Wednesday, August 18, 2010

India Development Programmes

History of Development & Employment Programs in India: at a Glance

  1. 1952: Community Development Programme (CDP)
    overall development of rural areas and people’s participation.
  2. 1960-61: Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP)
    To provide loan for seeds and fertilizers to farmers
  3. 1964-65: Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP)
    To develop special harvest in agriculture area.
  4. 1965 : Credit Authorization Scheme (CAS)
    Involved qualitative credit control of reserve bank of India
  5. 1966-67: High yielding variety programme (HYVP)
    To increase the productivity of food grains by adopting latest varieties of inputs of crops.
  6. 1966-67: Green Revolution:
    To Increase productivity. Confined to wheat production.
  7. 1969: Rural Electrification Corporation
    To provide electricity in rural areas
  8. 1972 : Scheme of Discriminatory Interest Rate
    To provide loan to the weaker sections of society at a concessional interest rate of 4%
  9. 1972-73 : Accelerated Rural water Supply Programme (ARWSP)
    Providing drinking water in villages
  10. 1973: Drought Prone Area Programme:
    Protection from drought by achieving environement balace and by developing ground water
  11. 1973: Crash Scheme for Rural Employment CSRE
    For rural employment
  12. 1973-74 : Marginal Farmer and Agriculture Labor Agency (MFALA)
    Technical & financial assistance to marginal farmers
  13. 1974-75: Small Farmer Development Scheme SFDS
    Technical & financial assistance to small farmers
  14. 1975: Command Area Development Programme: (CADP)
    Better utilization of irrigational capacities
  15. 1975: Twenty Point Programme (TPP)
    Poverty eradication and an overall objective of raising the level living
  16. 1977: National Institution of Rural Development
    Training, investigation and advisory for rural development
  17. 1977-78 : Desert Development Programme: (DDP)
    To control the desert expansion by maintaining environment balance
  18. 1977-78: Food For Work Programme:
    providing food grains to labor
  19. 1977-78 : Antyodaya Yojna :
    Scheme of Rajasthan, providing economic assistance to poorest families
  20. 1979 : Training Rural Youth for Self Employment TRYSEM (launched on 15th August)
    educational and vocational training
  21. 1980 : Integrated Rural Development Programme :IRDP (launched on October 2, 1980)
    overall development of rural poor
  22. 1980 : National Rural Development programme NREP
    employment for rural manforce
  23. 1982 : Development of Women & Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)
    sustainable opportunities of self employment to the women belonging to the rural families who are living below the poverty line.
  24. 1983 : Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) (Launched on August 15)
    employment to landless farmers and laborers
  25. 1983-84: Farmers Agriculture Service Centers FASCs
    Tell the people use of improved instruments of agriculture
  26. 1984 : National Fund for Rural Development : To grant 100% tax rebate to donors and also to provide financial assistance for rural development projects
  27. 1985: Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme:
    Crop Insurance
  28. 1986: Council of Advancement of People’s Action & Rural Technology (CAPART)
    Assistance to rural people
  29. 1986: Self Employment Programme for the Poor SEPUP
    Self employment through credit and subsidy
  30. 1986: National Drinking Water Mission:
    For rural drinking water renamed and upgraded to Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991.
  31. 1988: Service Area Account
    Rural Credit
  32. 1989: Jawahar Rozgar Yojna : JRY
    Employment to rural unemployed
  33. 1989: Nehru Rozgar Yojna NRY
    Employment to Urban unemployed
  34. 1990: Agriculture & Rural Debt Relief Scheme: ARDRS
    Exempt Bank loans up to Rs. 10000 for rural artisans and weavers
  35. 1990: Scheme for Urban Micro Enterprises SUME
    Assist urban small entrepreneurs
  36. 1990: Scheme of Urban wage Employment SUWE
    Scheme for urban poor’s
  37. 1990: Scheme of Housing and Shelter Upgradation (SHASU)
    Providing employment by shelter Upgradation
  38. 1991: National Housing Bank Voluntary Deposit Scheme
    Using black money by constructing low cost housing for the poor.
  39. 1992: National Renewal Fund
    This scheme was for the employees of the public sector
  40. 1993: Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) (Launched on October, 2)
    Employment of at least 100 days in a year in villages
  41. 1993: Members of parliament Local Area Development Scheme MPLADS (December 23, 1993)
    Sanctioned 1 crore per year for development works
  42. 1994: Scheme for Infrastructural Development in Mega Cities : SIDMC
    Water supply, sewage, drainage, urban transportation, land development and improvement slums projects in metro cities
  43. 1993: District Rural Development Agency DRDA
    Financial assistance to rural people by district level authority
  44. 1993 : Mahila Samridhi Yojna (October 2, 1993)
    Encourage rural women to deposit in Post office schems
  45. 1994 : Child labor Eradication Scheme
    Shift child labour from hazardous industries to schools
  46. 1995: prime Minister Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication programme PMIUPEP
    To eradicate urban poverty
  47. 1995 : Mid day Meal Scheme:
    Nutrition to students in primary schools to improve enrolment, retention and attendence
  48. 1996: Group Life Insurance Scheme for Rural Areas
    Insurance in rural area for low premium
  49. 1995: national Social Assistance programme:
    Assist BPL people.
  50. 1997-98; Ganga Kalyan Yojna
    Provide financial assistance to farmers for exploring ground water resources
  51. 1997 Kastoorba Gandhi Education Scheme: (15 August 1997)
    Establish girls schools in low female literacy areas (district level)
  52. 1997: Swaran Jayanto Shahari Rojgar Yojna:
    Urban employment
  53. 1998: Bhagya Shree Bal Kalyan Policy
    Upliftment of female childs
  54. March 1999 : Annapurna Yojna
    10 kgs food grains to elderly people
  55. April 1999: Swaran Jayanto Gram Swarojgar Yojna
    Self employment in rural areas
  56. April 1999: Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna
    Village infrastructure
  57. August 2000 : Jan Shree Bima Yojna
    Insurance for BPL people
  58. 2000 : Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna
    Basic needs of rural people
  59. December 25, 2000 : Antyodaya Anna Yojna
    To provide food security to poor
  60. December 25, 2000 : Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna:
    Connect all villages with nearest pukka road.
  61. September 2001: Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna
    Employment and food security to rural people
  62. December 2001: Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojna VAMBAY
    Slum houses in urban areas
  63. 2003: Universal health Insurance Scheme:
    Health insurance for Rural people
  64. 2004: Vande mataram Scheme VMS
    Initiative of public Private partnership during pregnecy check up.
  65. 2004: National Food for Work programme
    Supplementary wage as foodgrains for work
  66. 2004: Kastoorba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya
    Setting up residential schools at upper primary levels for girls belonging to predominantly OBC, SC & ST
  67. 2005: Janani Suraksha Yojna
    Providing care to pregnant women
  68. 2005, Dec. 16 : Bharat Nirman
    Development of India through irrigation, Water supply, Housing, Road, Telephone and electricity
  69. 2005: National Rural Health Mission:
    Accessible, affordable, accountable, quality health survices to the porest of the poor on remotest areas of the country.
  70. 2005: Rajeev Gandhi Grameen Vidyuti Karan Yojna:
    Extending electrification of all villages and habitations and ensuring electricity to every household.
  71. 2005: Jawahar Lal Nehru national Urban Renewal Mission: (JNNURM)
    Click here to read more
  72. 2006: February 2 : National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme NREGS
    100 days wage employment for development works in rural areas.
  73. 2007: Rastriya Swasthya Bima Yojna :
    Health insurance to all workers in unorganized area below poverty line.
  74. 2007: Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna
    Insurance cover to the head of the family of rural landless households in the country.
  75. 2009: Rajiv Awas Yojna
    To make India slum free in 5 years

Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana:

Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana was launched on February 7, 2008. The scheme aims to provide handholding assistance to first generation entrepreneurs through lead agencies or Udyami Mitra, who shall provide guidance to the potential entrepreneurs and help them in completion of various tasks and formalities necessary for the establishment of the enterprise.

