b) Department of Economic Affairs
(c) Department of Financial Services
(d) Department of Expenditure
Ans. b
DEA is the nodal agency of the Union Government to formulate and monitor country's economic policies and programmes having a bearing on domestic and international aspects of economic management. A principal responsibility of this Department is the preparation of the Union Budget annually (excluding the Railway Budget).

78. In a group of five persons A, B, C, D and E, there is a professor, a doctor and lawyer. A and D are unmarried ladies, and o not work. Of the married couple in the Group, E is the husband. B is the brother of A and is neither a doctor nor a lawyer. Who the professor?
(a) B
(b) C
(c) A
(d) Cannot be determined with the available data
Ans. a
Available soon

79. Consider the following actions by the Government:
1. Cutting the tax rates
2. Increasing the government spending
3. Abolishing the subsidies
In the context of economic recession, which of the above actions can be considered a part of the "fiscal stimulus" package?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. a (Economic Survey 2009-10 17)
1. Reducing indirect taxes (excise and service tax)
2. Expanding public expenditure
3. Debt relief and subsidies to farmers

80. Half of the villagers of a certain village have their own houses. One-fifth of the villagers cultivate paddy. One-third of the villagers are the literate. Four-fifth of the villagers are below twenty five. Then, which one of the following is certainly true?
(a) All the villagers who have their own houses are literate
(b) Some villagers under twenty five are literate
(c) A quarter of the villagers who have their own houses cultivate paddy
(d) Half of the villagers who cultivate paddy are literate
Ans. b

81. When the Reserve Bank of India announces an increase of the Cash Reserve Ratio, what does it mean?
(a) The commercial banks will have less money to lend
(b) The Reserve Bank of India will have less money to lend
(c) The Union government will have less money to lend
(d) The commercial banks will have more money to lend
Ans. a
This is the amount of money that the banks have to necessarily park with the RBI and reduces lending capacity of commercial banks.

82. Who among the following Governor Generals created the Covenanted Civil Service of India which later came to be known as the Indian Civil Service?
(a) Warren Hastings
(b) Wellesley
(c) Cornwallis
(d) William Bentinck
Ans. c
Cornwallis created the Covenanted Civil Service of India which later came to be known as the Indian Civil Service. A special feature of Covenanted Civil Service of India was the rigid and complete exclusion of Indians from it.

83. What was the immediate cause for the launch of the Swadeshi movement?
(a) The partition of Bengal done by Lord Curzon
(b) A sentence of 18 months rigorous imprisonment imposed on Lokmanya Tilak
(c) The arrest and deportation of Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh; and passing of the Punjab Colonization Bill
(d) Death sentence pronounced on the Chapekar brothers
Ans. a
Swadeshi Movement emanated from the partition of bengal, 1905 and continued up to 1908. It was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movements. Chief architects were Aurobindo Ghosh, Veer Savarkar, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Lala Lajpat Rai. The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch is an organisation committed to the promotion of Swadeshi (Indigenous) industries and culture.

84. Consider the following statements:
1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to come to Champaran to investigate the problem of peasants.
2. Acharya J.B. Kriplani was one of Mahatma Gandhi's colleagues in his Champaran investigation.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. b
Rajkumar Shukla persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to come to Champaran to investigate the problem of peasants. Accompanied by Babu Rajendra Prasad, J. B. Kripalani, Mahadev Desai Gandhijee reached Champaran and began to conduct a detailed inquiry.

85. By a regulation in 1793, the District Collector was deprived of his judicial powers and made the collecting agent only. What was the reason for such regulation?
(a) Lord Cornwallis felt that the District collector's efficiency of revenue collection would enormously increase without the burden of other work
(b) Lord Cornwallis felt that Judicial power should compulsorily be in the hands of Europeans while Indians can be given the job of revenue collection in the districts
(c) Lord Cornwallis was alarmed at the extent of power concentrated in the District Collector and felt that such absolute power was undesirable in one person
(d) The judicial work demanded a deep knowledge of India and a good training in law and Lord Cornwallis felt that District Collector would be only a revenue collector
Ans. c
Lord Cornwallis was alarmed at the extent of power concentrated in the District Collector and felt that such absolute power was undesirable in one person and thus separated the post of the Civil Judge and the Collector.

