Showing posts with label SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Show all posts

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Science and Technology Snippets

Green pigment is calledChlorophyll
The carbohydrate produced in the photosynthesisGlucose
Sweetest sugar isFructose
Respiration in Amoeba occurs byDiffusion
Respiratory pigment isHaemoglobin
The colour of the blood in Crabs and Snails isBlue
In cockroach the blood isWhite color
The normal blood pressure of man is120 / 80 mmHg
Doctors measure blood pressure with the instrument calledSphygmomanometer
The inter cellular fluid in blood isPlasma
Nucleus is present in RBC of animals likeCamel
Hormone that controls Phototropism and Geotropism in plants isAuxins
Early ripening of fruits is promoted byEthylene
The master gland of the bodyPituitary gland
Deficiency of iodine in food results in the enlargement of mixed glandPancreas
Deficiency of Insulin causesDiabetes mellitus
The largest part of the brain isCerebrum
The 3 tests for detecting HIV areELISA, Western blot test, PCR tests
Deficiency of Iron causesAnaemia
Deficiency of Iodine causesHypothyroidism
Excessive intake of fluorine results inFluorosis
The name vitamin was given byFunk
The rainfall at a particular place is measured byRain gauge
Forests that grow near the sea shores are calledMangroves
The gas responsible for global warming isCarbon dioxide
Examples for non-renewable resources areCoal, Petroleum
Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen Oxide, Chlorofluro carbons, and hydrocarbons are also called asGreen house gases
Ozone layer is damaged byChlorofluro Carbons
The big waves created in the sea because of the eruption of volcanoes are calledTsunami
Environment friendly fuel isCNG
Which lamps are used to minimize electricity consumptionCompact fluorescent
In human body fats are stored inAdipose tissue
We feel thirsty whenOsmotic pressure of blood increases
Which organism is used in production of alcohol?Yeast
Gasohol is a combination of gasoline andEthyl alcohol
Biochemical and histological examination of tissues is calledBiopsy
Oil spreads over the surface of water becauseOil has less surface tension than water
When an iron nail gets rusted, the weight of the iron nail isIncreased
The element common to all acids isHydrogen
Non-stick cooking utensils are coated withTeflon
Monazite is an ore ofThorium
The gas usually filled in the electric bulb isMixture of Nitrogen and Argon
Washing soda is the common name forSodium carbonate
The hardest substance available on the earth isDiamond
The working principle of a Washing Machine isCentrifugation
The audible sounds having a frequency of20 to 20,000 hertz
The major component in the LPG isPropane
Carbon dioxide is called greenhouse gas becauseIt absorbs infrared radiation
Balloons are filled withHelium
Bell metal is an alloy ofTin and Copper
Heavy water isDeuterium oxide
The gases used in different types of welding would includeOxygen and Acetylene
Cooking oil can be converted into vegetable ghee by the process ofHydrogenation
Milk is an example ofEmulsion
Coloured glasses for goggles containFerrous Oxide
The bacterium responsible for causing plague isYersinia pestis
Who is known as the father of Indian Ecology?R. Mishra
The chemical name of Aspirin isAcetylsalicylic acid
Which vitamin has cobaltVitamin B12
Dry Ice isSolid Carbon dioxide
The protein used in paper coating isCasein
The largest group of plant kingdom isThallophyta
Bacteria was discovered byAntonie Van Lecuwenhoek
The Universal Blood Recipient isAB
Which acid is found in applesMalic acid
The basic structural and functional unit of life isCell
The universal blood group donor for all group isBlood Groop O
Which human gland does secret growth hormone?Pituitary gland
Astronomical Distance is measured inLight year
One byte equal to8 bit
Steel is mainly alloy ofIron and Carbon
What does air bag, used for safety of car driver, contain?Sodium azide
Complete loss of memory is calledAmnesia
The stones formed in human kidney mainly consist ofCalcium oxalate
The oxide of which element is used as coolant?Nitrogen
Sleeping Sickness happens due toTrypanosoma
The gas used in the manufacture of Vanaspati from Vegetable Oil isHydrogen
A device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy isElectric Motor
In which industry is mica used as a raw material?Electrical Industry
The oxides of which gases cause acid rain?Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphar
The substance used for artificial rains isSilver Iodide
Red light is used as danger signal because itis scattered least
Chromosomes consist ofDNA and Proteins
Ozone layer in the outer atmosphere helps inAbsorbing UV radiations
Which of the following is known as graveyard of RBCs?Spleen
The name of the white revolution is associated withKurien Verghese
Name the first Lunar Rover of China, which was carried by an unmanned
remotely piloted spacecraft Chang'e-3 and was deployed
successfully on moon on 14 December 2013?
Jade Rabbit (called Yutu in Chinese)
Which country scientists recently developed Li-Fi Tech, a new cheaper way
of getting connected to internet by using signals sent through light bulbs ?
"Green House Effect" means -Trapping of Solar energy due to atmospheric carbon dioxide
2, 4-d is a
The nuclear reaction involved in a nuclear reactor isFusion
The scientist associated with the success of Green Revolution isNorman Borlaug
Centre for DNA fingerprinting is located atHyderabad
Solar energy is due tofusion reactions
A non-conventional source of power isSolar Power
India's permanent Research Station 'Dakshin Gongotri' is located atAntarctica
Penicillin, an antibiotic, is obtained fromFungus
Where was India's first computer installed?Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta
Where the early Tsunami warning system was installed to predict
a tsunami immediately after an
Rangachang in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
____ are used to supply Nitrogen to paddy.Blue green algae
The fish released into ponds and wells to control the mosquitoes isGambusia
Stranger Gas is called asXenon
In the human body, the longest cell isLiver Cell
_____ is used to make electric heater coil.Nichrome
The formation of fruit without fertilisation is known asParthenicarpy
Root modules are commonly found in ____ plants.Leguminous
Alzheimers disease is a disorder of theBrain
Chromosomes of the ___ will determine the sex of a child.Father
Hypermetropia or long sight can be corrected by usingConcave lenses
A plant product obtained from dried latex isOpium
Cryogenic engines are used inRockets
Skin Cancer is caused due to presence of excess ____ in water.Arsenic
The largest satellite in solar system isGanymede
German Silver is an alloy ofCopper, Zinc & Nickel
The tracking of people by trained dogs is based on the recognition of _____ from feet.Carboxylic sweat
Boiling point of water depends onatmospheric Pressure
An astronaut in outer space will observe sky inBlack colour
The polymer used in making plastic crockery isMelamine
Food is cooked in a pressure cooker quickly because boiling point of waterIncreases
Which vegetable's genome was sequenced completely in 2012?Tomato