The objective of Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana (RGUMY) is to provide handholding support and assistance to the potential first generation entrepreneurs, who have already successfully completed EDP/SDP/ESDP/VT programmes, through the selected lead agencies i.e. 'Udyami Mitras', in the establishment and management of the new enterprise, in dealing with various procedural and legal hurdles and in completion of various formalities required for setting up and running of the enterprise.

Udyami Mitras:
Under RGUMY, financial assistance would be provided to the selected lead agencies i.e. Udyami Mitras for rendering assistance and handholding support to the potential first generation entrepreneurs.

Udyami Mitras provide guidance and assistance to the potential entrepreneurs registered with them, in preparation of project report, arranging finance, selection of technology, marketing tie-ups with buyers, installation of plant and machinery as well as obtaining various approvals, clearances and NOCs etc.

The Udyami Mitras are:
  1. Existing national level Entrepreneurship Development Institutions (EDIs);
  2. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Institutes (MSMEDIs)/ Branch MSMEDIs.
  3. Central/ State Government public sector enterprises (PSEs) involved in promotion and development of MSEs e.g. National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and State Industrial Development Corporations etc.
  4. Selected State level EDIs and Entrepreneurship Development Centers (EDCs) in public or private sectors;
  5. Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
  6. Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) set up for cluster development involved in entrepreneurship development;
  7. Capable associations of MSEs/SSIs;

Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme:

Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF) was launched by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at Barpeta in Assam on 19th February 2006. This programme signifies a new approach to addressing persistent regional imbalances in development. The programme has subsumed the Rashtriya Sama Vikas Yojana (RSVY), a scheme earlier being administered by the Planning Commission.

This Programme covers 250 districts in 27 States, of which 232 districts fall under the purview of Part IX and Part IX-A of the Constitution dealing with the Panchayats and the Municipalities respectively. The remaining 18 districts are covered by other local government structures, such as Autonomous District and Regional Councils under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution and state specific arrangements as in the case of Nagaland and the hill areas of Manipur.

The BRGF programme represents a major shift in approach from top-down plans to participative plans prepared from the grassroots level upwards. Panchayats at the Village, Intermediate and District levels and Municipalities, constituted under Parts IX and IX-A of the Constitution, are positioned as institutions for planning and implementing the programme. The conviction that drives this new locally driven approach is that grassroots level democratic institutions know best the dimensions of poverty in their areas and are, therefore, best placed to undertake individually small, but overall, significant local interventions to sustainably tackle local poverty alleviation.

Proposed Budget Allocation:
In 2009-10, the budget allocation for BRGF as Rs. 4670 crore has been proposed.

Panchayats as base Institutions:
In order to make optimal use of Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF), the Ministry of Panchayati Raj on February 2, 2010 designates Panchayats as base institutions for planning and implementation at the Village, Intermediate and District levels and the Municipalities. Exception to this is provided to States that are not covered by Part IX of the Constitution. The Panchayats at various tiers can plan and implement projects within their allocation and as per the functions assigned to them through the State laws.

Under the BRGF, the participatory plans prepared by each Panchayat and Municipality will be consolidated into the district plan by the District Planning Committee. In planning and implementation of the BRGF, active participation by each Panchayat and Municipality will be there so as to ensure that all the financial resources available in the district are used optimally without delay, diversion, duplication or leakage.

Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojna:

As per resolution adopted by National Development Council, reaffirming its commitment to achieve 4% annual growth in Agriculture Sector during the XIth Plan, this scheme was launched as a State Plan scheme during 2007-08.
The scheme will incentivize States to provide additional resources in their State Plans over and above their baseline expenditure to bridge critical gaps.
Two new sub-components, budgeted at Rs. 700 crore, to be introduced as part of RKVY
have been approved for 2010-11, viz.
  1. Special initiative for pulses and oilseeds development in selected pulses/oilseed growing villages in rainfed areas as supplementary programmes, specifically targeted to rainfed areas and will be implemented on same parameter, as ongoing programmes for oilseeds and pulses
  2. Scheme to bridge yield gap in agriculture in Eastern India. These new sub-components will be designed by the States in consultation with Govt. of India, including Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, National Rainfed Area
Authority and Planning Commission, and would form part of the approved process of RKVY.The provision of Rs. 6,722 crore is for ‘Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana’ (RKVY) in The Union Budget 2010-11

Kaushal Vikas Yojna:

On August 15, 2007, India's Prime Minister had announced to set up 1600 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & Polytechnics and 50,000 Skill Development Centres with active help of the private sector.
Consequntly, Ministry of Labour & Employment has undertaken a project titled “Kaushal Vikas Yojana” to set up 1500 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) & 5000 Skill Development Centres (SDCs) in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode in India at locations identified by the State Governments. These ITIs are proposed to be set up in unserviced blocks (blocks where no ITIs/ITCs exist) & SDCs in a cluster of about ten villages. State Governments have been requested to identify locations where free of cost land and basic infrastructure such as power, water, road, etc. are available.

These ITIs are proposed to be set up in unserviced blocks (blocks where no ITIs /ITC s exist) & SDCs in a cluster of about ten villages.

The objective of setting up these institutions is to provide access to vocational training facilities to youth in rural, hilly, border & difficult areas. It is expected to provide opportunities of Skill development at door step of youth.

Public Private partneship:
Participation of private sector is expected to increase the number of vocations; impart quality & relevant training according to requirement of different sectors of economy and seek their assistance in placement of skilled youth.

Establishment of such institutes involves three partners
  1. Private Training Provider playing the leading role
  2. State Government providing land free of cost and basic infrastructural support
  3. Central Government providing Viability Gap Funding (VGF), if needed.
Depending on the locations, various options are proposed to be explored. Funding pattern may vary from place to place.

Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram:

Neonatal Deaths in India:

  • According to WHO stats, out of 9.2 million under-5 deaths in world, India accounts for 2.2 million which is maximum in the world. Two-third of the neo-natal deaths occurred in the first week of life, two-third of those took place within the first 24 hours due to non-availability of delivery institutions in villages and smaller towns.


  • Causes of neonatal deaths include infection, complications related to premature birth, pneumonia, diarrhoea and measles apart from hypothermia and infection, and basic newborn resuscitation.

Focus on New Born Care in National Rural Health Mission:

  • To reduce the neonatal mortality which constitutes 45% of under-5 mortality, the following initiatives have been taken under the NRHM framework:
    (i) Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram – a new programme in Basic new-born care and resuscitation (23% of neonatal death occurs due to asphyxia at birth).
    (ii) Creation of new-born care units at district level hospitals, stabilization units at CHC level and new born corners at PHC level to provide specialized care.
    (iii) Skill development of ASHAs and skilled birth attendants to ensure home-based new born and child care.