86. With reference to India, consider the following statements:
1. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) in India is available on a monthly basis only.
2. As compared to Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (CPI(IW), the WPI gives less weight to food articles.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. c
Available soon

87. Each persons' performance compared with all other persons is to be done to rank them subjectively. How many comparisons are needed in total, if there are 11 persons?
(a) 66
(b) 55
(c) 54
(d) 45
Ans. c
Available soon

88. What is the principle by which a cooling system (Radiator) in a motor car works?
(a) Conduction only
(b) Convection
(c) Radiation only
(d) Both conduction and radiation
Ans. b
In practice, the term "radiator" refers to any of a number of devices in which a fluid circulates through exposed pipes notwithstanding that such devices tend to transfer heat mainly by convection and might logically be called convectors.

89. Which among the following do/does not belong/belongs to the GSM family of wireless technologies?
(a) EDGE
(b) LTE
(c) DSL
(d) Both EDGE and LTE
Ans. c
GSM has a straightforward, cost-effective migration path to 3G through GPRS, EDGE and UMTS-HSPA, as well as beyond 3G via the HSPA Evolution (HSPA+), LTE and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) initiatives.

90. With reference to the treatment of cancerous tumours, a tool called cyberknife has been making the news. In this context, which one of the following statement is not correct?
(a) It is robotic image guided system
(b) It delivers an extremely precise dose of radiation
(c) it has the capability of achieving sub-millimetre accuracy
(d) It can map the spread of tumour in the body
Ans. d
The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system. The CyberKnife system is a method of delivering radiotherapy, with the intention of targeting treatment more accurately than standard radiotherapy.

Sunday, December 12, 2010

Secularism in India

"I do not expect India of my dreams to develop one religion, i.e., to be wholly Hindu or wholly Christian or wholly Mussalman, but I want it to be wholly tolerant, with its religions working side by side with one another.'' So said Mahatma Gandhi.

India has been declared a secular state by its written constitution and it is every Indians duty to stand by and believe in this declaration. And yet recent political and social events have questioned this declaration. Is India a secular country only on paper or does secularism actually exist in India; or is in the form of pseudo- secularism, a term the BJP and its allies seem to repeatedly harp on.

During the freedom struggle, secularism was emerging as the most dominant principle. The leaders of the Indian National Congress; Gandhi, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Nehru and others were deeply committed to the ideal of secularism, though each expressed it in very different manners. Secularism became the mantra of the Indian nation, a nation exhausted by partition and sectarian riots and above all the assassination of Gandhiji, did not want any more divisive talk. The founding fathers represented the aspirations of the different sections of society and it is due to the struggles of these different people that secular principles got enshrined into the Indian constitution.

Under Jawaharlal Nehru and later under his successors in the Congress Party, the concept of a secular nation-state was officially adopted as India's path to political modernity and national integration. Unlike in the West, where secularism came mainly out of the conflict between the Church and the State, secularism in India was conceived as a system that sustained religious and cultural pluralism.

In the post Independent scenario the social dynamics was very complex. The process of secularisation/industrialisation was going on at a slow pace. Even at this stage, though constitution was secular, the state apparatus: the bureaucracy, the judiciary, the army and the police were infiltrated by communal elements. The Congress government, though predominantly secular, had many leaders in important positions who were influenced by a Hindu communal ideology. This resulted in a social development that was mixed; on the one hand secularism thrived and on the other though communalism remained dormant, was never dead. With the social changes of the late 70's and the early 80's, communalism got a strong boost and it started attacking secularism in a big way.

The B.J.P. was quick to take up the mantle of 'the' communal party, riding on the wave of the post-mandal upper class/caste backlash. The BJP began attacking, what they called "pseudo-secularism", which pampered the minorities at the expense of the majority and demanded that special rights for minorities be taken away.