Friday, August 30, 2013

India's Advanced Communication Satellite GSAT-7 Launched Successfully

India's advanced multi-band communication satellite, GSAT-7, was successfully launched on August 30, 2013 by the Ariane-5 launch vehicle of Arianespace from Kourou, French Guiana. Ariane-5 precisely placed GSAT-7 into the intended Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) after a flight of 34 minutes 25 seconds duration. 

As planned, ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka started acquiring the signals five minutes prior to the separation of GSAT-7 from Ariane-5 launch vehicle. The solar panels of the satellite have been deployed and they are generating power. Initial checks have indicated normal health of the satellite. 

The present orbit of the satellite will be raised to Geostationary Orbit of about 36,000 km altitude through three orbit raising manoeuvres by firing of GSAT-7's Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). Preparations are underway for the first firing, planned in the early hours of August 31, 2013. The satellite will be placed in the Geostationary Orbit by Sep 04, 2013.

                                        All Satellites

Launch Date
Launch Vehicle
Type of Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary/Meteorological Satellite
Navigation Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Space Mission
Earth Observation Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
SRE - 1
Experimental / Small Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Experimental / Small Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Ariane-42L H10-3
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Technology Experiment Satellite (TES)
Earth Observation Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Ariane-42P H10-3
Geo-Stationary Satellite
January 1998
Ariane-44L H10
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Ariane-44L H10-3
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Ariane-44L H10-3
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-C2)
Space Mission
Earth Observation Satellite
Ariane-44L H10+
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Ariane-44L H10
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS-C)
Space Mission
Earth Observation Satellite
Delta 4925
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Stretched Rohini Satellite Series
Earth Observation Satellite
Earth Observation Satellite
Stretched Rohini Satellite Series
Space Mission
Shuttle [PAM-D]
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Rohini (RS-D2)
Earth Observation Satellite
Delta 3910 PAM-D
Geo-Stationary Satellite
C-1 Intercosmos
Earth Observation Satellite
Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)
Geo-Stationary Satellite
Rohini (RS-D1)
Earth Observation Satellite
Rohini (RS-1)
Experimental / Small Satellite
Rohini Technology Payload (RTP)
Experimental / Small Satellite
C-1 Intercosmos
Earth Observation Satellite
C-1 Intercosmos
Experimental / Small Satellite