The above three prong strategy is expected to make a significant reduction in infant mortality.
Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram

  • Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram is a new programme in Basic new-born care and resuscitation (23% of neonatal death occurs due to asphyxia at birth).
  • A two-day training module for care providers at health facilities has been developed and training programme to train master trainers at State and district levels has been rolled out with the support of Indian Academy of Paediatrics and Neonatal Forum of India. Training for all care providers shall be completed by June 2010.
  • The NSSK will train healthcare providers at the district hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres in the interventions at birth with the application of the latest available scientific methods aimed at significantly reducing the infant mortality ratio.
  • The Health and Family Welfare Ministry will organise district level trainers’ training programme for 10 States and master trainers’ training programmes in other States and Union Territories.
  • The States will be expected to roll out training for medical officers, nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives on their own.

This program was launched in September 2009 by Union Health Minister Gulam Nabi Azad. The aim of the program is to reduce the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) from 55 to 30 by the year 2012.
IMR in India was 60 in 2003 & 55 in 2007. The new programme will enable the paramedical staff to save new born child and mother at various health centres across the country.

Pradhanmantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY):

The Government of India has launched a new scheme called Pradhanmantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) for the integrated development of scheduled castes dominated villages in the country. The Finance Minister while presenting the Budget 2009-10 in the Lok Sabha said that there are about 44,000 villages in which the population of scheduled castes is above 50 per cent. Shri Mukherjee said that the new scheme PMAGY will be launched this year on a pilot basis in 1000 such villages. An amount of Rs.100 crore has been allocated for this Scheme.

Under this Scheme, each village would be able to avail gap funding of Rs.10 lakh over and above the allocations under Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation Schemes. On successful implementation of the pilot phase, the PMAGY would be extended in coming years.

Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY):

PMGY was launched in 2000-2001 in all States and Union Territories (UTs) in order to achieve the objective of sustainable human development at the village level. The PMGY envisages allocation of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the States and UTs for selected basic minimum services in order to focus on certain priority areas. PMGY initially had five components viz., primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and nutrition. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02. For 2002-03 as well as 2003-04, the allocation of ACA for PMGY was Rs.2,800 crore. Both financial and physical monitoring of the programme is being carried out by the Planning Commission.

Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY):

  1. This Scheme was launched after a review and restructuring of the erstwhile Integrated Rural Development Program(IRDP) and allied schemes like Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM), Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural Artisans (SITRA) & Ganga Kalyan Yojna.
  2. SGSY was launched on April 1, 1999 and is the only self employment Programme currently being implemented.
  3. The objective of the SGSY is to bring the assisted Swarozgaris above the poverty line by providing them incomegenerating assets through bank credit and Government subsidy.
  4. The Scheme is being implemented on a 75:25 cost sharing of between the Centre and the States.
  5. Since its inception, and up to April 2004, a total allocation of Rs. 6,734 crore was made available by the Centre and States. Rs. 4,980 crore, have been utilized up to April 2004, benefiting 45.67 lakh Swarozgaris.
  6. In the Union Budget 2009-10, Allocations of Rs. 2350 Crore was made for establishing micro-enterprises in rural areas through activity clusters and group approach under Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana. At least 50% of the Swarozgaries will be SCs/STs, 40% women and 3% disabled.
  7. In The Union Budget 2010-11 Rs. 2984 Crore have been provided in outlays including Rs. 301 crore for NE region.


  1. Focussed Approach to poverty Alleviation by setting up a large number of Micro enterprises in rural areas of our country.
  2. Capitalising group lending
  3. Overcoming the problem of running multiple programmes overlapping each other.
  4. A holistic programme of micro enterprises covering all aspects of self employment which includes organising rural poor into Self help groups.
  5. Integration of various agencies like District Rural Development Agencies, Banks, Line Departments., Panchayati Raj Instituions, NGOs etc.
  6. Bring the assistated poor family above BPL by providing them a mix of income generating assets like bank credit + Government subsidy.

National Livelihood Mission:

India's Ministry of Rural Development is proposing to re-design the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) into National Livelihood Mission (NRLM).

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY):

The SGRY was launched in September 2001, by merging the ongoing Schemes of Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) and Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS).
The objective of the programme is to provide additional wage employment in the rural areas as also food security, along with the creation of durable community, social and economic infrastructure in rural areas.
The SGRY is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual and unskilled work in and around the village/habitat. The Scheme is implemented through Panchyati Raj Institutions.
The scheme envisages generation of 100 crore man-days of employment in a year. The cost of each component of the programme is shared by the Centre and States in the ratio of 75:25. During the year 2003-04 an amount of Rs. 4,121 crore as cash component and 49.97 lakh tones of food grain were released to the States/UTs and 76.45 crore man-days (Provisional) have been generated as reported by the States/UTs. Under the Special Component of the SGRY, 65.84 lakh tonnes of foodgrain have been released to 12 calamity affected States during 2003-04.
This scheme has been merged with NREGS since February 2006 so only most important points are given below:
  1. The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) was launched on 25 September, 2001 by merging the on-going schemes of EAS (Employment Assurance Scheme) and the JGSY (Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna)
  2. Objective was to providing additional wage employment and food security, alongside creation of durable community assets in rural areas.
  3. The annual outlay was Rs.10, 000 crore which included 50 lakh tones on food grains.
  4. The cash component shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25.
  5. Food grains were provided free of cost to the States/UTs.
  6. Minimum wages paid to the workers through a mix of minimum five kg of food grains and at least 25 per cent of wages in cash.
  7. Implemented by all the three tiers of Panchayati Raj Institutions. Each level of Panchayat was an independent unit for formulation of Action.
  8. Resources distributed among District Panchayats, Intermediate Panchayats and the Gram Panchayats in the ratio of 20:30:50.
  9. Contractors not permitted to be engaged for execution of any of the works and no middlemen/intermediate agencies can be engaged for executing works under the scheme.

Rural Housing Schemes:

  1. Rural housing schemes such as Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) aim at providing dwelling units, free of cost, to the poor families of the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), freed bonded laborers and also the non- SC/ST persons Below Poverty Line (BPL) in the rural areas.
  2. The Scheme is funded on a cost-sharing basis of 75:25 between the Center and States.
  3. Till the end of 2003-04, the ceiling on construction assistance under IAY was Rs. 20,000/- in plain areas and Rs. 22,000/- in hilly areas, which has been increased to Rs. 25,000/- per unit for plain areas and Rs. 27,500/- for hilly areas from April 1, 2004. Twenty per cent of the allocation is allowed for upgradation of unserviceable Kutcha houses for which ceiling of Rs. 12,500 per unit applies since April 2004.
  4. Credit-cum-Subsidy Scheme for rural housing targeting rural families having annual income up to Rs.32, 000 was launched on April 4, 1999. An amount of Rs. 10 crore as equity support was provided to Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) during 2003-04 by Ministry of Rural Development.
  5. In addition, the innovative scheme of Rural Housing and Habitat Development and Rural Building Centres (RBCs) was introduced to encourage innovative, cost effective and environment friendly solutions in building/housing sectors in rural areas.
  6. A National Mission for Rural Housing and Habitat has also been set up to address the critical issues of housing gap and induction of science and technology inputs into the housing/construction sector in rural areas.
  7. Since inception (up to June 1, 2004) 113.96 lakh houses have been constructed/upgraded by incurring an expenditure of Rs. 19,869 crore. During 2003-04, against the target of 14.84 lakh, 12.54 lakh (provisional) houses have been constructed/upgraded.

