Monday, August 18, 2014

INDIA 2011 FINAL POPULATION TOTALS


S.R Hashim Report on methodology for identification of poor in urban areas

With the objective of putting in place a uniform criterion to identify the BPL households in urban areas so that objectivity and transparency is ensured in delivery of benefits to the target groups, the Planning Commission constituted an Expert Group under the Chairmanship of Professor S.R. Hashim.

The terms of reference of the Expert Group are as follows:

a) To recommend appropriate detailed methodology with simple, transparent and objectively measurable indicators, to identify Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households in urban areas for providing assistance under various schemes targeted at the urban poor;
b) To recommend periodicity for the conduct of BPL Survey in Urban Areas or the mechanisms to review such a BPL list;
c)To recommend institutional mechanisms for the conduct of BPL survey, survey questionnaire, processing of data, training, validation and approval of urban BPL list at various levels;
d) To recommend suitable institutional mechanisms to address the grievances of public on exclusion/inclusion in the urban BPL List;
e) Any other suggestions/recommendations to make the exercise of Urban BPL survey simple, transparent and acceptable.

The methodology recommended is as follows:

the Expert Group decided that poverty in Urban areas could be best captured by identifying three categories of vulnerabilities, i.e., residential vulnerability, occupational vulnerability and social vulnerability that the urban poor is subjected to. It was agreed to evolve a methodology to identify urban poor based on the various dimensions of these three areas of vulnerabilities to be qualified by a number of indicators which would also give an idea of the depth/intensity of the vulnerability.

Based on the above broad approach, the Expert Group recommends a three stage identification process (i) Automatic Exclusion ; (ii) Automatic Inclusion ; and (iii) Scoring Index.

Stage 1: Automatic Exclusion: If the number of dwelling rooms exclusively in possession of the household is 4 and above, that household will be excluded. Secondly, the household possessing any one of the assets, i.e., ‘4 wheeler motorized vehicle’, ‘AC Set’ and ‘computer or laptop with internet’ will also be excluded. Besides the households possessing any three of the following four assets, i.e., refrigerator, telephone (landline), washing machine, two wheeler motorized vehicle will also be excluded.

Stage 2: Automatic Inclusion: households facing various kinds of deprivations and vulnerabilities viz. residential, social and occupational vulnerabilities would be automatically included in the BPL List.

a) Under residential vulnerability, If the household is ‘houseless’ or the household has a house with roof and wall made of plastic/polythene or the household having only one room or less with the material of wall being grass, thatch, bamboo, mud, un-burnt brick or wood and the material of roof being grass, thatch, bamboo, wood or mud, then that will be automatically included.
b) Under occupational vulnerability, the household having no income from any source; any household member (including children) engaged in a vulnerable occupation like beggar/rag picker, domestic worker (who are actually paid wages) and sweeper/sanitation worker /mali); and all earning adult members in a household are daily wagers or irregular wagers, then that household should be automatically included.
c) Under social vulnerability, if there is no member of the household aged 18 years and above (Child-headed household) or there is no able-bodied person aged between 18 and 60 years in the household or all earning adult members in a household are either disabled, chronically ill or aged more than 65 years, then that household should be automatically included.

Stage 3: Scoring Index: In the third and final stage, the remaining households will be assigned scores from 0 to 12 based on various indicators of residential, social and occupational vulnerabilities. Those households with scores from 1 to12 are to be considered eligible for inclusion in the BPL List in the increasing order of the intensity of their deprivations meaning thereby that those with higher scores are more deprived.

National Mission for Green India

The National Mission for a Green India, as one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), recognizes that climate change phenomena will seriously affect and alter the distribution, type and quality of natural resources of the country and the associated livelihoods of the people. The Mission (henceforth referred to as GIM) acknowledges the influences that the forestry sector has on environmental amelioration through climate mitigation, food security, water security,biodiversity conservation and livelihood security of forest dependent communities.

The objectives of the mission are three-fold:

• Double the area to be taken up for afforestation/eco-restoration in India in the next 10 years, taking the total area to be afforested or eco-restored to 20 million ha.(i.e., 10 million ha of additional forest/non forest area to be treated by the Mission, in addition to the 10 million ha which is likely to be treated by Forest Department and other agencies through other interventions).
• Increase the GHG removals by India's forests to 6.35% of India's annual total GHG emissions by the year 2020 (an increase of 1.5% over what it would be in the absence of the Mission). This would require an increase in above and below ground biomass in 10 million ha of forests/ecosystems, resulting in increased carbon sequestration of 43 million tons CO2-e annually .
• Enhance the resilience of forests/ecosystems being treated under the Mission enhance infiltration, groundwater recharge, stream and spring flows, biodiversity value, provisioning of services (fuel wood, fodder, timber, NTFPs, etc.) to help local communities adapt to climatic variability.

The Mission targets can be classified as:
• 2.0 m ha of moderately dense forests show increased cover and density.
• 4.0 m ha of degraded forests are regenerated/afforested and sustainably managed.
 0.10 m ha of mangroves restored/established.
 0.10 m ha of wetlands show enhanced conservation status.
 0.20 m ha of urban/peri urban forest lands and institutional lands are under tree cover.
 1.50 m ha of degraded agricultural lands and fallows are brought under agro-forestry.
•  0.10 m ha of corridor areas, critical to wildlife migration are secure.
• Improved fuel wood use efficiency devices adopted in about 10 million households (along with alternative energy devices).
 Biomass/NTFP based community livelihoods are enhanced that lead to reduced vulnerability.

Some key highlights of the Mission strategy are listed below:

1. Holistic view to “greening” (broader than plantations):

The scope of greening will not be limited to just trees and plantations. Emphasis will be placed on restoration of ecosystems and habitat diversity e.g. grassland and pastures (more so in arid/semi-arid regions), mangroves, wetlands and other critical ecosystems. It will not only strive to restore degraded forests, but would also contribute in protection/enhancement of forests with relatively dense forest cover.

2. Integrated cross-sectoral approach to implementation:

The Mission would foster an integrated approach that treats forests and non forest public lands as well as private lands simultaneously, in project units/ sub-landscapes/sub-watersheds. Drivers of degradation e.g. firewood needs and livestock grazing will be addressed using inter sectoral convergence (e.g. livestock, forest, agriculture, rural development, energy etc.)

3. Key role for local communities and decentralized governance:

Local communities will be required to play a key role in project governance and implementation. Gram Sabha and its various committees/groups including JFMCs, CFM groups, Van Panchayats, etc. would be strengthened as institutions of decentralized forest governance. Likewise, the Mission would support revamping/strengthening of the Forest Development Agencies. The Mission would support secured community tenure, capacity building for adaptive forest management and livelihood support activities e.g. community based NTFP enterprises.

4. Vulnerability' and 'Potential' as criteria for intervention:

An overarching criterion for selection of project areas/sub-landscapes/sub-watersheds under the Mission would include vulnerability to climatic change projections and potential of areas for enhancing carbon sinks.

5. Robust and effective monitoring framework:
A comprehensive monitoring framework at four different levels is proposed. In addition to on-ground self- monitoring by multiple agencies, the Mission would support use of modern technology like Remote Sensing with GPS mapping of plot boundaries for monitoring at output/ outcome level. A few identified sites within the project area will be selected for intensive monitoring using additional parameters like ground cover, soil condition, erosion and infiltration, run-off, ground water levels to develop water budgets as well as biomass monitoring indicators. The Mission would also commission a comprehensive research needs assessment in support of Mission aim and objectives. The Mission would set up a cell within Mission Directorate to coordinate REDD Plus activities in the country.

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

State wise Ground Water Resources Availability

(AS ASSESED IN THE YEAR 2011)
States / Union Territories
Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resource
(In Billion Cubic Meter)
1
Andhra Pradesh (undivided)
35.89
2
Arunachal Pradesh
4.51
3
Assam
28.52
4
Bihar
29.34
5
Chhattisgarh
12.42
6
Delhi
0.31
7
Goa
0.24
8
Gujarat
18.57
9
Haryana
10.78
10
Himachal Pradesh
0.56
11
Jammu & Kashmir
4.25
12
Jharkhand
6.31
13
Karnataka
17.03
14
Kerala
6.69
15
Madhya Pradesh
35.04
16
Maharashtra
33.95
17
Manipur
0.44
18
Meghalaya
1.78
19
Mizoram
0.03
20
Nagaland
0.62
21
Odisha
17.78
22
Punjab
22.53
23
Rajasthan
11.94
24
Sikkim
-
25
Tamil Nadu
21.53
26
Tripura
2.59
27
Uttar Pradesh
77.19
28
Uttarakhand
2.04
29
West Bengal
29.25
30
Andaman & Nicobar
0.31
31
Chandigarh
0.02
32
Dadar & Nagar Haveli
0.06
33
Daman & Diu
0.02
34
Lakshadweep
0.01
35
Puducherry
0.19
Grand Total
           432.72

Annex-II

(Annexure referred to in reply to Parts (a) & (b) of Unstarred Question No 3533 to be answered on 11.8.2014 in the Rajya Sabha regarding Availability of Water Resources)

WATER RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF RIVER BASINS OF INDIA

S.
No.
River Basin
Average Water Resources Potential
(In Billion Cubic Meter)
Utilisable surface water resources
(In Billion Cubic Meter)
1
Indus
73.3
46.0
2
Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna



(a) Ganga
525.0
250.0

(b) Brahmaputra
537.2
24.0

(c) Barak & others
48.4
 -
3
Godavari
110.5
76.3
4
Krishna
78.1
58.0
5
Cauvery
21.4
19.0
6
Subernarekha
12.4
6.8
7
Brahmani-Baitarni
28.5
18.3
8
Mahanadi
66.9
50.0
9
Pennar
6.3
6.9
10
Mahi
11.0
3.1
11
Sabarmati
3.8
1.9
12
Narmada
45.6
34.5
13
Tapi
14.9
14.5
14
West Flowing Rivers from Tapi to Tadri
87.4
11.9
15
West Flowing Rivers from Tadri to Kanyakumari
113.5
24.3
16
East Flowing Rivers between Mahanadi and Pennar
22.5
13.1
17
East Flowing Rivers between Pennar & Kanyakumari
16.5
16.5
18
West Flowing Rivers of Kutch and Saurashtra including Luni
15.1
15.0
19
Area of Inland Drainage in Rajasthan
Negligible
--
20
Minor Rivers draining into Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
31.0
--

Total
1,869.4
690