Friday, August 26, 2011

Monsoon Diseases

During rainy season some want to enjoy watching the weather from the comfort of their homes eating their favourite ‘pakoras’ and sipping a hot cup of ‘chai’, while others want to go out and enjoy the rains. Though following a scorching summer the rain ushers in new lease of life, it sometimes brings with it some deadly diseases.

Following are the most common diseases, their symptoms and some suggestions to prevent them during the rainy season.


• This is the most dangerous disease in India with a very high number of deaths credited to it. The disease is spread by Female Anopheles mosquito. A large number of cases are reported during the rainy season as water logging provides conducive conditions for mosquitoes to breed.

• Fever at regular intervals, bouts of shivering, muscle pain and weakness are the general symptoms of Maleria.

• Since this disease is spread by mosquitoes the best prevention is to keep the surroundings clean and mosquito-free. Make sure that water does not stagnate in your area as mosquitoes breed in stagnant water. Use DDT in the drains near your home. Use of mosquito repellents and nets is highly recommended. Do not ignore any symptoms of malaria and consult your doctor immediately if you feel any sign of the disease.


• Cholera is caused by contaminated food and water. Also poor hygienic conditions help the spread of the disease. It normally spreads in places with poor sanitation facilities.

• Severe diarrhea with watery stools is the most common symptom of Cholera. There could also be vomiting with immediate water loss and muscle cramps.

• Keep the drinking water clean and boil it before using. Maintain personal hygiene and good sanitation. It is advisable to get vaccinated as it gives immunity for almost six months.

• Oral rehydration should be given immediately for patients suffering from Cholera.


• Typhoid is another highly infectious disease that spreads during the monsoon season and it is also caused by contaminated food and water.

• The most common symptom of this disease is prolonged fever. Severe pain in abdomen and headache can also be the symptoms.

• This is a highly communicable disease so the patient should be isolated from the rest of the family. Advance vaccination may also help prevent it. High intake of fluid is advised to patients to prevent dehydration. Since this disease has a tendency of relapsing precautions should continue even after apparent recovery.

Hepatitis A

• Hepatitis A is generally caused by flies. It can also spread by coming in direct contact with the patient.

• The symptoms are similar to those of flu including high fever along with headache, pain in joints and vomiting.

• The most important prevention of this disease is vaccination. This vaccine is available at all the government and private hospitals. Complete bed rest and a high calorie diet is advised to the patient.

Common Cold

• Common cold is the most common disease that spreads easily during rainy season. • Constant sneezing, sore throat and fever are the common symptoms of the disease. • The easy way to prevent common cold is to avoid catching it. But if at all it catches you, treat yourself with a glass of hot turmeric milk. Gargles with warm water give relief to your sore throat. If things don’t improve you may like to see a doctor.

Friday, August 12, 2011


1. British scientists developed the EndoBarrier to cure __.
a) Diabetes
b) Cancer
d) Skin Cancer
Answer: (a)

2.  Scientists at the University of Columbia in New York developed a portable blood test device which could be used effectively to prevent__.
b) Cancer
c) Diabetes
d) Leukemia
Answer: (a)

3.  US scientists found an antibody which acts against 30 of 36 strains of influenza. What is the name of that antibody?
a) CH65
b) CCH65
c) DD65
d) CC65
Answer: (a)

4.  A new technique was engineered by the scientists that involved leukemia patients being treated with their own T cells.  T cells are a kind of__.
a) White Blood Cell
b) Red Blood Cell
c) Liver cell
d) Cancerous Cell
Answer: (a)

5.   Astronomers discovered that the planet named TrES-2b is blacker than any planet in our solar system. Astronomers made this observation after using NASA’s__spacecraft.
a) Kepler
b) Freedom 7
c) Faith 7
d) Discovery
Answer: (a)

