Friday, July 29, 2011
During the process of preparation for Current Affairs an individual is often faced with number of challenges. The challenges can be overcome and a grasp over the subject can be established only if a systematic process or strategy is adopted. The major challenge involved is segregation of events, for example incidents should be grouped under wide categories like National events of socio-political importance, International events of political importance, Economic events of national and international importance, Environmental events of national and international importance, Sports related events of national and importance, etc. The above categorisation is suggested on the basis of questions asked in different competition and entrance exams like-IAS/Bank PO/CLERK/SSC/LLB/MBA, etc.
Classifying current affairs
It is observed that classifying events which have been happening over a longer period of time and could continue in the future is difficult. To develop an understanding of these events, it is required to explore the different aspects, background, and history of the events in question. At times one major of national, international or economic event may lead to a series of incidents that may threaten to shake the balance in power. For example, the Jasmine revolution in Tunisia which gave a cue to the uprising in Egypt and is threatening authoritarian regime in a number of North African and Middle East countries. Also the European crisis in 201o had a striking impact at stock exchanges in India. The flood which rocked Australia raised the concerns of the world already plagued by Global Warming.
International level-Nuclear politics, Environmental politics, Reforms and Restructuring of united nations, Future of Nato, Voting reforms in IMF, Deadlock in WTO, Economic crisis of European union, Iran and North Korea's nuclear problem, Sudan-crisis, Israel-Palestine problem, Myanmar’s military junta, Nepal problem, Tibet issue, Ethnic crisis of Sri-Lanka, etc all fall in the category of events which have left and continue to create numerous related areas of concern.
Short-lived and long-lived current affairs
The third challenge is associated with categorisation events into short lived and long lived events. For short lived incidents it is important to know how effective, important or deep the impact of the newly emerged event is. If the importance of the effect of the event seems to be big, it must be extensively covered.
It is observed that there exists no clear, definite and fixed syllabus for current affairs as it happens in the case of subjects in Social Sciences, Management study, etc. The responsibility for updating and demarcation therefore remain with the students and aspirants.
It remains for the students to perform both the task of determination of syllabus as well as develop strategies to master Current affairs.
Friday, October 8, 2010
General studies important subjects:
The questions asked in the exam are mainly from the 6,7,8,9 chapters. Few questions will be in the top level and the Telugu academy competitive books will be useful.
The physical science books from 6th to 10th classes help and the new developments in the science and technology are important.
The graduation level books are important and the previous question papers help a lot.
The preparation of previous question papers is helpful and the books based on the mental ability in the market should be studied.
Paper Extent Preparation process Attainable marks
Paper 1 (general studies) Extendable medium level preparation 110 – 120
Paper 2 (politics + AP history) Up to some extent Medium level 130-140
Paper 3 (Indian, AP economy) More More preparation 115 -125
The candidates should practice the previous question papers and test papers for more time. By preparing the APPSC previous question papers, they can attempt 30 to 40 questions exactly.
* Due to some reasons, few people won’t get grip on the subject. They should be tensed and they should prepare with confidence and systematically.
* They should divide the time by 70:30 ratio.
* They should prepare the topics which can be scored easily in 70% of the time.
There is another option:
When there is a short period of time, they can follow the below tips.
* They should get 90% marks in the mental ability and current affairs.
* The questions are Indian geography can be attempted and we should concentrate on the planetary system.
* They should combine the economics and politics with current affairs.
* They should prepare the test papers and previous question papers in the 30% of the time.
In next 7 days:
* They should concentrate on the important topics.
* They should concentrate on all the topics in every subject.
* They should keep concentration on the current affairs and mental ability.
* If they have own notes, they should revise it or they should stick to only one book.
* They should read the known topics only.
* They should concentrate on the inner topics also.
* They should not spend time for searching new topics.
* They should not practice the question papers.
Last two days:
* They should concentrate on the subject which they feel they don’t have grip.
* They should prepare physically and mentally for the exam.
* They should believe in themselves and they should not discuss with the friends.
As the group exams are not conducted in a proper schedule like the civils, many students are quitting these exams. Patience is very important for the government posts and those who entered the groups now can get irritation. Almost all the group exams are conducted by postponing them and so the candidates should prepare with patience and expectation. By thinking they waiting is a part of the exam, the stress can be reduced. They should prepare mentally also and they need to have patience and expectation.
Mental preparation is also important:
* They should not feel that the preparation is not done properly or they did not prepare. They should just keep on going whatever happens.
* They should not think that the exam will be tuff and they prepare the APPSC, UPSC exam papers with normal level questions. Only few questions will be difficult.
* They should remember that many people are attempting the exam along with tem and they should prepare seriously. They should remember that the candidates write group 1 prelims for practice. And few candidates are only selected for mains.
* They should concentrate on the prelims and prepare. They should not prepare for the mains.
* This is not the time for group discussions and it will be wastage of time.
Main topics according to the subject wise:
Geography: Planetary system, Indian geography, Andhra Pradesh geography
General science: Changes in the humans, animal species and origin, digestive system, breathing process, diseases and modern technology.
Indian history : Indian history, sultans, independence fight, satavahanas, kakatiyas, vijayanagara kings struggle for Andhra Pradesh.
Politics: Rights, central and state ministries, central and state working departments, political departments.
Current affairs: The changes in the national and international affairs from October 2009 to till exam date announcement.
Economy: 2010-11 budget details, rural development, census, economic survey etc. changes in the seed and oil departments.
Mental ability: Based on the candidate ability, they should concentrate on the topics.
* In this division of 150 marks, questions from polity subject will be asked for 75 marks while the remaining 75 marks are asked about the questions on Andhra Pradesh History. This is the paper which provides better scope to score highest marks, in Group-2 exam. Toppers of previous years’ group -2 exam have scored maximum marks in this division. Subject wise instructions are as follows.
* Subject wise instructions in the subject of Andhra Pradesh History:
* In the paper-2, 75 questions will be from Andhra Pradesh History.
* Coverage of this subject is less, but more number of questions will be coming from this subject. Hence it is considered as advantageous. There is much scope to score maximum marks in paper-2. 70 of the 75 questions can be answered easily.
* Preparation should be done not only in objective manner, but also in analyzing method, to ease the process of winning in this subject.
* Syllabus pertaining to Andhra Pradesh History should be divided into three – ancient period, medieval period and modern period, for learning.
* There will be equal weightage for each of the three divisions and hence no part should be neglected. For example: There were more than ten questions about Satavahana’s and their history in the last year Group-2. Also, there will be two questions on Nasik Science.
* Some questions, which are out of syllabus, are also being asked.
For instance: In the part-2 of paper-2, which is called as AP history paper, some questions from the subject of Andhra Pradesh Politics are also asked.
* In the same way, some questions are also asked on Vijayanagara Empire, which is not included in the syllabus.
* So, it is better for group-2 aspirants to study total AP History regardless of syllabus.
* But many number of candidates are not paying attention to it.
* Important point to be kept in mind is that, Telugu medium students should gain command over English terminology in history subject, even though they continue their preparation in Telugu.
* In the bi-lingual question papers, due to own translation of English words in to Telugu, some questions are misunderstood by candidates.
* In yester years’, some candidates even though they know the correct answer, have opted wrong answer because they didn’t understand the question well. For instance: ‘Rajyasankramana siddantaanni pravesapettinadi evaru?’ In the same way, Home Rule League, when translated in a wrong way, might have total meaning changed in it. Home rule league revolution was named as Swadesi revolution.
* Hence, one should be attentive while answering the question paper.
* Andhrula Charitra: BSL Hanumantha Rao
* Andhrula Charitra:: P. Raghunadha Rao
* Ambedkar Open University MA Books
In this paper, economic systems of India and Andhra Pradesh are given as syllabus. First of all, one has to study the outline and features of both of these aspects.
Major events that took place before and after amendments, pertaining to the topics mentioned in the syllabus have to be studied.
It is better to study as application oriented and to develop complete awareness on the topic rather than studying in the point of questions and answers.
Financial planning in India and economic system of India:
* In the first unit, topics related to planning, financial goals and amendments have been included. For this, candidates have to focus on:
* Bombay Plan, Gandhian Plan and People’s plan
* Financial planning since 1951, their goals, ways followed to reach them, reasons to witness failure.
* Government investments on these plans—functioning between different fields.
* Implementation of financial amendments, (from the time of 8th planning time), and changes in government and private investments, methods; industrial, agricultural, tax systems, gross capital market, banking, insurance.
* For second unit….. RBI money regulation act, goals, government taxes-income; and related information.
* Money regulation, growth of different industrial products, production in international market- income.
* Agricultural plan announced in India in the year 2000. Problems arising in reaching that goal (contract farming, regulations on agricultural product movement), details of growth which has recorded due to implementation of this plan.
* Geographical dimensions, natural resources, population, growth trends, division of population bases on niche, free trade policy, and important aspects related to impact of British rule, and its statistics.
* Percentage of population depending on agricultural, industrial, services field; division of population based on 0-4, 4-16, 16-60 and above 60 years age; future changes related to them, their impact on nation’s economic system.
* Main aspects are banking, taxes and inflation.
* Changes seen before and after 1969 in the field of banking.
* Evolutionary and characteristic implementations taken by RBI for reputation management. Obstacles to the reputation created by commercial banks.
* Method of using tools to prevent inflation, tax income and non tax income as a part of domestic budget resources, commercial income and income through governance.
* For fifth unit, features of nations that have slower growth rates; difference between economic growth and economic development and the method of calculating them.
* Main points in the theories of Harad Domar, Robinson, Feghrani, Coldar, Hicks and Hanson, Lebansteen, as a part of growth strategies.
* Laspain, Pashe, Bowli, Fisher, Marshall Edjworth index numbers calculation formulas.
Contemporary problems and consequences in rural society, giving preference to Andhra Pradesh
* GNP, GDP, NNP, NDP, NNP at factor cost, income that can be spent, per capita income concepts in National Income topic have to be studied.
* Important points about changes seen in different fields, human resource index, poverty index, sex based developmental index, sex based empowerment index and position of India in these aspects.
* Compare different indicators of human resource indexes district wise in Andhra Pradesh. Income in the recent four decades, increase in employment rate and growth of agricultural field and growth that has been recorded as a result of these aspects.
* In the second unit, method of implementation of plans in Andhra Pradesh, real expenditures, allocation of funds in different fields and their importance have to be learnt.
* Way of gathering government resources for the implementation of plans; success of tenth five year plans; goals of eleventh five year plans have to be studied.
* Growth recorded in the state in the planning era.
* In the third unit, statistics related to land allocations, forests and agriculture.
* Statistics related to land regulations, forests and water supply for agriculture.
* Changes in types of crops, reputational bases constitutional and non constitutional, pertaining to agricultural field has also to be studied.
* Increase in the role of commercial banks in constitutional reputation, and thereby weakening of cooperative system, subsidies given in the agricultural field since few years, have to focused.
* In the fourth unit, factories, small and medium scaled industries and their necessity, their problems; basic points of cooperative system and reasons for their decline.
* Condition of agricultural products after formation of the state; comparing other states, productivity is low in Andhra Pradesh. Analysis of this issue, crop wise should be learnt.
* It is necessary to have command on topics like support, gathering and prices.
* Public distribution system goals, limits on the income pertaining to ration cards; targeted public distribution and remodeled public distribution system have to be studied.
* One has to study touristic, transport fields and changes in biological and technological sciences.
* Indian Economy- Misra and Puri
* Indian Economy – Agarwal
* Andhra Pradesh Economic System- Telugu Akademi
* Indian Economic System- Telugu Akademi
* Indian & A.P. Economic Surveys
* For this, one can study BA second year syllabus to study about Indian government and Indian constitution.
* Panchayati Raj system; 73,74 constitutional amendments, their importance; important dates and other aspects should be focused. For this, one can refer public administration books of degree third year.
* Questions related to Welfare governing, women, scheduled castes, tribes, SC and ST reservation, Indian SC and ST commissions, names of their heads, tenure, minority commission, human rights commission, information commission are guaranteed.
* For these topics, refer public administration books of BA second year.
* Awareness on Legislative systems, their functions, answerable qualities, political theory regarding crisis are necessary. For this, one can study degree first year politics syllabus.
* Have command on recent events regarding parliamentary system; constitutional amendments; relations between states and center.
* Those who are attempting group-2 for the first time, can refer previous five years papers of UPSC prelims to know the question paper pattern of polity. One can be assured of half of the marks in this division, as a result of this kind of practice.
* Good results can be got even when the previous years’ papers of APPSC Junior Lecturers’ question papers are studied.
* Those who are attempting group-2 for the first time, might undergo tension and confusion on seeing the syllabus of polity. This is very much common but one can score more marks when they develop clear awareness or clarity on the topics.
* Hence, it is better to study NCERT 8th to 12th standard civils and political science books.
* In the same way, information given about Indian political system in the India Year Book will also be useful.
* Also, one should study about the President, Governor, Supreme court, High court and their constitutional chapters; verdicts of Supreme court (particularly Golaknath, Kesavanadabharati, Minerva and other cases).
* There is also chance to ask questions out of syllabus, which are not present in the polity syllabus of APPSC.
* Hence, focus on the education right bill, right to information act and other latest changes in the center.
* Group-2 is a state level exam. In this context, one should have complete awareness on the latest issues pertaining to Andhra Pradesh.
* One should know more about Sri Krishna Committee, Telangana movement, Andhra movement, 6 point plan and other such aspects. These years, we can find questions about contemporary aspects in polity question paper.
1. Telugu Akademi Or Ambedkar Open University books.
2. Books available in degree level about Indian Political system and about governance.
3. Political news & Articles at Daily News Papers
4. Jayam Series - Indian Polity & Constitution for Group-2
* But the extent of Indian history is vast. So, one has to concentrate on this topic.
* Any kind of questions right from the Stone Age to the independence of India can be asked.
* Ancient period, medieval period and modern period ……….equal number of questions from each of this topic are asked. So, it is necessary to prepare these subjects deeply.
* In recent years, some questions from history are tough as like that of UPSC exam while some others are easy.
* Example for tough questions: 1) What is the traditional book which details about internal business. Answer for this question is Satapati Brahmanam.
* Example for easy questions: 1) In which year, Akbar succeeded the throne?
* Hence high standard books are to be used while preparing this subject.
Reference books for History subject for the preparation of grorup-2 are
1. NCERT Books.
2. History books of tenth and intermediate first year.
3. Ambedkar Open University MA books for independence movement.
4. English medium candidates can refer UPSC general studies history part.
5. Jayam Series - Indian History Quick Reference Material
* Nearly 30 to 35 questions would be from this subject. Mainly, after the changes in APPSC syllabus in 2007, science related questions are also being asked. In these questions, physical science and biological science questions form the major part. Physical sciences should be divided in to physics, chemistry and science and technology. Topics which have to be focused as a part of preparation are…………
* Sound, Light, Magnetism, Electricity, Heat, Mechanics, Dual Matter, Planets and Modern Physics in Physics have to be studied.
* Scientists, inventions, experiments and Noble laureates regarding these aspects.
* In chemistry, topics such as metals, their compounds, glass, acids, bases, noble gases, water, fertilizers, plastics, cement, gases and their components have to be focused.
* Questions from science and technology are intended to test the candidate in two ways.
* Deep questions related to basics, milestones and experiments in science and technology will be asked.
* Latest inventions, latest experiments and developments and others will also be asked as a part of science and technology questions.
* Questions will be frequently coming from the topics, astronomy, nuclear energy, information technology, computers, electricity field, missiles, defense field experiments,
* In order to know the way to answer these questions accurately, it is necessary to refer science text books of sixth to tenth classes.
Reference books for General Science for the preparation of Group-2:
For Science and technology: 1) Telugu Yojaga 2) Jayam Series Special Books, 3) Udyoga Kiranam monthly magazine 4) Sakshi Bhavita, Vidyaalong with science and technology columns in the main edition.
* The topics from which more number of questions will be asked in this subjects and the topics which are to be focused are……….
* Classification of organisms and their economical importance (For instance: Few Bacteria? Advantages and disadvantages with them? Diseases spread by them?)
* Organisms and their nutrients.
* Humans- circulatory system of organs, blood circulation, respiratory systems and the diseases related to them.
* Recent advancements in biotechnology field, new products, parts of plants, metamorphosis, herbs, products of secondary life processes. (Questions from alkaloids, tannins, phytohormones, their uses, drugs and others might be asked).
Sunday, October 3, 2010
A candidate whose aim was to get a job in Group – I, worked very hard for more than 2 years. He keenly studied every book. He even took training. He appeared for the exam and the key showed up to 75 marks. He learnt that the cutoff mark could be 84. He could not understand where he went wrong. Another candidate studied all the standard books. Appeared for Group – I preliminary exam for practice purpose. And the candidate is confident of getting more than 90 marks.
* There are candidates who restricted themselves to book information without proper guidance and could not quality in the exam
* There are candidates who scored good marks in preliminaries with experience from exams like Civils.
* There are candidates who could not get good marks because of lack of proper preparation.
* There are also candidates who concentrated more on Mains and were unsuccessful in Preliminaries.
Things to be observed by Group – 2 candidates
Current affairs: In Group – I question paper; current affairs from June 2009 to 15th June 2010 were asked. They have considered a time period of one year. So the candidates of Group – 2 should keenly observe the national and international affairs from January 2010. Remember the incidents date wise. Current affair questions included questions from Nobel prizes to the Saksharata Bharat. There is a relationship between questions. For example –
* When did solar eclipse occur in 21st century?
* When was the longest solar eclipse of thousand years occurred?
26 questions were asked in Group – I, but there is a chance that 30-35 questions will be asked in Group – 2.
General Science: In Group – I importance was given to real life biological and physical science questions.
* What is the reason for permanent hardness of water?
* What is a pacemaker?
* Whose characteristic is immobility?
* Brass is a combination of which metals?
These were school standard questions and there were also some questions from high standards. There is a need to study the topics in class text books along with an awareness of science application.
48 questions were asked from the General Science in previous year’s Groups – 2 exams. So this year also, the procedure may be followed. It is the immediate duty of the Group – 2 candidates to master the information in school level.
General Knowledge: More importance is being given to General Knowledge in these kinds of tests.
* What is the slogan of State Bank of India?
* What is the symbol of Andhra Bank?
* What is the symbol of Doordarshan?
These were some questions asked in General knowledge category. Aspirants should take a year book and start preparation for the exam.
Polity: Five questions were asked in Group – 1 preliminary. Group – 2 will have 75 questions for 75 marks and so the preliminary test should not be taken as a standard. So study political history and other political topics deeply. Concentrate of various amendments and important Judgments of Supreme court. Questions can be asked on planning commission, National Development counsel, Central Ministries etc.
Geography: Questions asked on Geography in Group – 1 preliminary are 24 and 15 questions are based on world geography. As usual questions were asked on solar system, planets and earth.
* Where is Tweed valley located?
* Which is the highest mountain in Africa?
* Which is the biggest Bauxite mine in Australia?
Candidates found questions like this a bit difficult but these are school standard questions. There is a chance that 40 questions may be asked in Group – 2 exam and so concentrate on continents. Good marks can be scored if attention is paid to map pointing and other important information given in class text books.
Do not estimate that since only 6 questions are asked in Indian Geography in Group – I exam same will be repeated in Group – 2. There is a chance that 20 questions from Indian and Andhra Pradesh Geography may come in the Exam. 6, 7, 8 and 9th class text books are a good sources of information.
Mental Ability: 16 questions were asked in Group – I and most of them were very common questions. Groups – 2 candidates should not limit themselves to these model questions. At least 30 questions will be asked in the exam and so practice various models. Give equal importance to Arithmetic and reasoning.
History: Of the 28 questions asked in Group – 1, ten questions were from Andhra Pradesh history. Group – 2 will have a 75 question divisions in paper – 2, and so at least 25 questions may be asked in General Studies paper.
* People of Harappa had international relationships with which country?
* What is the age of Akbar at the time of coronation?
If the questions are observed, it can be found out that 80% of the questions were from the previous year question paper. So practice old question papers.
Indian economy: 16 questions were asked in Group – 1 General Studies. Questions are all of general standard.
* Financial crisis in 1990 – 91
* 9.5% growth rate target is related to which field?
* Which is the famous method of recruiting candidates in Government and private sectors?
These were some questions asked and reading news papers is enough is answer such questions. Group – 2 candidates should prepare the prescribed syllabus and also observe the current affairs. Each economic related subject should be studied carefully in every angle. Do not prepare questions from two or three books and from economic surveys since questions were asked from them. Comparative study of world, Indian and Andhra Pradesh economy is important.
- They should study the subject until the exam date is given and this is the right time to concentrate on the topics in general studies.
- They should utilize this time to get the grip on the current affairs and this is helpful for the students who try to pass with the current affairs. It is better to study the concept than bits.
- There will be questions asked on the general studies in the junior lecturer exam and this type of questions on general knowledge won’t be asked in any other group exam.
- If the importance is not given to the test questions, then they should concentrate on them.
- Those who neglected the general studies should concentrate and learn it.
- The importance should be given to the intermediate syllabus and then only the candidate will be answer the advanced questions based on them.
- They should revise the new advancements in the subjects and they should study the topics related to the advancements.
- It is better to concentrate on the other topics also which are not there in the syllabus.
Monday, September 13, 2010
Let us start with Linear notes first, it is a method in which you condense the material you have read using headings and sub headings and jotting down the most important points. This method works best when making notes from a book where the material is already properly organised. But one disadvantage of this method is that you end up copying a lot of material from the book which defeats the very purpose of condensing.
The right way to use this method is to use loose sheets of paper instead of an exercise book since it is easier to keep adding information. It is a good idea to leave space on each sheet of paper for additional information. Another way to make your notes more interesting is to use colors, block letters, making boxes and highlighting as and when necessary. All this will immediately draw our attention to the actual contents of our notes and make it more clear and comprehensible.
We now come to Pattern Notes. For this we have to begin the topic at the centre of the page. Each line radiating from it represents a branch of the main idea. Each point is written as briefly as possible using a key word or a phrase. It is a better method to adopt because it is more flexible than making Linear notes. One can add extra information to it at any point without any problem. Second advantage is that we can see the whole pattern at one go without actually turning the pages. Thirdly we can indicate the links between different topics more easily than we can do in a linear method. Another advantage of pattern notes is that it is exceptionally useful when making notes from memory for revision as you keep jotting down points as and when they occur to you. This makes it easier to revise for exams and writing out essays as only brief key words are used. Lastly, it is easier to remember as notes is made in a shape format.