Supporting the BJP was the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, a relatively new outfit with branches all over the world and drawing on support, both moral and financial, from the Hindu diaspora in the West. This took an aggressive form when the Babri Masjid\Ramjanambhoomi controversy erupted. This period also saw the rise of other militant Hindu organizations such as the BajrangDal and the Shivsena. These groups quickly mushroomed and poisoned the social space with communal rhetoric and the agenda of Hindu Rashtra; and launched an ideological, social and political onslaught on secular ethos, syncretic culture and composite nationalism. They refused to recognize the contributions of Muslims and other minorities, to India's history and culture. They selectively concentrated on intolerant Muslim rulers, extending their often-brutal conduct to the entire period of Muslim rule and, even to all Muslims. But such prejudices were not openly aired in public; but now they have not only gained legitimacy, but have also almost become the mainstream opinion.

The attack on the Mosque at Ayodhya led to a rash of violence across the country. The events leading to the demolition of Babri Masjid and their aftermath of communal carnage mark a watershed in the history of free India. The traumatic events clearly exposed the chasm that had been created between the two communities by communal forces.

The year 2002 witnessed one of the most devastating riots in Gujarat where mobs went on a rampage, destroying Muslim homes and businesses, killed Muslims, including men women and children and drove thousands of people away from their homes. The ostensible reason for this fury was the burning of a train coach that was carrying Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya. Fifty-nine people including women and children died in the fire. This action, sparked off, as the state's Chief Minister put it, in Newtonian terms, a reaction, except that it was grossly disproportionate to the original crime. A Human Right's Watch report paints a chilling picture of state complicity in the religious violence in Gujarat. This marks the first time when the state has emerged as a major player and actor in violence by mobs, a qualitative change from previous such situations in India. It is in this backdrop that one has to understand, as to why it is only during the last decade and a half that secularism has come under a cloud and the concept of a Hindu Rashtra is being asserted aggressively.

Today, the biggest challenge to the Indian nation is coming from forces claiming to represent the mainstream majority. There is an emergence of extremist voices that claim to speak for Hindus and they are laying down demands that threaten the very idea of a secular India. The biggest area of concern is that the state has emerged to be complicit, as an actor and player in mounting this challenge to Indian pluralism, which goes under the name of Hindutva.

The communal forces are actively propagating the myth that Secularism is a new mask of fundamentalism. They denigrate the secular policies, which are a hindrance to Hindu Right's unobstructed march to subjugate the oppressed in general and minorities in particular. They are equating fundamentalism with Islam; and the policies of Indian rulers with secularism, and the appeasement of mullahs as being synonymous with secular policies. Further, Hindutva forces accuse that secularism pampers the Muslims as a vote bank. The Muslims are accused of extra-territorial loyalty because they allegedly cheer for Pakistan whenever India and Pakistan play cricket. Since Muslims are being thought synonymous to fundamentalism; therefore the assertion that the Indian state is appeasing fundamentalists in the name of secularism. It is precisely on this charge that the Father of Indian Nationalism, Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated by one of the votaries of Hindutva.

The Christians, who are much lesser in number, are accused of being more loyal to the Vatican, another outside force and of trying to convert poor Hindus with inducements of education and food. Who can forget the brutal burning of Graham Staines and his two minor sons by a member of the Bajrang Dal in the name of religion? Or even the rape of some sisters in Gujarat, their fault being the spreading of the word of their God.

The fact, however, is that the social and the economic conditions of the Muslim community is dismal. If at all the opportunist political policies of various governments have struck compromises, it has been with certain religious leaders of the minorities and the minorities have been kept in abysmal conditions. In that sense, the govt. policies have been anti-oppressed, rather than pro Muslim. Further, the fact that 130 million Muslims decided to stay back in India rather than joining Pakistan, should settle their status as true citizens.

Secularism introduces science, technology and rationalism in the society and forms the basis of a modern secular state. In the process, it has to oppose and struggle against the clergy and vested forces in the society. And as such, the fundamentalist communal onslaughts are the 'other' of secularism and secularization. The oppressed sections join the secular movement to wrest the accompanying liberal space that can be the base for launching the struggles for their rights. Fundamentalism is the regressive reaction of feudal elements and sections of middle classes in league with the clergy, to crush the aspirations of oppressed class, whose movements for their rights is a big source of tension for them. The secularization process and the accompanying movements of the oppressed increase the insecurity of fundamentalist forces. They try to lure these classes into their fold through religion and liberal use of money and muscle power.