6.  The Hershel Space Observatory’s large telescope and infrared detectors provided the first confirmed finding of oxygen molecules in space. Oxygen gas was discovered in which one of the following years?         
a) 1774
b) 1974
c) 1600
d) 1707
Answer:  (a)

7.  The Scientists from France and Uganda discovered in Uganda the 20 million year old skull at an excavation site called___.
a) Napak XV
b) Napak
c) Napak V
d) Napal X
Answer: (a)

8.  A recent study found that vampire bats can locate blood vessels in their prey using infrared vein sensors on their lips. Consider the statements given below.
i) Vampire bats are the only mammals known to feed solely on blood.
ii) Besides vampire bats, the snake is the only other vertebrate that can detect infrared radiation.
Choose the right option:
a)    Both i and ii are correct.
b)    Neither i nor ii is correct.
c)    Only i is correct.
d)    Only ii is correct.
Answer: (a)

9.  NASA scientists announced on 5 August 2011 that they had found the first evidence of flowing water on which one of the following planets?
a) Mars
b) Jupiter
c) Mercury
d) Venus
Answer: (a) 

10.  The First Trojan Asteriod of earth discovered by the scientists. What is its name?
a) 2010TK7
b) 2010KT 7
c)  2010Xy
d) 2010 YX
Answer:  (a)

Wednesday, August 10, 2011


Past Missions

  • Apollo


    President Kennedy's bold challenge set the nation on a journey unlike any before in human history--a journey to land on the moon.
  • Astronaut Donald K. Slayton (left) and cosmonaut Alexey A. Leonov visit in the Soyuz Orbital Module. Image Credit: NASA

    Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

    The first international partnership in space wasn't the ISS or even the Shuttle-Mir missions; it was the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
  • Ares I-X test rocket

    Ares I-X Flight Test

    Ares I-X completes a successful flight test.
  • Constellation Program


    Ares rockets and the Orion crew vehicle.
  • Deep Impact

    Deep Impact

    Exploring Comet Tempel 1 to determine the origins of life in our Solar System.
  • Explorer 1


    America's first artificial satellite.
  • Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST)

    Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) 

    FAST, the second mission in NASA's Small Explorer Satellite Program (SMEX), is a satellite designed to study Earth's aurora.
  • Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission 

    FUSE looks at light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Galileo


    Journey to Jupiter.
  • Gemini patch


    Bridge to the moon.
  • Genesis

    Genesis Mission

    The search for origins.
  • Glory spacecraft


    The Glory mission failed to reach orbit after launch. Telemetry indicated the fairing did not separate as expected.
  • Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)

    Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)

    IMAGE is a mission to study the global response of the magnetosphere to the changes in solar wind.
  • Space Shuttle Discovery

    International Space Station

    Read more about past missions to the International Space Station.
  • Mars Global Surveyor

    Mars Global Surveyor

    After studying the Red Planet four times longer than originally planned, the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter succumbed to battery failure.
  • Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder was the first mission to deliver a lander and a free-ranging robotic rover to the surface of Mars.
  • Pressure suit helmet, gloves and boots


    America's First Space Program.
  • artist concept of Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA's first spacecraft dedicated to studying carbon dioxide, the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth's climate.
  • Phoenix Mars Lander

    Phoenix Mars Lander

    The search for possible conditions for life in the Martian arctic.
  • Pioneer


    A journey through our solar system and beyond.
  • Pioneer Venus

    Pioneer Venus

    The mission's objective was to investigate the Venus's solar wind, map the planet's surface and study the upper atmosphere.
  • Polar Mission

    Polar Mission

    The Polar Mission was designed to obtain data from both high- and low-altitude perspectives of the polar region of geospace.
  • QuikScat


    The Quick Scatterometer, or QuikScat, replaces the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) instrument on Japan's Midori satellite.
  • Shuttle-Mir


    In the arena of space exploration, the U.S. and Russia share a history of competition and cooperation.
  • Skylab


    America's first space station and orbital science and engineering laboratory.
  • Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) Mission

    Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) Mission

    SAMPEX studies the energy, composition and charge states of particles from supernova explosions in the distant reaches of the galaxy, from the heart of solar flares and from the depths of nearby interstellar space.
  • Space Shuttle Endeavour