Rajiv Awas Yojana:

  • Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) is a new scheme announced by the President earlier in 2009, focuses on slum dwellers and the urban poor.
  • This scheme aims at promoting a slum-free India in five years and would focus on according property rights to slum dwellers.
  • The scheme will focus on according property rights to slum dwellers and the urban poor by the states and union territories.
  • It would provide basic amenities such as water supply, sewerage, drainage, internal and approach roads, street lighting and social infrastructure facilities in slums and low income settlements adopting a 'whole city' approach. It would also provide subsidized credit.
  • Allocation for housing and provision of basic amenities to urban poor enhanced to Rs.3,973 crore in the Union Budget 2009-10. This includes provision of Rs. 150 Crore for Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY).
  • As per the UPA government's proposal for this scheme , the schemes for affordable housing through partnership and the scheme for interest subsidy for urban housing would be dovetailed into the Rajiv Awas Yojana which would extend support under JNNURM to States that are willing to assign property rights to people living in slum areas.
  • The Government's effort would be to create a slum free India through the Rajiv Awas Yojana.
  • The Concept Note on RAY was finalized and sent to Planning Commission for their ‘in principle’ approval. The Planning Commission has accorded its ‘in principle’ approval for the proposed scheme recently. The draft guidelines of the scheme has been prepared and circulated to all States/UTs/Central Ministries and experts/NGOs for comments.
  • Developing a robust database on slums is critical for implementation of the proposed Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY). The Ministry of HUPA has released funds for Slum/Household/Livelihoods surveys in 394 class I cities having more than one lakh population in the country.
  • The surveys are in progress. Funds will also be released for other towns/cities in a phased manner. An e-enabled MIS is being developed for processing of data and building a national database.

Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY):

  • The VAMBAY was launched in December 2001 to ameliorate the conditions of the urban slum dwellers living below the poverty line without adequate shelter.
  • The scheme has the primary objective of facilitating the construction and up-gradation of dwelling units for slum dwellers and providing a healthy and enabling urban environment through community toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, a component of the scheme.
  • The Central Government provides a subsidy of 50 per cent, the balance 50 per cent being arranged by the State Government.
  • There are prescribed ceilings on costs both for dwelling units and community toilets. During 2003-04, Central subsidy to the extent of Rs. 239 crore has been released. Since inception up to May 2004, Rs. 522 crore have been released as Government of India subsidy for the construction/upgradation of 2,46,035 dwelling units and 29,263 toilet seats under the scheme.
  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojna:

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojna was launched on April 1, 1989 by merging National Rural Employment Program (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). At the end of Seventh Five Year Plan

    So this was a consolidation of the previous employment programs and it was largest National Employment Program of India at that time with a general objective of providing 90-100 Days Employment per person particularly in backward districts. People below Poverty Line were main targets.

    The Yojna was implemented on rural scale. Every village was to be covered through Panchayati Raj Institutions. The village got aide and support from District Rural Development Authority. Expenditures were born by central & state in 80:20 ratios.
    Since 1993-94 the Yojna was made more targets oriented and expanded substantially through increased budgetary allocations. It was divided into 3 streams:
    First Stream: Comprising general works under JRY and also two sub schemes Indira Awas Yojna and Million Wells Scheme. This stream got 75% of the total allocation. In Indira Awas Yojna the allocation was increased from 6% to 10 % and in Million Wells Scheme from 20% to 30 % during that period.
    Second Stream: This was also called intensified JRY and was implemented in selected 120 backward districts. It got 20% allocation.
    Third Stream: This was left with 5 % allocation for Innovative programs which included Prevention of labor migration, drought proofing watershed etc. programs.

    Since April 1, 1999 this Yojna was replaced by Jawahar Gram samridhi Yojna. Later from September 25, 2001, Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna was merged with Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna

    National Livelihood Mission (NLM):

  • India's Ministry of Rural Development is proposing to re-design the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) into National Livelihood Mission (NRLM). Here are the proposed main features of the NRLM:
  • To bring each BPL household under Self Help Group (SHG) net,
  • To set up dedicated implementation structure at various levels,
  • To enhance capital subsidy for the beneficiaries,
  • To ensure easy access for multiple doses of credit,
  • To form and strengthen people owned organization such as Self Help Groups (SHG) Federation at various level,
  • To upscale the skill development and placement programs, Rural Self Employment Training Institute (RSETIs) in each district of the country.

It is also proposed to induct dedicated professionals at various levels for implementation of the program. Special emphasis will be given to technology inputs. Under the scheme, it is provided that Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribes (STs) will account for at least 50% of Swarojgaries, women 40%, minorities 15% and disabled 3%.

Under the existing guidelines of SGSY, 15% of allocation is set apart for taking up special projects which are of pioneering nature for bringing a specified large number of rural below poverty line (BPL) beneficiaries above poverty line in a time bound manner.

The objective of the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families (Swarozgaries) above the Poverty Line by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by inter alia organising the rural poor into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through the process of social mobilization, their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets. The SHG approach helps the poor to build their self-confidence through community action.

Saakshar Bharat Mission:

Saakshar Bharat Mission was launched in September 2009 by Prime Minster Man Mohan Singh for Female Literacy on International Literacy Day (September 8, 2009) in New Delhi.

This is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, under the aegis of Department Of School Education & Literacy, Ministry Of Human Resource Development, Government of India.


  1. To further promote and strengthen Adult Education, specially of women, by extending educational options to those adults who having lost the opportunity of access to formal education and crossed the standard age for receiving such education, now feel a need for learning of any type, including, literacy, basic education (equivalency to formal education), vocational education (skill development), physical and emotional development,practical arts, applied science, sports, and recreation.
  2. To impart functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 15-35 years in a time bound manner, the National Literacy Mission (NLM) was launched in 1988 and it continued through Ninth and Tenth Five Year Plans. By the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan (March 2007), NLM had covered 597 districts under Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), 485 districts under Post Literacy Programme (PLP) and 328 districts under Continuing Education Programme (CEP). As a cumulative outcome of these efforts, 127.45 million persons became literate, of which, 60% learners were females, while 23% learners belonged to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and 12% to Scheduled Tribes (STs).