The burgeoning neo-middle classes have emerged as pivotal points that embraced consumerism as modernity but simultaneously began looking towards culture and tradition for support. The advent of globalization has been welcomed in India but it has also shaken people who fear that their own cultures will be destroyed. Hence they show an inclination towards the conservative Hindu identity. It's all about culture, religion and ritual, all cleverly juxtaposed with nationalism: what is Hindu is Indian and from that follows, what is not Hindu is not Indian.

A new disturbing trend has been witnessed in recent years where villages are no longer tranquil as urban-rural interactions have become much more intense. With subdivisions of land holdings, there are few jobs left in the villages for the agricultural class. They are looking outside the village and getting involved with the issues and ideas that have a reach beyond the village. The prosperous classes in rural India have also actively promoted the VHP and other communal forces. We can no longer ignore the possibility that post Gujarat 2002, villages too can become sites of ethnic riots.

There is a blatant attempt to subvert history, change school curricula and create a new set up in line with a Hindu Rastra. There is a new, muscular nationalism, one that holds up the nuclear bomb as a sign of strength and wants to keep neighbours and internal minorities in their place, and which derives its strength from invented mythology; and has taken over the polity. Indian secularism, once thought to be non-negotiable, is beginning to look shaky now. In a country with over 140 million Muslims and million of Christians, to say nothing of hundreds of other castes and communities, this can have very dangerous consequences.

It is not so much a question of defending or preserving the existing secular character of the Indian polity, but rather a need to create and build a secular polity in the nation. Only the ideal of building a secular democratic nation can stem the tide of communal fascism in the country. Sarva Dharma Sambhav has to operate at the personal as well as the social level, while Dharma Nirpekshata or Secularism per se continues to be the state policy. Religious clergy, bigotry, dogmas and rituals cannot be allowed to guide the state.

Mahatma Gandhi has rightly said: "I swear by my religion, I will die for it. But it is my personal affair. The State has nothing to do with it. The State would look after your secular welfare, health, communications, foreign relations, currency and so on, but not your or my religion. That is everybody's personal concern!!"

Hinduism is a faith that on the whole is favorable to the development of the secular state in India. It also has a strong tradition of freedom of conscience and tolerance of religious diversity that is not rightly projected by the Hindutva forces.

This strength of the Hindu religion is now viewed as a weakness. Secularism in the Indian context should imply respect for pluralism and a non-coercive and a voluntary recourse to change. Respect for diversity not only embodies the democratic spirit, it is the real guarantee of unity. We should value democratic, not fascistic, unity. No democratic society can downgrade diversity and pluralism in the name of unity. Secular ethics can be strengthened only when the acts of vandalism are sternly dealt with and the guilty are made to pay for it. With secularism that insists on the inalienable rights of the citizens and a due process of law, it will be easier to mount public pressure against sectarian killers and those who promote hatred. The battle of secularism and democracy has also to be fought at the grass root levels where a set ideals generating strong idealism is required to mobilize and prepare the masses for struggle.

In the end, secularism begins in the heart of every individual. There should be no feeling of "otherness" as we all have is a shared history. India being a traditional society that contains not one, but many traditions owing their origin in part to the different religions that exist here, has so far managed to retain the secular character of its polity. Ours is a society where Sufis and Bhakti saints have brought in a cultural acceptance for each other. Are we going to let it all go to waste and listen to people who have concern for their careers as politicians or leaders rather than our welfare at heart? Let us instead concentrate our efforts at making India a powerful and progressive nation.

Corruption In India

All luxury corrupts either the morals or the state.