    Space Shuttle

    Read more about past shuttle missions.
  • Space Technology 5

    Space Technology 5

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) Project built and tested micro-satellites to validate new technologies for future science missions.
  • Stardust


    Exploring Comet Tempel 1

    Topex Mission

    The Topex mission will collect information with which scientists can relate changes in ocean currents to atmospheric and climate patterns.
  • Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) Mission

    Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) Mission

    TRACE enables solar physicists to study the connections between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated plasma structures on the Sun.
  • Viking


    The Viking Mission to Mars: Determining whether life ever existed on Mars.
  • UARS

    UARS Mission

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), launched in 1991, orbited at an altitude of 375 miles.
  • Ulysses

    Ulysses Mission 

    A mission to study the sun at all latitudes.

    Current Missions

  • Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    Major mission of the Explorer program.
  • Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    AIM: Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere

    AIM's two-year mission is to study Polar Mesospheric Clouds, the Earth’s highest clouds, which form an icy membrane 50 miles above the surface at the edge of space.
  • Aqua


    Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission will be collecting about the Earth's water cycle.
  • Aquarius/SAC-D Artist's Concept


    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission launched on June 10, 2011 on a mission to map ocean salinity.
  • Arctic sea ice


    Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites
  • artist concept of ARTEMIS


    ARTEMIS: Studying the Moon's Interaction With the Sun
  • Astro-E2/Suzaku


    The Suzaku mission is a joint effort of JAXA and NASA designed to discover more about the x-ray universe.
  • Aura Mission

    Aura Mission

    A mission dedicated to the health of Earth's atmosphere.
  • Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO)


    CALIPSO will provide the next generation of climate observations, drastically improving our ability to predict climate change and to study the air we breathe.
  • Cassini

    Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Unlocking the secrets of Saturn.
  • Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory probes the mysteries of space with unprecedented x-ray images that help to unravel the structure and evolution of the universe.
  • Model of CNOFS


    CINDI will study the elements that influence space weather near Earth's equator.
  • CloudSat


    CloudSat's cloud-profiling radar is 1,000 times more sensitive than typical weather radar and can detect clouds and distinguish between cloud particles and precipitation.
  • Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS)

    Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS)

    CHIPS uses an extreme ultraviolet spectrograph to study the "Local Bubble" surrounding our Solar System.
  • Cluster ESA/NASA Mission

    Cluster ESA/NASA Mission

    The four Cluster spacecraft carry out 3D measurements in the Earth's Magnetosphere.
  • Dawn


    Dawn launched in September, becoming the first spacecraft ever planned to orbit two different bodies after leaving Earth. The spacecraft will orbit Vesta and Ceres, two of the largest asteroids in the solar system.
  • Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP-TOMS)

    Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP-TOMS)

    Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP-TOMS), along with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument onboard AURA, are currently the only NASA spacecraft on orbit specializing in ozone retrieval.
  • Earth Observing Mission, EO-1

    Earth Observing-1

    As the first New Millennium Program Earth Observing Mission, EO-1 has validated advanced land imaging and unique spacecraft technologies.


    NASA's EPOXI mission successfully flew by comet Hartley 2 at about 10 a.m. EDT, Nov. 4, 2010. Hartley 2 is the fifth comet nucleus visited by a spacecraft.
  • Southern California wildfire image

    Fire and Smoke

    NASA satellites, aircraft, and research know-how have created a wealth of cutting-edge tools to help firefighters battle wildfires.
  • Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX)


    Mapping the history of star formation in the universe.
    › Galaxy Evolution Explorer
  • The Gamma-ray Large Space Telescope

    GLAST Launches on Gamma Ray Mission

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope will answer questions about supermassive black hole systems, pulsars and the origin of cosmic rays.
  • Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)

    GOES-N is the latest in a series of satellites that provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric "triggers" for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes and hurricanes.
  • Artist's concept of GOES-O in orbit


    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-O represents the newest generation of environmental satellites.
  • artist concept of GOES-P


    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-P represents the newest generation of environmental satellites.
  • Geotail Mission

    Geotail Mission 

    A mission to study the tail of Earth's magnetosphere.
  • Gravity Probe B

    Gravity Probe B

    This mission is the relativity gyroscope experiment developed by NASA and Stanford University to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
  • Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