Illiteracy in India

  1. Despite significant accomplishments of the National Literacy Mission, illiteracy continues to be an area of national concern. 2001 census had revealed that there were still 259.52 million illiterate adults (in the age group of 15 +) in the country.
  2. While further accretion into the pool of adult illiterate persons is expectedto recede significantly on account of enhanced investments in elementaryeducation and a reverse demographic trend, addition to this pool cannot be ruledout altogether on account of relatively high school drop out ratio.
  3. Wide gender,social and regional disparities in literacy also continue to persist.
  4. Adult educationis therefore indispensable as it supplements the efforts to enhance and sustainliteracy levels through formal education.
  5. It was, therefore, considered necessary to continue the NLM during the XI Planperiod. While acknowledging, in principle, the need for continuing andstrengthening further the efforts to promote Adult Education, the PlanningCommission agreed to the continuance of NLM during the XIth Plan provided itwas appraised de novo and modified suitably to meet the contemporarychallenges.
  6. The programme was accordingly subjected to extensive in-house andexternal review and evaluation.
  7. This in-depth appraisal had revealed certain inadequacies in the design,architecture and mode of implementation of the programme, most conspicuousbeing, non-viability of a single pan Indian solution, limitations of voluntaryapproach, limited involvement of the State Governments in the programme, lackof convergence, weak management and supervisory structures, lack of communityparticipation, poor monitoring and inadequate funding.
  8. Saakshar Bharat will come into operation from 1-10-2009. Though duration of thescheme, National Literacy Mission, was valid only till the end of the Tenth FiveYear Plan, residual activities under the Mission were allowed to continue till30-09-2009, as a special dispensation, so that the ongoing activities could becompleted during the extended period. With the launch of Saakshar Bharat, theNational Literacy Mission and its entire programmes and activities standconcluded on 30.09.2009.
  9. National Social Assistance Programme:
    1. The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) which came into effect from 15th August, 1995, is a 100 % Centrally Sponsored Programme.
    2. NSAP is a social assistance programme for poor households and represents a significant step towards the fulfillment of the Directive Principles in Articles 41 and 42 of the Constitution recognizing the concurrent responsibility of the Central and State governments in the matter.
    3. It has three components namely, National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS), National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) and National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS).
    4. The NMBS has since been transferred to the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare w.e.f. 1-4-2001. The NSAP aims at providing social security in case of old age, death of primary breadwinner andmaternity.
    5. The main objectives and features of the two schemes, NOAPS and NFBS are given below:
    6. The Programme aims at ensuring a minimum national standard of social assistance in addition to the benefit that States are already providing.
    7. The Central assistance is not to displace expenditure by States on social protection schemes. However, the States/UTs are free to expand their own coverage of social assistance whenever they wish to do so.

      Annapurna Scheme:

      1. The Annapurna Scheme has been launched with effect from 1st April, 2000.
      2. It aims at providing food security to meet the requirement of those senior citizens who, though eligible, have remained uncovered under the National Old Age Pension Scheme(NOAPS).
      3. The Scheme is targeted to cover, 20% (13.762 Lakh) of persons eligible to receive pension under NOAPS.The Central assistance under the Annapurna Scheme is, thus, provided to the beneficiaries on fulfilling the following criteria :
        1. The age of the applicant ( male or female) should be 65 years or above.
        2. The applicant must be a destitute in the sense of having little or no regular means of substance from his/her own source of income or through financial support from family members or other sources. In order to determine destitution , the criteria, if any, in force in the States/UTs may also be followed.
        3. The applicant should not be in receipt of pension under the NOAPSor State Pension Scheme.
        4. The beneficiaries are given 10 Kg. of foodgrains per month free of cost.
        Funds are currently released to the State Departments of Food & Civil Supplies (F&CS) in one instalment . This Department then ties up with the Food Corporation of India (FCI), to release foodgrains districtwise on payment of the cost of Foodgrains at CIP rates directly to the FCI offices. Initially the foodgrains were supplied at economic cost ( Rs.9.80 per Kg.). However, w.e.f. 1.11.2000, foodgrains are supplied at the CIP rates for BPL families( Rs.4.90 per Kg.) The beneficiaries under the scheme are selected in the Gram Sabhas and the Gram Panchayat distribute the entitlement cards to the beneficiaries.

        The Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART):

      4. The Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) was set up as a pioneer organisation in September, 1986, as a supporting and funding agency for the Voluntary Organisations (VOs) by merging two organisations, namely, People’s Action for Development (India) and Council for Advancement of Rural Technology (CART) with the mandate to promote voluntary action and propagate appropriate rural technologies for the benefit of the rural masses. Since then, CAPART has been contributing towards the rural development and poverty alleviation through the work of VOs at the grassroots level and by supplementing Government’s efforts.
        The Minister for Rural Development, Government of India, is the President of the Council and also the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Council.
        The General Body comprises, not exceeding, 100 members representing voluntary agencies, Central and States Government, institutions engaged in activities connected with rural development, rural technology and individuals possessing experience/expertise relevant to the furtherance of the aforesaid objectives of CAPART. They are nominated by the President of the Council.The Executive Committee of CAPART comprises a maximum of 25 members nominated by the President of CAPART from amongst the members of the General Body. There is also a Standing Committee on Finance and Appointments which is chaired by the Director.

        Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA):

        • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India's flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right.
        • SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations.
        • The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.
        • Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level.
        • SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl's education and children with special needs.
        • SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.
        • Mid-day Meal Scheme:

        • The Mid-day Meal Scheme involves provision of lunch free of cost to school-children on all working days.

          Key Objectives: The key objectives of the programme are:

        • Protecting children from classroom hunger
        • Increasing school enrolment and attendance
        • Improved socialisation among children belonging to all castes
        • Addressing malnutrition, and social empowerment through provision of employment to women.

        The scheme has a long history especially in Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, and has been expanded to all parts of India after a landmark direction by the Supreme Court of India on November 28, 2001.

      5. The success of this scheme is illustrated by the tremendous increase in the school participation and completion rates in the state of Tamilnadu.
      6. Allocation for this programme has been enhanced from Rs 3010 crore to Rs 4813 crore (Rs 48 billion, $1.2 billion) in 2006-2007.
      7. This program is being run by Akshaya Patra Foundation and is the world’s largest school meal programme being implemented across seven states in India and covering about ten lakh students in over 4,800 schools. The allocation was of Rs 8000 crore for the Mid-Day meal schemes in the interim budget 2009.
      8. This is world's largest school feeding programme.
      9. The revised nutritional Norms are as under :

      At Primary Level (up to 5th Standard)

    8. Energy 450 K. Cal
    9. Proteins 12 gms.
    10. adequate micronutrients like Iron, Vitamin A , Folic Acid etc.

    At Secondary Level (6th -8th Standard)

  10. Energy 700 cal
  11. proteins 20 gms
  12. adequate micronutrients like Iron, Vitamin A , Folic Acid etc.

Update : November 25, 2009 (Revision of Mid-day Meal Scheme)

  1. The Government has revised the food norm for upper primary children by increasing the quantity of pulses from 25 to 30 grams, vegetables from 65 to 75 grams and by decreasing the quantity of oil and fats from 10 to 7.5 grams.
  2. It has also revised the cooking cost (excluding the labour and administrative charges) to Rs. 2.50 for primary and Rs. 3.75 for upper primary children. A separate component for payment of honorarium of Rs.1000 per month to cook-cum-helper and a norm for engaging cook-cum-helper have been introduced.
  3. The cost of construction of kitchen-cum-store will be determined on the basis of State Schedule of Rates and the plinth area norm laid down by the Department of School Education & Literacy.
  4. The expenditure towards the cooking cost, the cost of construction of kitchen-cum-store and the honorarium of cook-cum-helper will be shared between the centre and the north Eastern (NE) States on 90:10 basis and with other States/UTs on 75:25 basis.
  5. Transportation assistance in the 11 Special Category States (viz. Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and Tripura) has been made at par with the Public Distribution System (PDS) rates prevalent in these States.
  6. As a result of this, the share of Central Government will increase by Rs.10140.33 crore for balance period of the 11th Plan.
  7. The Mid Day Meal Scheme Guidelines stipulate that under no circumstance the teachers will be assigned responsibilities, which impede or interfere with teaching learning process in schools.
  8. Their involvement in the programme is limited to ensure that good quality, wholesome food is served to children and actual serving and eating is undertaken in a spirit of togetherness, under hygienic conditions and in an orderly manner in about 30-40 minutes.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Heavy Water Plants at a Glance