- Joubert

Corruption in the Indian society has prevailed from time immemorial in one form or the other. The basic inception of corruption started with our opportunistic leaders who have already done greater damage to our nation. People who work on right principles are unrecognized and considered to be foolish in the modern society. Corruption in India is a result of the connection between bureaucrats, politicians and criminals. Earlier, bribes were paid for getting wrong things done, but now bribe is paid for getting right things done at right time. Further, corruption has become something respectable in India, because respectable people are involved in it. Social corruption like less weighing of products, adulteration in edible items, and bribery of various kind have incessantly prevailed in the society.

In today’s scenario, if a person wants a government job he has to pay lakhs of rupees to the higher officials irrespective of satisfying all the eligibility criteria. In every office one has either to give money to the employee concerned or arrange for some sources to get work done. There is adulteration and duplicate weighing of products in food and civil supplies department by unscrupulous workers who cheat the consumers by playing with the health and lives of the people. In the assessment of property tax the officers charge money even if the house is built properly according to the Government rules and regulations.

Political corruption is worst in India. The major cause of concern is that corruption is weakening the political body and damaging the supreme importance of the law governing the society. Nowadays politics is only for criminals and criminals are meant to be in politics. Elections in many parts of the country have become associated with a host of criminal activities. Threatening voters to vote for a particular candidate or physically prevent voters from going in to the polling booth – especially weaker sections of the society like tribals, dalits and rural woman occurs frequently in several parts of the country. Recently, the Government increased the salary of the M.P.’s from Rs.16, 000 to Rs.50, 000, that is 300% increase to the existing salary. But many of them are unhappy with rise and want the Government to increase the salary to a much more extent. This clearly shows how the politicians are in constant thirst for monetary benefits and not caring about the welfare of the people. Tax evasion is one of the most popular forms of corruption. It is mostly practiced by Government officials and politicians who lead to the accumulation of black money which in turn spoils the moral of the people.

Major Factors Responsible For Corruption:

  1. The most important factor is the nature of the human being. People in general, have a great thirst for luxuries and comforts and as a result of which they get themselves involved in all unscrupulous activities that result in monetary or material benefits.
  2. Moral and spiritual values are not given utmost importance in educational system, which is highly responsible for the deterioration of the society.
  3. The salary paid to employees is very less and as a result of which they are forced to earn money by illegal ways.
  4. The punishments imposed on the criminals are inadequate.
    1. The political leaders have spoiled the society completely. They lead a luxurious life and do not even care about the society.
    2. People of India are not awakened and enlightened. They fear to raise their voice against anti-social elements prevailing in the society.

Measures To Control Corruption:

There are some specific measures to control increasing corruption.
  1. The Right to Information Act (RTI) gives one all the required information about the Government, such as what the Government is doing with our tax payments. Under this act, one has the right to ask the Government on any problem which one faces. There is a Public Information Officer (PIO) appointed in every Government department, who is responsible for collecting information wanted by the citizens and providing them with the relevant information on payment of a nominal fee to the PIO. If the PIO refuses to accept the application or if the applicant does not receive the required information on time then the applicant can make a complaint to the respective information commission, which has the power to impose a penalty up to Rs.25, 000 on the errant PIO.
  2. Another potent check on corruption is Central Vigilance Commission (CVC). It was setup by the Government to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the areas of vigilance. If there are any cases of corruption or any complaints thereof, then that can be reported to the CVC. CVC also shoulders the responsibility of creating more awareness among people regarding the consequences of giving and taking of bribes and corruption.
  3. Establishment of special courts for speedy justice can be a huge positive aspect. Much time should not elapse between the registration of a case and the delivery of judgment.
  4. Strong and stringent laws need to be enacted which gives no room for the guilty to escape.
  5. In many cases, the employees opt for corrupt means out of compulsion and not by choice. Some people are of the opinion that the wages paid are insufficient to feed their families. If they are paid better, they would not be forced to accept bribe.

The one thing that needs to be ensured is proper, impartial, and unbiased use of various anti-social regulations to take strong, deterrent, and timely legal action against the offenders, irrespective of their political influences or money power. Firm and strong steps are needed to curb the menace and an atmosphere has to created where the good, patriotic, intellectuals come forward to serve the country with pride, virtue, and honesty for the welfare of the people of India.