    The twin satellites are making detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field to learn more about gravity and Earth's natural systems.
  • Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory


    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission will create the most accurate gravitational map of the moon to date.
  • Hayabusa (MUSES-C)

    Hayabusa (MUSES-C)

    Hayabusa (MUSES-C) is Japan's asteroid sample return mission.
  • Herschel

    The Herschel Space Observatory is a space-based telescope that will study the Universe by the light of the far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the spectrum.
  • High Energy Transient Explorer-2 (HETE-2) Mission

    High Energy Transient Explorer-2 (HETE-2) Mission 

    HETE-2 is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts.
  • Hinode (Solar B)

    Hinode (Solar B)

    A collaboration between the space agencies of Japan, the United States, United Kingdom and Europe, Hinode's mission is to investigate the interaction between the sun's magnetic field and its corona.
  • Hubble Space Telescope

    Hubble Space Telescope

    Learn how Hubble has expanded our knowledge of the cosmos.
  • Hurricane Florence


    Latest storm images and data from NASA.
  • IBEX Questions and Answers


    A mission to achieve the first global observations of the region beyond the termination shock at the very edge of our solar system.
  • Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICEsat) Mission

    Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICEsat) Mission

    The ICESat mission will provide multi-year elevation data regarding ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas.
  • International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)

    International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL)

    INTEGRAL is the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched.
  • Space Shuttle Discovery

    International Space Station

    Aboard the International Space Station, astronauts work to improve life on Earth and extend life beyond our home planet.
  • J-2X rocket engine

    J-2X Engine Development

    J-2X is a highly efficient and versatile rocket engine with the ideal thrust and performance characteristics to power the upper stage of a heavy-lift launch vehicle.
  • Jason


    Jason-1 is the first follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission that measured ocean surface topography.
  • Artist concept of Juno. Image credit: NASA/JPL


    Beneath its clouds, Jupiter holds secrets about our solar system’s early history. Juno will endeavor to unlock these secretss.
  • Kepler spacecraft


    NASA's search for habitable planets.
  • Landsat


    The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey.


    The LCROSS mission's objective is to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed crater at the moon's South Pole.
  • Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter

    LRO: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    The LRO mission objectives are to find safe landing sites, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment, and demonstrate new technology.
  • LOLA image of Goddard Crater on the moon.

    Lunar Quest Program

    NASA's Lunar Quest Program is a multi-element program consisting of flight missions, instruments for lunar missions of opportunity, as well as research and analysis efforts.
  • Mars Express

    Mars Express 

    Mission to search for subsurface water from orbit.
  • Mars Exploration Rovers

    Mars Exploration Rovers

    Rovers Spirit and Opportunity explore the Martian landscape.
  • Mars Odyssey

    Mars Odyssey

    This orbiter is mapping the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface.
  • Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper 

    Aboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, whose technology mission has been completed successfully and now embarks on a scientific mission.
  • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    The mission will determine whether long-standing bodies of water ever existed on Mars.
  • Mars Science Laboratory

    Mars Science Laboratory

    Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011, the Curiosity Mars Science Laboratory rover will assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's "habitability."
  • Mercury, Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) Mission

    Mercury, Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) Mission

    MESSENGER will study Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun.
  • LRO and Chandrayaan-1 collecting strips of data from the lunar poles. Image credit: APL/NASA


    The Mini-RF project will fly two radar instruments to the moon to map the lunar poles, search for water ice, and to demonstrate future NASA communication technologies.


    The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations project, provides a convincing analog to space exploration, and its crew experience some of the same challenges underwater as they would in space.
  • New Horizons

    New Horizons

    New Horizons began its journey across the solar system to conduct flyby studies of Pluto and its moon.
  • NOAA Environmental Satellites

    NOAA Environmental Satellites

    NOAA-N is the latest in a series of polar-orbiting satellites, that will collect information to improve weather prediction and climate research across the globe.
  • NOAA-N Prime

    NOAA-N Prime

    NOAA-N Prime will provide a polar-orbiting platform to support environmental monitoring instruments for imaging and measuring Earth's atmosphere and sea surface temperature.
  • NPP