Heavy Water Plants in India


1. Who is the author of "The Kalam effect: My years with the president"?
(a) P.M.Nayar (b) Sonia Gandhi
(c) L.K.Adwani (d) Arun Shaurie
ANS (a)

2. Who is the author of the book "Superstar India : From Incredible to Unstopable"?
(a) L.K.Adwani (b) Arundhati Roy
(c) Shobha De (d) Vikram Seth
ANS (c)

3. The Sanskrit poet called as the Indian Shakespeare?
(a) Kalidasa (b) Thulasidas (c) Sudraka (d) Kautilya
ANS (a)

4. Mulk Raj Anand is the author of
(a) The Post Office (b) Gora
(c) India Wins Freedom (d) Coolie
ANS (Try Yourself)

5. Who is the author of the book 'My other two daughters'?
(a) Lalu Prasad Yadav (b) Surjit Singh Barnala
(c) E.M. Forster (d) Paul Kennedy
ANS (b)

6. Who is known as the Father of Detective Story
(a) Arthur Conan Doyle (b) Bram Stoker
(c) Edgar Allen Poe (d) None of the above
ANS (c)

7. Man-The Maker of His Own Destiny' รข€“ book was written by
(a) V.S. Naipaul (b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Guenter Grass (d) Swami Vivekananda
ANS (d)

8. Find out the odd one
(a) Louis Fischer (b) Ibsen(c) William Shakespeare (d) Sherlock HolmesANS (d) Others are writers. Sherlock Holmes is a character 9.One among the following is not written by Kalidasa
(a) Saakunthalam (b) Raghu Vamsam
(c) Rith Samharam (d) Kaavyadooth
ANS (d)

10. 'Sonia, a Biography' was written by
(a) Sonia Gandhi (b) Arundhathi Roy
(c) Rasheed Kidvai (d) V.K. Madhavan Kutty
ANS (c)

11. One among the following is not a Harry Potter story
(a) Chamber of secrets
(b) The philosopher's stone
(c) Half blood prince (d) Naked Truth
ANS (d)

12. Jules Verne, a French science fiction writer wrote a book, which carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching of Apollo-8. Which is the book
(a) From the Earth to the moon
(b) All under Heaven
(c) A Midsummer Night's Dream
(d) Past and Present
ANS (a)

13. Who is the author of "A Passage to England"?
(a) E.M. Forster (b) Nirad C. Chaudhari
(c) G.B. Shaw (d) Winston Churchill
ANS (b)

14. "Does IT matter" is a book written by
(a) Bill Gates (b) N. R. Narayanan (c) Nicholas Carr
(d) Thomas D. Harris (e) None of these
ANS (c)

15. 'Beyond time' is the book written by
(a) Namita Gokhale (b) Ruskin Bond
(c) William Balrymple (d) Josef Korbel
(e) None of these
ANS (e)

16. The famous book 'Anandmath' has been authorised by
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya
(c) Sarojini Naidu
(d) Sri Aurobindo
ANS (b)

17.Who wrote a book describing the theory of economic drain of India during British rule?
(a) Dadabhai Naoroji (b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Mahatma Gandhi (d) Jawaharlal Nehru
ANS (a)

18. The author of the book 'Waiting for Godot' is:
(a) Ruth Harring (b) Susan Sontag
(c) Samuel Beckett (d) Ben Jonson
ANS (c) Waiting for the Mahatma - R. K. Narayanan
Waiting to Exhale - Terry Mc Millan

19. "The Vedas contain all the truth", was interpreted by:
(a) Swami Vivekananda (b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Swami Shraddhanand (d) S. Radhakrishnan
ANS (b)

20. Sirr-i-Akbar was the Persian translation of fifty-two Upanishads by which son of shah Jahan?
ANS - Dara Shikoh

21.In "The Travels of Gulliver", what is the first things two Lilliputians discuss when they meet in the morning?
ANS - The health of the sun

22."The man who knew infinity" is the biography of
(a) Rene Descartes (b) Stephen Hawking
(c) Albert Einstein (d) S. Ramanujan
ANS (d)

23.What was the original name of 'Alice in Wonderland' when Lewis Carroll first showed it to novelist Henry Kingsley in 1863?
ANS - Alice's Adventures Underground

24. The author of the book "Waiting for the Mahatma" is
(a) R.K Narayan (b) N.A Palkhiwala
(c) Amrita Pritam (d) M. Malgonkar
ANS (a)

25. Under the patronage of which ruler of the Javanese house of Mataram, was the epic poem 'Arjuna vivaha' written?
ANS - King Airlangga

26. To whom, in his own words, did Rudyard Kipling dedicate his collection, 'Plain Tales From the Hills'?
ANS - To the wittiest woman in India

27. 'Beyond the Last Blue Mountain' is R.M Lala's biography of which Indian?
ANS - J. R. D. Tata

28. Which of Agatha Christie's books was the first to be serialised in the Evening News under the title 'Anna the Adventure'?
ANS - The Man In The Brown Suit

29. Who has authored the book A Brief History of Time?
(a) Carl Sagan (b) Issac Asimov
(c) John Gribbin (d) Stephen Hawking
ANS (d)

30. The book 'Living with Honour' is written by
(a) Arundhati Roy (b) Shiv Khera
(c) Pramod Batra (d) Vikram Seth
ANS (b)

31. The book 'Cricket My Style' is written by
(a) Sunil Gavaskar (b) Sachin Tendulkar
(c) Kapil Dev (d) Mohinder Amarnath
ANS (c)

32. Who wrote the book 'The Book of Indian Birds'
ANS - Dr. Salim Ali

33. 'Economic History of India' was written by
ANS - R. C. Dutt

34.The oldest of the vedic literature is
(a) Sama Veda (b) Yajur Veda
(c) Rig Veda (d) Atharva Veda
ANS (c)

35. 'Leelavathi' the famous sanskrit grantha is a book on
ANS - Mathematics

36. Who is the author of An Equal Music (1999)
ANS - Vikram Seth

37. Who wrote the poem Passage to India in 1871
ANS - Walt Whitman (American Poet)

38. Who is the author of the book The Canterbury Tales
ANS - Geoffrey Chaucer

39. Who is the author of the book Anna Karenina
ANS - Leo Tolstoy

40.Who is the author of the book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
ANS - Mark Twain

41. Who is the author of the book The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes?
ANS - Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

42.Who is the author of the book The Comedy of Errors?
ANS - William Shakespeare

43. Who is the author of the book Animal Farm
ANS - George Orwell

44. Who is the author of the book The Rime of the Ancient Mariner?
ANS - Samuel Taylor Coleridge

45. Who is the author of the book, Through the Looking-Glass?
ANS - Lewis Carroll

46. Who is the author of the book, Alls Well That Ends Well?
ANS - William Shakespeare

47. Who is the author of the book Akbar-nama?
ANS - Abul Fazl

48. Who is the author of the book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?
ANS - Mark Twain

49. Who is the author of the book ˜Antony and Cleopatra?
ANS - William Shakespeare

50. Who is the author of the book , Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 1687)
ANS - Sir Isaac

Minority Concentration Districts

Minority Concentration Districts

Friday, August 13, 2010



The concept of Public Distribution System in the country was evolved around 1942 due to shortage of foodgrains during 2nd World War and Government intervention in distribution of food started. This intervention of Government in distribution of foodgrains in the food scarcity period and, thereafter, continued in major cities, towns & certain food deficit areas. This policy of Public Distribution System/Rationing System has undergone several changes with every lap of Five Year Planning System in the country. The Seventh Five Year Plan assigned to it a crucial role by bringing the entire population under Public Distribution System and became a permanent feature in the country's economy.
1.1 The Government of India fulfills certain objectives of food security through Public Distribution at an affordable price. In the present scenario, Public Distribution System strives to meet the twin objectives - the price support to the farmers for their product and maintenance of stocks. It is against these stocks procured under price support that every month Government releases a prescribed quantity, in each State for distribution under Public Distribution System. This mission of the Government of India is brought into the reality at the operational level by FCI. The Sales Division communicates the said allocation to its Regional Offices. On receipt of sub-allocation from the State Government, the Regional Offices issue the instructions to the District Offices for releasing the stocks to the respective State Government /their nominees on prepayment basis at district level.1.2 TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM(T.P.D.S.)
Public Distribution System was widely criticised for its failure to serve the population below the poverty line, its urban bias, negligible coverage in the States with the highest concentration of the rural poor and lack of transport and accountable arrangements for delivery. Realising this, the GOI has introduced the TPDS scheme w.e.f. 1.6.1997 (w.e.f. 1.5.1997 for the states of Tripura, Haryana and Gujarat) to streamline the PDS by issuing special cards to the families below the poverty line and selling essential articles under PDS to them at a specially subsidised prices with better monitoring of the delivery system. This quantity is issued as rice or wheat or combination of both at BPL prices. The States fix Consumer End Prices (C.E.P). at FPS level at not more than fifty paise per Kg. Over the Central Issue Price (CIP) particularly for the population below the poverty line. The States are also free to add the quantum coverage and the subsidy from their own resources. Common verities of rice are reserved exclusively for the population Below Poverty Line.1.3 The scheme Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) is effective all over the country. The allotment/lifting of wheat and rice under TPDS (BPL, APL & AAY) during last five years are as under:-1.4 ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJNA
Govt. of India has decided to issue rice and wheat at the rate of Rs. 3/- per Kg. And Rs. 2/- per Kg., respectively to the poorest strata of population out of the earlier identified BPL population. The allocation and lifting of wheat and rice under this scheme during last five years is as under :
The Government of India, Ministry of CA,F&PD has been fixing Central Issue Prices of wheat and rice from time to time which is uniform throughout the country. The present Central Issue price of wheat and rice effective from 1.7.2002 are as under:-
1.6 VALIDITYGovt. of India is allocating foodgrains (wheat and rice) under Targeted Public Distribution System on monthly basis and issues allocation order for the financial-year wise and makes further revision, if any, from time to time.Ministry during February 2008 has revised the instructions to steamlining of procedure regarding issuance and revalidation/extension of validity period for lifting of foodgrains under TPDS. The validity period for lifting of allocated foodgrains under TPDS will be 50 days for each allocation month separately, starting from 1st day of the month preceding the allocation month and ending on 20th day of the allocation month. For example, the validity period for the allocation for April will be from 1st March to 20th April.
Ministry has made it mandatory for State and UT Govt. to deposit the cost of foodgrains to FCI by 15th of the allocation month (crediting of the amount to the FCI accoubnt) and lifting is allowed within the validity period. Further, power delegated for extension of 15 days by Area Managers has been withdrawn and extension of validity period for 15 days can be granted only by Executive Director (Zone) in cases where State Govt has desposited the entire cost of allotment before 15th of the allocation month and when full quantity of allcoated foodgrains were not available during the validity period in the assigned or alternately assigned FCI depots.

The foodgrains stocks are lifted by the State Govt./their nominees. Before issue of the stocks, they are allowed to verify the stocks and get themselves satisfied about the quality. Three representative samples are drawn and sealed with joint seal from the stocks issued. One is given to the recepient for displaying at the issue/sale point and two are retained by the FCI, one for depot and the other for District Office.
Food Corporation of India is also issuing foodgrains under various schemes of the Govt. of India viz. Mid-Day-Meal, Nutrition Programme, SC/ST/OBC Hostels, Welfare Institutions & Hostels, Annapurna, Sampoorn Gramin Rozgar Yojna (SGRY), National Food for Work Programme, Scheme for Adolscent Girls, Pregnant & Lactating Mothers and World Food Programme (WFP) etc. Schemewise details are as under :-
2.1 MID-DAY-MEAL(NATIONAL PROGRAMME OF NUTRITION SUPPORT TO PRIMARY EDUCATION)The GOI have introduced Mid Day Meal scheme- National Programme of Nutrition Support to Primary Education in Primary School in 2368 Employment Assurance Scheme(EAS)/ Revamped PDS Blocks/ Low Female Literacy Blocks w.e.f. 15th August, 1995. Under this Scheme, every child is entitled to 3 kgs. wheat/rice per month at the rate of 100 gms. per day.
The foodgrains are issued by FCI to the nominees of the District Collector without charging any cost from them. However, FCI was raising the monthly bills with MOHRD for claiming the Economic Cost of foodgrains supplied to each State/UT during the month till 31.10.2000. With effect from 1.11.2000 foodgrains under this scheme are being released at the rates applicable to BPL families. A revolving fund to the tune of Rs. 300 crores has already been provided to FCI by MOHRD. Strict Instructions have been issued to the issuing authorities that only good quality of foodgrains be issued under the scheme.
The Ministry of HRD has also extended the NP-NSPE popularly called the Mid day Meal Scheme to the students studying in Primary classes( I to V) in Education Guarantee Scheme(EGS) centres and other alternative education in the States of West Bengal & Assam from January, 2003. From October 2007 the scheme has further extended upto middle standard (VIth to VIIIth). Under this Scheme, every child is entitled to 150 gms. of foodgrains per school day.Details of allotment and lifting during last five years are as under :-
The Ministry of CAF&PD and the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has to monitor the Scheme for providing foodgrains to SC/ST/OBC Hostels. Hostels having students belonging to SC/ST/OBC categories are eligible to draw 15 Kgs. foodgrains per resident per month.
The Government of India w.e.f. 2.11.2000 has decided that foodgrains (wheat/rice) will also be allotted to the State Governments at the rate of 5 Kg per head per month for indigent people living in Welfare Institutions, such as, Beggar Homes, Homes for Nari Niketan etc. sponsored by the State Govts. and the concerned UT administration. Foodgrains are supplied by FCI at BPL rates. It is clarified that from the year 2002-2003, the MOCAF&PD has been making monthly allotment equivalent to 5% of BPL allotment of the State/UT under the head “Welfare Institutions & Hostels” to meet the requirement of the State/UT for providing foodgrains to different type of welfare institutions. Since April 2005, the Ministry of CAF&PD has enhanced quota of allotment under this scheme to 5% of the monthly allotment made under BPL & AAY. Further, the criterion for making the allotment has been changed by the Department of Food & Public Distribution and the allocation is now being made on the basis of average offtake of last three years.The details of quantities allotted and lifted by the State/UT Govts. during last five years are as under :-
The Union Finance Minister in his Budget Speech for the year, 1999-2000, announced a programme of Food Security for the destitues of aged 65 years and above entitled "Annapurna " under which 10 Kgs. of foodgrains pr month are to be provided, free of cost, to all indigent seniour citizens who are eligible for Old Age Pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme(NOAPS) but are, presently, not receiving the same. This scheme has been approved by the Govt.of India and has been launched from April 2000.
The Nodal Agency for implementing this scheme was the Deptt. of Rural Development in the Union Ministry of Rural Development and allocated funds under the said scheme in favour of all the States & UTs for the year 2000-2001. The foodgrain under this scheme is being issued at BPL rates w.e.f. 1.11.2000. Since, 2002-03 the Annapurna Scheme was transferred to the State Plan and no state-wise allocation of funds and foodgrains were made by the Ministry of Rural Development. Presently, the allotment under Annapurna Scheme is being made by Ministry of CAF&PD on monthly basis.The details of allotment & lifting under this scheme are as under :-
Govt. of India introduced Sampoorn Gramin Rozgar Yojna during October, 2001, covering two different schemes namely Jawahar Gramin Smriddhi Yojna (JGSY) & Employment Assuarance Scheme (EAS). The said 2 schemes have now been merged and named as SGRY-normal. Besides this foodgrains are also allotted under Special Component of SGRY to drought / flood affected areas. Wheat and rice under this scheme is issued free of cost to the States/UTs and subsequently bills are raised at Economic Cost with the Ministry of Rural Development. The scheme has been suspended w.e.f. 1.4.2008.
The details of allocation & offtke under SGRY including Special Component are as under :