    NPOESS Preparatory Project

    NPOESS Preparatory Project is a first step in building the next-generation of Earth-observing satellites.
  • artist concept of Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason 2

    The joint NASA-French satellite will help scientists better monitor and understand rises in global sea level, study the world's ocean circulation and its links to Earth's climate.
  • Antarctica's Larsen Ice Shelf

    Operation Ice Bridge

    Operation Ice Bridge, a six-year NASA field campaign, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield a three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice.
  • Pioneer


    A journey through our solar system and beyond.
  • Planck

    Planck will provide a map of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) field.
  • Polar Operational Environmental Satellite

    Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES)

    POES is a cooperative effort between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the United Kingdom and France.
  • Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)

    Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)

    RHESSI's primary mission is to explore the basic physics of particle acceleration and explosive energy release in solar flares.
  • Rosetta

    Rosetta Mission

    Rosetta will orbit comet 67P and accompany it on its journey to the Sun.
  • Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Mission

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Mission  →

    RXTE is a satellite that observes the fast-moving, high-energy worlds of black holes, neutron stars, X-ray pulsars and bursts of X-rays that light up the sky and then disappear forever.
  • Accumulated rainfall during Panama floods


    The SERVIR initiative integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor and forecast environmental changes.
  • SMART 1

    SMART 1

    SMART 1's two part mission will test new technologies and explore darker regions of the Moon's south pole for the first time.
  • Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy--or SOFIA--is an airborne observatory that will complement the Hubble, Spitzer, Herschel and James Webb space telescopes, as well as major Earth-based telescopes.
  • Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)

    SOHO, designed to study the sun, from its deep core to its outer corona, is a cooperative program between ESA and NASA.
  • Artist concept of SDO probe

    Solar Dynamics Observatory (sdo)

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory began its mission on Feb. 11, 2010, in an effort to help us understand the sun's influence on Earth.
  • Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

    Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE)

    A NASA-sponsored satellite mission that will provide state-of-the-art measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation.

    Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)

    STEREO continues its mission to capture 3D images of the sun.
  • Fully deployed, the NanoSailS sail area measures 107 square feet.

    Small Satellite Missions

    Small satellite missions provide NASA with valuable opportunities to test emerging technologies and economical commercial off-the-shelf components, which may be useful in future space missions.
  • Spitzer

    Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, studying the universe in infared.
  • Stardust


    Exploring Comet Tempel 1
  • Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite

    Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS)

    A mission that was designed to study the chemical composition of interstellar gas clouds.
  • Astro-E2/Suzaku


    The Suzaku mission is a joint effort of JAXA and NASA designed to discover more about the x-ray universe.
  • Swift


    The Swift mission seeks to tell us more about gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe.
  • TacSat-2


    TacSat-2 features 11 onboard experiments, which will be conducted during the spacecraft’s planned six to 12-month mission.
  • Terra


    Terra is a multi-national, multi-disciplinary partnership between the U.S., Canada and Japan that is an important part of helping us better understand and protect our home planet.


    The 2-year mission of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) is to track these violent, colorful eruptions near the North Pole.
  • Thermospere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Mission (TIMED)

    Thermospere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Mission (TIMED)

    The TIMED mission is studying the influences of the Sun and humans on the least explored region of Earth's atmosphere.
  • artist concept of TDRS

    Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)

    This system of satellites and ground stations makes up a portion of the Space Network and provides mission services for near Earth satellites and orbiting vehicles.
  • Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4)

    Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4)

    The TC4 study will tackle challenging questions about Earth's ozone layer and climate using coordinated observations from satellites and high-flying NASA airplanes.
  • TRMM

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 

    TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall.
  • Voyager

    Voyager - The Interstellar Mission

    Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 journey to study the region in space where the Sun's influence ends and the dark recesses of interstellar space begin.
  • WISE Launch

    WISE: Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    WISE will study the solar system, Milky Way and universe. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars and the most luminous galaxies.
  • WMAP

    Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)

    A mission to take the first full sky picture of the early Universe.
  • Wind Mission

    Wind Mission 

    A mission to investigate the solar wind and its impact on the near-Earth environment.
  • XMM-Newton


    The Mirror Modules on this x-ray observatory allow XMM-Newton to detect millions of sources, far more than any previous X-ray mission.