Hon‟ble Prime Minister of India has launched National Food For Work Programme in identified 150 most backward districts of the country during the month of November 2004. Under this scheme, the labour is engaged for development works and then a part of their wages is given as foodgrains. Under this scheme, foodgrains are issued free of cost to the States/UTs and bills are subsequently raised with MORD at BPL rates.
In the beginning a quantity of 20 lakh MTs of foodgrains were allotted by the Ministry of Rural Development for the year 2004-2005 which was valid for lifting upto 30th June 2005 and allotment to the tune of 9 Lakh MT for the year 2005-06 was valid upto 30th June 2006. Further, there is no allocation made for the year 2006-07.
The details of allotment and offtake under NFFWP are as under :-

Thursday, August 12, 2010



For extensive and intensive faunal exploration of various regions, a number of Regional and Field Stations have been established and it would be worthwhile to give here the exploration activities of the Department in different ecosystems.

(i) Estuarine and Marine Surveys:

India has a long coast line of about 7000 km and the marine ecosystem offers a rich biological resource, much of which remains to be explored. Estuarine and marine animals are collected to study the faunal status and composition and their interaction with the marine ecosystems. Survey of faunal resources of estuarine areas, brackish-water lakes and back-waters of the eastern coast of India have been recently taken up by the newly established Estuarine Biological Research Station at Gopalpur on Sea, Ganjam, Orissa.

(ii) Mangrove Faunal Surveys:

Mangroves are considered the nursery of nature, specially for the living forms of marine environ­ment. For the collection and study of mangrove organisms, faunistic surveys are being undertaken in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sunderbans (West Bengal) and Pitchavaram Islands (Tamil Nadu). The fauna is being thoroughly studied to assess the quantitative and qualitative distribution in these areas.

(iii) Island Surveys:

The scope of studying the insular characteristics of fauna has been much enhanced with the estab­lishment of a Regional Station at Port Blair in the South Andamans. The scientists of this Station, in collaboration with others, especially from Head­quarters at Calcutta and from the Marine Biologi­cal Station, Chennai.

(iv) Western Ghats Surveys:

Western Ghats offer one of the richest biological resources, yet to be fully explored for formulation of a management plan. The scientists of the Western Regional Station, Pune and the Western Ghats Field Station, Calicut, are entrusted with the study and collection of the rich and diverse fauna of the Ghat areas.

(v) Tropical Rain Forests Surveys

The exploration of rich and diverse fauna, occurr­ing in the tropical rain forests in the Ghat areas of Western India as well as in the rugged topo­graphy of north-east India, is one of the priority activities of Z.S.I. Two Regional Stations, one at Pune and another at Kozhilkode, are conducting active field explorations in the Ghat areas as al­ready mentioned, while the Eastern Regional Sta­tion at Shillong, Field Station at New Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh and parties of the Head­quarters regularly survey north-eastern India.

(vi) High Altitude Surveys:

The scientists of the High Altitude Zoology Field Station, Solan, Northern Regional Station, Dehra Dun and the Headquarters are studying the Hima­layan mountain fauna in respect of their vertical distribution and survival potentiality in the ex­treme temperate climatic condition.

(vii) Desert Surveys:

Desertification of some areas all over the world poses a major problem to United Nations Environ­mental Programme and the desert region in India offers one of the major study areas. Z.S.I. has not overlooked the importance of studying the desert animals with particular reference to their adaptations, survival potentiality and their pos­sible role in desertification. Desert Regional Station at Jodhpur conducts faunistic survey on different groups of animals of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

(viii) Freshwater Resources Surveys:

The Scientists of the Survey are taking keen in­terest to explore the aquatic fauna specially sponges, molluscs, crustaceans (prawns, shrimps, crabs, etc.) and fishes from the major freshwater resources in the country. Freshwater Biological Station at Hyderabad is involved in the limnological investigations in some major lentic water bodies, wetlands of national and international importance.


Approximately 90,000 species of animals are known from India of which Fish account for 2,546 species; Amphibia, 210 species; Reptilia, 428 species; Birds, 2,000 species and subspecies; Mammals, 397 species and subspecies; the rest being represented by other faunal elements. Of these, 75 'species of Mammals, 59 species of Birds, 19 species of Reptiles, 3 species of Amphibians and a large number of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are listed as endangered. Status survey to variable extent has been carried out in respect of 28 species but a detailed consolidated account of only a few species Is available.

The status survey of the following species has been done and results published:

  • Golden Langur
  • Phayre’s Leaf Monkey
  • Hispid Hare
  • Desert Cat
  • Chinkara
  • Tibetan Wild Ass or Kiang
  • Himalayan Marmot
  • Himalayan Salamander
  • Wroughton’s Free Tailed bat
  • Western Tragopan
  • Indian Edible-nest Swiftlet

Protected Areas:

The faunal diversity of the following Protected Areas has been documented:

National Parks:

Nanda Devi National Park, Uttarakhand

Corbet National Park, Uttarakhand

Rajaji National Park. Uttarakhand

Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra

Eravikulum National Park, Kerala

Kudremukh National Park , Karnataka

Mount Harriet National Park , South Andaman

Desert National Park, Rajasthan

Pench National Park, Maharashtra

Gulf of Kutchh Marine National Park , Gujarat

Banerghata National Park, Karnataka

North, Middle and South Button National Parks, Andaman

Wildlife Sanctuaries:

Chandaka Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary , Orissa

Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi

Gobind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary , Uttarakhand

Saipung Wildlife Sanctuary, Meghalaya

Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, Bihar

Tiger Reserves:

Indravati Tiger Reserve, Chhattisgarh

Kanha Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh

Valmiki Tiger Reserve, Bihar

Sundarbans, Palamau , Similipal and Manas TRs

MeIghat Tiger Reserve

Biosphere Reserves:

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Uttarakhand

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu