Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts

Friday, August 23, 2013

Important Facts of Indian HistoryHistory of Modern India

● Muazzam occupied the Mughal throne as Bahadur Shah after his success in the war of succession.
● Muazzam, the son of Aurangzeb was called as the ‘Shah Bekhabar’.
● The Mughal King Farrukh Siyar gratned concession to the English men to trade in Bengal, Gujarat and Hyderabad.
● In 1759 Ali Mohar, the son of Alamgir sat upon the Mughal throne as Shah Alam II.
● After the death of Maratha ruler Shahu, the real power of the State came in the hands of Peshwas.
● Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal transferred his capital to Murshidabad from Dacca.
● Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal transferred his capital to Moongher from Murshidabad.
● In the middle of the 18th century, the nominal ruler of Mysore was Chika Krishnaraj. The real power of the State lied with the two brothers—Nand Raj and Dev Raj.
● In 1761 Hyder Ali captured Nandraj and became the master of Mysore.
● In the first Anglo-Mysore war, Hyder Ali badly defeated the English army.
● In 1781 Hyder Ali conqurered Arcot but in 1781 at Porn Novo Sir Eyerkoot defeated him.
● Ali Muhammad Khan established the State of Rohilkhand.
● The early capital of Rohilkhand was ‘Awala’ which later shifted to Rampur.
● Guru Har Gobind Singh constructed the Akaal Takht at Amritsar.
● Guru Gobind Singh converted the Sikhs into a warring and military group.
● In 1721, the two sects of Sikhism ‘Bandai’ and ‘Tatkhalsa’ merged in one sect ‘Khalsa’. This sect became a headache for the Mughals.
● The Sikhs were organized in 12 unions or misls which grew in political significance. Later Ranjeet Singh conquered these misls and organized them into Punjab State.
● The ruler of the Afghanistan conferred the title of Raja upon Ranjeet Singh and appointed him the Subedar of Lahore.
● The treaty of Amritsar was signed between the English and Ranjeet Singh in 1809. As a result the English checked the expansion of Ranjeet Singh towards the region of Sutluj.
● According to the treaty of Amritsar, the English accepted Ranjeet Singh as an independent ruler.
● During first Anglo-Sikh war, the Governor-General of India was Lord Hardinge.
● Punjab was ruled by Maharaja Dalip Singh when the Lahore Treaty was signed in 1846 between the Sikhs and the English after the defeat of Sikhs in the first Anglo Sikh war.
● During Sirajudaulla’s time, the English settlement at Calcutta became a resort for the enemies of Nawab and the traitors.
● On 4th June, 1756 Sirajudaulla invaded and captured the Qasim Bazar factory of English near Murshidabad.
● The Black hole tragedy as it is known in history, came to light through the letter of Holvell. Some of the historians consider it imaginery.
● In the contemporary historical works like Sher-a-Mutkherin and Royas-us-Salatin, there is no reference to the Black hole tragedy.
● On 9th February, 1757, the Ali Nagar Treaty was signed between the English and the Nawab.
● After the war of Plassey, when Sirajudaulla was running away from Murshidabad towards Patna he was captured and killed.
● On 28 June, 1757, the English declared Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal.
● After victory in Plassey war, the English Company obtained concessions to trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
● On 25 November, 1759, the Bedara war was fought between the English and the Dutch and the Dutch were defeated. The victory helped the English in consolidating their hold on Bengal.
● Mir Qasim planned friendship with Vansittart to become the Nawab of Bengal.
● Mir Qasim gave to East India Company, the districts of Vardhman, Midnapur and Chittgaon for the expenditure of the English army.
● In 1764 the joint army of Mir Qasim, Shujauddaulla and Shah Alam fought with the English—the war of Buxar, the English were victorious in this war.
● After the Buxar War, the Allahabad treaty was signed between English and the Mughal King Shah Alam in 1765 AD.
● According to Allahabad Treaty, the districts of Kara and Allahabad were taken away from the Nawab of Oudh and given to Mughal King. The East India Company agreed to pay to the king a pension of Rs. 26 lacs. In lieu the English got Diwani rights in Bengal.
● After the death of Mir Jafar, his son Nizamuddaula was enthroned as Nawab of Bengal.
● K. M. Panikkar holds that from 1765 to 1772, the rule of East India Company in Bengal was the ‘rule of dacoits’.
● During Warren Hastings period, the Treasury was transferred by the East India Company to Calcutta from Murshidabad and Calcutta was made the capital.
● During the Governorship of Warren Hastings, in every district of subjugated India one Civil and one Criminal Court was opened.
● The cases upto to Rs. 500 were referred to the Civil Court and alone it, the appeal could be made to the Sadar Diwani Adalat.
● The District Criminal Court was put in charge of an Indian Officer.
● The Regulating Act of 1773 established a Supreme Court at Calcutta.
● The Permanent settlement introduced by Cornwallis brought changes in the land system. Most of the land came in the hands of commercial and rich classes of Calcutta.
● The Permanent settlement ensured the income of the Government. Besides the cooperation of the new Zamindars was obtained.
● In the Mahalwari system, land revenues was fixed either through the local Zamindars or their hereditary tax collectors or the Zamindars of the Mahal. Mahal was the collection of villages. The Mahalwari system was known in Punjab as the village system.
● The Raiyyatwari system was introduced during early 19th century in some regions of Madras and Bombay. The Govt. directly obtained a fixed amount from the peasants.
● In the Raiyyatwari system, the revenue rate was fixed 45% to 50% of the total produce separately.
● The Raiyyatwari system had many defects which the Govt. official accepted at the time of a parliamentary inspection for the renewal of the Company’s Charter.
● In the Fifth and Sixth decades of 19 century, the English invested in large amount to control Indian economy.
● The English invested their capital on roads and communications, Railway, Post and Telegraph, Banks and tea gardens.
● In 1830 the Ahoms again rebelled against the English. This time, the English Company adopted a peaceful policy and granted north Assam and some other region to King Purandar Singh.
● Raja Teerath Singh of Nanakkalo rebelled against the English with the help of Garo, Khampati and Sinhopo tribes. Soon it took the shape of a mass-movement. In 1833, the English could crust it with superior military force.
● In 1825, the Assam Rifles rebelled against the English.
● In 1838, the Indian troops stationed at Sholapur rebelled due to non-payment of the full allowances.
● In 1850 the Gobind Garh regiment rebelled.
● On 1 January, 1857, the use of British made Enfield Rifles was started in India. In the cartridges of this Rifle, the fat of cows and pigs were used.
● In March 1857, the soldiers of Bairakpur Cantt refused to use the fat cartridges.
● On 2 May, 1857, the Oudh Regiment of Lucknow too refused to use these cartridges. As a result, the Oudh regiment was disbanded.
● To the soldiers of Meerut who had refused to use the fat cartridges, an English military officer—Carr Michael Smith issued the jail punishment of 5 years.
● On 10 May, 1857, a section of the infantry and cavalry of Merrut rebelled at about 5 P.M.
● The rebels marched to Delhi, captured the city and declared Bahadurshah the emperor of India. Bahadurshah assumed the leadership of revolt in Delhi.
● During this rebellion, Nana Saheb established his suzeranity over Kanpur and declared himself the Peshwa.
● In Bundelkhand Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi assumed the leadership of the revolt.
● In Bihar, the zamindar of Jagdishpur, named Kunwar Singh led the revolt.
● On 28 May, 1857, the soldiers of Nasirabad Cantt in Rajasthan, rebelled.
● Kota and Adva were the main centres of revolt in Rajasthan.
● The Central India, Tantya Tope led the revolt.
● In U.P. the importnat centres of revolution were Jhansi, Kanpur, Bareilly, Meerut, Lucknow, Aligarh, Mathura and Agra.
● The Bareilly rebellion was led by Batakhs Khan.
● The Commissioner of Oudh, Henry Laurrence died of a blast on 4th July, 1857.
● While suppressing the revolt, the English officer Neil buried the dead Brahmans and burnt the dead Muslims.
● In March 1858, under the leadership of Kunwar Singh, the rebels captured Azamgarh.
● While marching towards Benaras from Azamgarh, there was an encounter between Kunwar Singh and the English officer Lord Mark in which Lord Mark had to run away to save his life.
● Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur was the only leader to have died under the banner of freedom.
● On 14 December, 1857, the English army blasted Kashmiri Gate of Delhi.
● In November 1857 the rebels defeated the English General Windaham near Kanpur.
● Vinayak Damodar Saverker was the first to name the rebellion of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence.
● According to Sir Seeley, the rebellion of 1857 was fully a national revolt conducted by selfish soldiers.
● Sir John Lawrence, P. E. Roberts and V. A. Smith have called it a Sepoy Mutiny.
● According to V. A. Smith, the rebellion of 1857 was purely a sepoy mutiny which fully reflected the indiscipline of Indian soldiers and the foolishness of English military officers.
● According to Sir James Outtram, the revolt of 1857 was the result of a conspiracy of the Muslims who desired to fulfill their self-interest on the strength of the Hindus.
● Ashok Mehta in his book, ‘The Great Revolt’, has attempted to prove that it was a national revolt.
● Pattabhi Sita Ramaiyya takes it to be the first war of Indian independence.
● After crushing the revolt of 1857, they constituted an India Council and abolished the Board of Directors. There were 15 members in the India Council and a Secretary of State for India.
● After the revolt, Lord Canning announced the Declaration of the Queen at a Durbar held at Allahabad. He called it, ‘the Magna Carta of Indian people’.
● In the Declaration of the Queen, the policy of expansion of the political limits came to an end.
● The rebels responsible for the murder of Englishmen were punished. All others were pardoned.
● The objective of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramkirshna Mission and the Theosophical society etc. was to herald a renaissance in India.
● Brahmo Samaj was founded in Calcutta by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1828.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy always advocated the appointment of Indians on high govt. posts. He played a major role in the abolition of Sati system.
● After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1833, Devendara Nath Tagore assumed the leadership of the Brahmo Samaj.
● Aadi Brahmo Samaj was established by Devendra Nath Thakur.
● Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen.
● The principles of Brahmo Samaj helped immensely in the birth and Spread Indian nationalism.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Vedant College, English School and Hindu College at Calcutta.
● Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the advocate of English Education and he thought English to be the vehicle of progress.
● It was due to the effort of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, that the restriction upon the newspapers were lifted.
● In 1819, at Maharashtra, Prarthna Sabha was founded. It came to an end due to its limited scope.
● In 1867 Atma Ram Pandurang established Prarthna Samaj. M. G. Ranade, R. G. Bhandarkar and Narayan Chandrawarkar were the prominent members of this Samaj.
● Dayanand Saraswati left his house at the age of 21. As a Brahmachari Sadhu, he travelled to different places in India.
● Dayanand Saraswati started the propagation of his religion from Agra.
● In 1874, he wrote his famous book Satyarth Prakash.
● On 10 April, 1875 he founded Arya Samaj at Bombay.
● Totapuri, a Vedantic sadhu taught Vedant Sadhna to Dayananda.
● Ramkrishna Paramhans was born in 1836 in a poor Brahman family of Hoogly district of Bengal.
● Swami Vivekanand was the most devoted disciple of Swami Ramkrishna Paramhans.
● Ramkrishna Pramhans did not establish any Ashram or sect.
● In 1893 in the All Religion Conference at Chicago Vivekanand impressed everyone, and started a Vedant Samaj there.
● In 1896 Vivekanand established Ramkrishna Mission.
● In the last years of the third decade of the 19th century, the young Bengal movement was led by an Englishman named Henry William Derozio.
● On 7 September, 1875 in New York, U.S.A. Madame H.P. Blatavesky (Russian) and Col. H. S. Alcott (American) founded the Theosophical Society.
● Mrs. Annie Besant, an Irish lady was a very active member of Theosophical Society in India.
● Due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, in 1856, the Widow Remarriage Act was legislated.
● The slogan of ‘Inkalab Zindabad’ was given by Mohammad Iqbal.
● Sir Saiyyad Ahmad Khan founded the Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1877 which later became known as Aligarh Muslim University.
● Haji Shariatullah was the initiator of Faryaz movement.
● In Maharashtra the Bharat Sewak Samaj was started by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
● In 1922 Amrit Lal Viththal Das established the Bheel Sewa Mandal.
● Jyoti Ba Phule was the champion of widowremarriage in Maharashtra.
● In 1911 Narayan Maltar Joshi organised the Social Service League, a society to solve the social problems. He was assisted by some educated Indians.
● Avanindra Nath Thakur founded the society known as—The Indian Society of Oriental Art.
● In the 19th century, the famous Bengali author Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed the song— Vande Matram.
● In 1875, Sisir Kumar Ghose founded the India League.
● The Indian Association founded by Surendra Nath Banerjee was replaced by the Indian League in 1876.
● The credit for founding the Indian National Congress in 1885 goes to an English officer, Allen Octavian Hume.
● The first Conference of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay under the chairmanship of W. C. Banerjee.
● Bal Gangadhar Tilak started Ganesh Mahotsav in 1893 and Shivaji Samaroh in 1895.
● Pandit Jugal Kishore published the first newspaper of India—Udant Martand. It was a paper which gave top priority to Indian interests.
● During Lord Curzon’s time in 1905, Bengal was divided.
● In 1911, in Lord Hardinge’s time, the partition of Bengal was cancelled.
● Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajeet Singh were exiled to Burma in 1907.
● In 1911 the capital of India was shifted to Delhi from Calcutta.
● On Nov. 1913, the Ghadar Party was founded at Sanfransisco city of America by the great revolutionary of Punjab named Lala Hardayal.
● Kashi Ram and Hardayal were the active members of the Ghadar Party.
● In 1906, Agha Khan founded the All India Muslim League.
● In 1916, a pact was signed between Muslim League and Congress which is known in history as the Lucknow Pact.
● In 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the Home Rule League of India.
● After Lucknow Pact, Congress and League presented the plan of political reforms based on separate electoral regions. This pact led to an increase in communalism.
● In 1914 Annie Besant brought out a newspaper in English named ‘New India’.
● Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.
● On 30 March, 1919, Satyagraha Day was observed in whole of India. The Satyagraha was peaceful at all places except Punjab and Delhi.
● Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin, the leaders of the Punjab Satyagraha were imprisoned. In protest, a meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar . The people who assembled here were gunned down. This is known as ‘Jalhianwalla bagh Massacre’ of April 1919.
● After the world war I, the Indian Muslims were excited due to the treatment meted out to Caliph by the British in Turkey. In 1919 they started the Khilafat movement under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.
● The Congress joined the Muslims in Khilafat movement. On 31 August, 1919, the Khilafat Day was observed.
● Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-cooperation Mass Movement in 1920-21. But violence broke out at Chauri Chaura then in Gorakhpur district which saddened Gandhiji. In February 1922 he announced the closure of the movement.
● In March 1922 Motilal Nehru and Deshbandhu Chitranjan Das established the Swaraj Party.
● In the elections of 1923 the Swaraj Party scored 40 seats out of 148.
● In 1927 the Bardoli Satyagraha was conducted by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.
● In 1928 under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon a Commission came to India to inspect the administrative work. The Indians boycotted it as no Indian was a member of the Commission. In March 1928 the Commission went back.
● In the 1929 Lahore Congress session held under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the meaning of Swaraj was declared as total independence.
● In 1930 Gandhiji broke the Salt laws by his Dandi March and he started the Civil Disobedience movement.
● In 1930, the Congress boycotted the first Round Table Conference.
● In 1931, after Gandhi-Irwin pact Gandhiji went to attend the second Round Table Conference along with the members of Muslim League.
● In the third Round table conference in 1932, Congress did not send any representative. Only 46 members went to participate under different categories.
● The meeting of the Executive of Congress held on 1 January, 1932 decided to again start the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the completely negative attitude of the Government.
● The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald declared the communal award on 16 August, 1932.
● On 25 September, 1932, the Poona Pact was signed. Common agreement was made on two conditions for preparing the electoral regions. The representative of the Depressed classes was B.R. Ambedkar.
● In 1932 Gandhiji founded the Harijan Sewak Sangh for the uplift of the Harijans.
● On 8 May, 1933 Gandhiji declared the programme of 21 days fast for his self-purification.
● Gandhiji began ‘Individual Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience on 1 August, 1933.
● The Government of India Act of 1935 had 312 articles and 19 enclosures.
● In 1935, the British provinces were 11 e.g., Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Orissa, Central Provinces, Assam, North West Frontier Provinces, United Provinces and Sindh.
● The Government of India Act of 1935, the subjects were divided into three departments—Federal, Provincial and Concurrent.
● This Act divided the British provinces of India in two categories. 11 were the provinces under the Governor and 5 provinces were under Lieutenant Commissioners.
● The Govt. of India Act, 1935, proposed Federal system and Provincial autonomy. The plan of Federal system could not be implemented. The elections for the Provincial legislative Councils were held in the January-February of 1937.
● The Congress won majority in 5 provinces—Madras, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Bihar and Orissa in the general election of 1937.
● In Punjab, the Unionist Party and Muslim League jointly formed the Government. This Government worked without any obstruction till 1947.
● In Bengal the Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League jointly formed the Government. Its Cabinet worked till 14 August, 1947. Sikandar Hayaat Khan was the head of this Government.
● The Congress Cabinets worked from 1937 to 1939.
● In 1934, the members of Congress Executive, Acharya Narendra Dev, Jai Prakash and Achyut Patvardhan organized the Congress Socialist Party.
● In the Haripura session of the Congress (1938), S. C. Bose was unanimously elected the President.
● Subhash Chandra Bose organized a National Planning Committee.
● In 1939 Bose was relected Congress President defeating Gandhi’s candidate P. Sitaramayya.
● In April 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the post of the President and started a militant party known as Forward Block.
● In 1939, Jawaharlal Nehru became the President of the Tribal Conference of Indian States.
● In 1933, a Muslim student named Choudhary Rahmat Ali studying in England proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State and called it Pakistan.
● On 24th March, 1940, in the Lahore Conference of the Muslim League, the Pakistan proposal was passed.
● Lord Linlithgo presented the August proposal before the Congress on 8 August, 1940 for getting cooperation during the war.
● The Individual Satyagraha was started from 17 October, 1940. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi. Gandhiji postponed it on 17 December, 1940.
● It was restarted on 5 January, 1941. During this period more than 20 thousand people were arrested.
● Cripps Mission visited India in 1942. It was onemember Commission and only Sir Strafford Cripps was the member.
● The Congress and the League, both rejected the Cripps Proposals.
● The Quit India movement resolution was passed on 14 July, 1942 in the Executive of the Congress Session held at Wardha. It was reaffirmed on 8 August, 1942.
● The interim government of free India was organized on 21 October, 1943 by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore.
● 21 Indian political leaders were invited to attend a Conference at Simla in June 1945. It ended in failure.
● In December 1945, the General Elections were held in India. The Congress received the majority in 6 provinces.
● On 18 February, 1946, the non Commissioned officers and Naval soldiers of the Royal Indian Navy who were called Rattings, began a militant revolt at Bombay.
● In order to remove the Constitutional crisis the British Government sent the Cabinet Mission to India.
● It came on 29 March, 1946 to New Delhi and it declared its proposals.
● Muslim League observed the Direct Action Day on 16 August 1946.
● The Interim Government of India was organized under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Cabinet took oath on 2nd September, 1946.
● The Constituent Assembly first met under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 6th December, 1946.
● Atlee declared on 20 February, 1947 that the English would leave India after transferring the power to responsible people before June 1948.
● The Mountbatten Plan of 3 June, 1947 was mainly the Plan of partition. It was agreed upon by the Executive of the Indian National Congress on 14-15 June in a meeting at Delhi.
● In July 1947, the Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament.
● India became independent on 15 August, 1947.
● On 26 January, 1950, the state of Hyderabad merged in the Indian Federation.
● On 20 April 1954, the Panchsheel Pact was signed between India and China.
● On 20 October, 1962 China invaded upon India. Soon it occupied Assam Valley and Laddakh. On 21 November, 1962, China declared one sided ceasefire.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Indian States And Their Folk Dances

JharkhandChhau, Sarahul, Jat-Jatin, Karma, Danga, Bidesia, Sohrai.
UttarakhandGadhwali, Kumayuni, Kajari, Jhora, Raslila, Chappeli
Andhra PradeshKuchipudi (Classical), Ghantamardala, Ottam Thedal, Mohiniattam, Kummi, Siddhi Madhuri, Chhadi.
ChhattisgarhGoudi, Karma, Jhumar, Dagla, Pali, Tapali, Navrani, Diwari, Mundari.
Arunachal PradeshMask dance, War dance etc.
Himachal PradeshJhora, Jhali, Chharhi, Dhaman, Chhapeli, Mahasu, Nati, Dangi, Chamba, Thali, Jhainta, Daf, Stick dance etc.
GoaMandi, Jhagor, Khol, Dakni, etc.
AssamBihu, Bichhua, Natpuja, Maharas, Kaligopal, Bagurumba, Naga dance, Khel Gopal Tabal Chongli, Canoe, Jhumura Hobjanai etc.
West BengalKathi, Gambhira, Dhali, Jatra, Baul, Marasia, Mahal, Keertan, etc.
KeralaKathakali (Classical), Rakhal, Nat Rash, Maha Rash, Raukhat etc.
MeghalayaLaho, Baagla, etc.
ManipurManipuri (Classical), Rakhal, Nat Rash, Maha Rash, Raukhat, etc.
NagalandChong, Khaiva, Lim, Nuralim, etc.
OrissaOdissi (Classical), Rakhal, Nat Rash, Maha Rash, Raukhat etc.
MaharashtraLavani, Nakata, Koli, Lezim, Gafa, Dahikala Dasavtar or Bohada, Tamasha, Mauni, Powara, Gouricha etc.
KarnatakaYakshagan, Huttari, Suggi, Kunitha, Karga, Lambi etc.
GujaratGarba, Dandiya Ras, Tippani Juriun, Bhavai, etc.
PunjabBhangra, Giddha, Daff, Dhaman etc.
RajasthanGhumar, Chakri, Ganagor, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini, Ghapal, Panihari, Ginad etc.
MizoramKhanatm, Pakhupila, Cherokan etc.
Jammu & KashmirRauf, Hikat, Mandjas, Kud Dandi Nach, Damali.
Tamil NaduBharatnatyam, Kumi, Kolattam, Kavadi
Uttar PradeshNautanki, Raslila, Kajri, Jhora, Chappeli, Jaita.
BiharJata-Jatin, Bakho-Bakhain, Panwariya, Sama-Chakwa, Bidesia, Jatra, etc.
HaryanaJhumar, Phag Dance, Daph, Dhamal, Loor, Gugga, Khor, Gagor etc.

Important Foreign Travellers / Envoys

  • Megasthenes (302-298 BC) : An ambassador of Selecus Nikator, who visited the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote an interesting book ‘Indica’ in which he gave a vivid account of Chandragupta Maurya’s reign.
  • Fa-Hien (405-411 AD) : He came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. He was the first Chinese pilgrim to visit India to collect Buddhist texts and relics
  • Hiuen-Tsang (630-645 AD) : He visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana.
  • I-tsing (671-695 AD) : A Chinese traveller, he visited India in connection with Buddhism.
  • Al-Masudi (957 AD) : An Arab traveller, he has given an extensive account of India in his work ‘Muruj-ul-Zehab’.
  • Al-beruni (1024-1030 AD) : He came to India along with Mahmud of Ghazni during one of his Indian raids. He travelled all over India and wrote a book ‘Tahqiq-i-Hind’.
  • Macro Polo (1292-1294 AD) : A Venetian traveller, visited South India in 1294 A.D. His work ‘The Book of Sir Marco Polo’ gives an account of the economic history of India.
  • Ibn Batuta (1333-1347 AD) : A Morrish traveller, his book ‘Rehla’ (the Travelogue) throws a lot of light on the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and the geographical, economic and social conditions of that time.
  • Shihabuddin al-Umari (1348 AD) : He came from Damascus and he gives a vivid account of India in his book, ‘Masalik albsar fi-mamalik al-amsar’.
  • Nicolo Conti (1420-1421 AD) : A Venetian traveller, gives a comprehensive account of the Hindu kingdom of Vijaynagar.
  • Abdur Razzaq (1443-1444 AD) : He was a Persian traveller, came to India and stayed at the court of the Zamorin at Calicut. He has given a vivid account of the Vijaynagar empire.
  • Athanasius Nikitin (1470-1474 AD) : He was a Russian merchant, describes the condition of the Bahmani kingdom under Muhammad III (1463-82).
  • Durate Barbosa (1500-1516 AD) : He was a Portuguese traveller, has given a valuable narrative of the government and the people of the Vijaynagar empire.
  • Dominigo Paes (1520-1522 AD) : He was Portuguese traveller, visited the court of Krishnadeva Raya of the Vijaynagar Empire.
  • Fernao Nuniz (1535-1537 AD) : A Portuguese merchant, He wrote the history of the empire from its earliest times of the closing years of Achyutdeva Raya’s reign.
  • John Hughen Von Linschotten (1583 AD) : He was a Dutch traveller, has given a valuable account of the social and economic life of South India.
  • William Hawkins (1608-1611 AD) : He was an English ambassador of British King James I to the court of Jahangir (1609).
  • Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619 AD) : He was an ambassador of James I, King of England, at the court of Jahangir, (the Mughal Emperor).
  • Fransciso Palsaert (1620-1627 AD) : He was a Dutch traveller, stayed at Agra and gave a vivid account of flourishing trade at Surat, Ahmedabad, Broach Cambay, Lahore, Multan, etc.
  • Peter Mundy (1630-34 AD) : He was an Italian traveller to the Mughal empire in the reign of Shahjahan, he gives valuable information about the living standard of the common people in the Mughal Empire.
  • John Albert de Mandesto (1638 AD) : He was German traveller, who reached Surat in 1638.
  • Jeen Baptiste Travernier (1638-1663 AD) : He was a French traveller, his account covers the reign of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
  • Nicolao Manucci (1653-1708 AD) : He was an Italian traveller, got service at the court of Dara Shikoh.
  • Francois Bernier (1656-1717 AD) : He was French physician and philosopher. Danishamand Khan, a noble of Aurangzeb, was his patron.
  • Jean de Thevenot (1666 AD) : He was French traveller, has given a good account of cities like Ahmedabad, Cambay, Aurangabad and Goloconda.
  • John Fryer (1672-1681 AD) : He was an English traveller, has given a vivid account of Surat and Bombay.
  • Gemelli Careri (1693 AD) : He was an Italian traveller, his remarks on the Mughal emperor’s military organisation and administration are important.

Sunday, April 1, 2012

Haryana Public Service Commission HCS (Executive Branch) & Other Allied Services Preliminary Exam

 Indian History  Solved Paper 
(Exam held on: 25-03-2012)

1.  The tribal leader who was regarded as an incarnation of God and Father of the world (Dharti Aba) was:
     a) Kanhu Santha
     b) Rupa Naik
     c) Birsa Munda
     d) None of the above
2.  Which of the following was leader of Waliullahi (Wahabi) movement ?
     a) Syed Ahmed of Rae Bareily
     b) Waliulla
     c) Muhammad Abdul Wahab
     d) None of the above
3.   In which of the following battles with the Sikhs did the Partisans of the holy was suffer a terrible defeat in which Syed Ahmad lost his life ?
     a) The battle of Amritsar
     b) The battle of Charsadda
     c) The battle of Balkot
     d) None of the above
4.  The most fearless and bold woman leader of the Peasant movement, who sacrificed her life to protect peasants rights was :
     a) Ambika Chakraborthy
     b) Snehlata Wadekar
     c) Veera Gunamma
     d) None of the above
5.  Which of the following statements about “Lokahitwadi” is not correct?
     a) He attributed the social decline and decay of India to the neglect of the Sciences and learning
     b) He attacked traditional religious beliefs and customs
     c) He attributed to the poverty of India to the Laziness and decline in the morals of the Indians
     d) Not any specific list
6.  Which of the following theistic philosophy did MG Ranade approve of ?
     a) Mysticism
     b) Vedanism
     c) Bhakticult
     d) None of the above
7.  Which of the following tasks was closest to the heart of Syed Ahmad Khan ?
     a) Religious reinterpretation
     b) Social reform
     c) Promotion of modern education
     d) None of the above
8.  Two greatest Pioneers in the cause of widow’s education were :
     a) D.K. Karve and Pandita Ramabai
     b) M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bahndrarkar
     c) Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar and Keshav Chandra Sen
     d) None of the above
9.  After the Surat Split in 1907, the second in the Congress took place in 1918 on the issue of :
     a) Lucknow Pact
     b) Montagu declaration
     c) Election of Mrs. Annie Besant as President of the INC (1917)
     d) None of the above
10. Which of the following revolutionary and terrorist organizations had a large number of young women revolutionaries?
      a) Yugantar
      b) Anushilan Samiti
      c) Bharat Mata Society
      d) None of the above
11. Under whose leadership was the Chittagong Armoury Raid organised ?
      a) Jatin Das
      b) Surya Sen
      c) Ganesh Ghosh
      d) None of the above
12. Proficiency in which of the following games was rewarded and recognised by state of Vijayanagar?
      a) Chess
      b) Wrestling
      c) Gymnastics
      d) None of the above
13. The first Mughal emperor to organise some sorts of Distress relief during famines was?
      a) Akbar
      b) Jahangir
      c) Shahjahan
      d) None of the above
14. The only son of Ashoka found mentioned in his inscriptions is :
      a) Tivara
      b) Mahendra
      c) Kunala
      d) None of the above
15. During the Mauryan times the royal Houses were mostly built of:
      a) Baked bricks
      b) Wood
      c) Mud & Tile
      d) None of the above
16. The status of which of the following could be said to have somewhat improved during the Mauryan Period ?
      a) Kshatriyas
      b) Vaishyas
      c) Shudras
      d) None of the above
17. The largest single source of income to the chola state was:
      a) Land tax
      b) Toll on trade
      c) Taxes on professions, mines and forests
      d) None of the above
18. The theory of economic drain of India during British imperialism was pronounced by:
      a) J.L. Nehru
      b) Dadabhai Naoroji
      c) R.C. Dutt
      d) None of the above
19. The Vijaynagar King, Krishnadev Raya’s work ‘Amuktamalyada’ was in :
      a) Telgu
      b) Sanskrit
      c) Tamil
      d) None of the above
20. The victories of Karikala are well portrayed in :
      a) Palamoli
      b) Aruvanad
      c) Pattinappaalai
      d) None of the above
21. Todarmal was associated with :
      a) Music
      b) Literature
      c) Land Revenue Reforms
      d) None of the above
22. Two of the Great Mughals wrote their own memories. They were :
      a) Babar and Humayun
      b) Jahangir and Shahjahan
      c) Babar and Jahangir
      d) None of the above
23. To which king belongs to the Lion Capital of Sarnath ?
      a) Chandragupta
      b) Ashoka
      c) Kanishka
      d) None of the above
24. The Zamindari in Mughal India was not :
      a) Hereditary
      b) A saleable right
      c) Morgageable
      d) None of the above
25. The term Khalisa in Mughal Administration signified the :
      a) Land owned by emperor himself
      b) Religion land grants
      c) Entire imperial establishment
      d) None of the above
26. Tulsidas the author of ‘Ramcharitmanas’ was a contemporary of which of the following rulers?
      a) Shahjahan
      b) Akbar
      c) Shershah Suri
      d) None of the above
27. The text of the document called ‘Mazhar’ by which Akbar assumed the role of Supreme arbiter in the matter of religion found on :
      a) Arif Quandahari’s ‘Tarikh-i-Alfi’
      b) Abul Fazal’s Akbarnama
      c) Nazamuddin’s ‘Tabaqat-i-Akbari’
      d) None of the above
28. Tolkappiyam is associated with the:
      a) First Sangam Period
      b) Second Sangam Period
      c) Third Sangam Period
      d) None of the above
29. The Vijayanagar king who employed skilled archers of the Turkish clan and raised the fighting
      capacity of hid bowmen was :
      a) Bukka I
      b) Devaraya I
      c) Ramaraya
      d) None of the above
30. The uprising of 1857 was described as first Indian war of Independence by:
      a) V. D. Savarkar
      b) B. G. Tilak
      c) R. C. Mazumdar
      d) None of the above
31. Which independent nawab of Bengal was defeated and killed by forces of East India company?
      a) Siraj – ud -daula
      b) Shuja – ud -daula
      c) Shah Alam II
      d) None of the above
32. Who introduced the system of permanent settlement also called permanent settlement in Bengal for effective agricultural methods and productivity?
      a) Lord Wellesley
      b) Lord Cornwallis
      c) Warren Hastings
      d) None of the above
33. Which of the following newspaper was launched by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya in 1909?
      a) Free India
      b) Leader
      c) Independent
      d) None of the above
34. Who of the following advised British East India company to seek from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, a ‘sanad’ for the Diwani of Bengal?
      a) Maharaja Raj Ballabh
      b) Raja Daulat Ram
      c) Manik Chand
      d) None of the above
35. The first India ruler who joined the subsidary alliance was:
      a) Nawab of Awadh
      b) King of Trivancore
      c) Nizam of Hyderabad
      d) None of the above
36. The first Indian ruler to organize Haj Pilgrimage at the expense of the state was:
      a) Alauddin Khilji
      b) Aurangzeb
      c) Akbar
      d) None of the above
 Hint: Emperor Akbar was the first ruler to organize the Haj pilgrimage at state expense and provide subsidies to pilgrims. He also founded a hospice for pilgrims in Makkah.
37. Which of the following territories was not affected by revolt of 1857?
      a) Jhansi
      b) Chittor
      c) Lucknow
      d) None of the above
38. The head of the committee formed by the Government to enquiry into Jallianwala bagh Massacre was:
      a) John Simon
      b) General Dyer
      c) Hunter
      d) None of the above
39. Whom did Mahatama Gandhi called “The Patriot of the Patriots”?
      a) Bhagat Singh
      b) Subhash Chandra Bose
      c) Sardar Patel
      d) None of the above
40. The term “Dosi Hatt” was used in early medieval india for :
      a) Animal Market
      b) Slave Bazar
      c) Kappas (Cotton) Market
      d) None of the above
41. Which contemporary Mughal historian of the age of Akbar had prepared a list of Charges calling him an enemy of Islam?
      a) Abbas Khan Sarwani
      b) Badauni
      c) Nizamuddin Ahmad
      d) None of the above
42. To whom did Sher Shah appoint to provide bed and food to Hindu travellers staying at ‘Sarais’
      (rest houses)?
      a) Muslims
      b) Low cast hindus
      c) Brahmans
      d) None of the above
43. When did Aurangzeb arrive in Deccan finally to quell revolt of Maratha?
      a) 1681
      b) 1689
      c) 1700
      d) None of the above
Hint: Aurangzeb’s son Akbar left the Mughal court and joined with Sambhaji, inspiring some Mughal forces to join the Marathas. In 1681, Aurangazeb arrives in the Deccan in search of his fugitive son. For nine years, Aurangzeb couldn’t win a single fort from the Marathas. But in 1689 Aurangzeb captured Sambhaji (son of Shivaji) and publicly tortured and killed him.
44. Which Maratha Saint is most importantly known for social reform, national regeneration and the rise of Maratha power?
      a) Samartha Ramdas
      b) Tukaram
      c) Vaman Pandit
      d) None of the above
45. On what condition Wellesly agreed to help Peshwas Bajirao II?
      a) An underhand transaction of Rs. 15 lakh
      b) His consent to the the subsidary alliance
      c) His agreeing to the abolition of the office of the Peshwa after his death
      d) None of the above
46. With whom did Raja Ranjit Singh conclude the treaty of Lahore in 1806 which gave him freedom to expand north of Sutlej ?
      a) Holkar of Indore
      b) Scindia of Gwalior
      c) East India Company
      d) None of the above
47. What was the grieviest cause of discontent among soldiers before the revolt of 1857?
      a) Non observation of caste distinctions
      b) Question of promotion and pay
      c) Absence of power and equitable procedure for discipline & control
      d) None of the above
48. Who was the mastermind of bomb attack on Lord Hardinge at Chandni Chowk, Delhi in 1912?
      a) Sachindranath Sanyal
      b) Rasbehari Bose
      c) Bhai Parmanand
      d) None of the above
49. When did Gandhiji go to fast unto death for the first time?
      a) At the time of riots in Delhi
      b) At the time of riots in Calcutta
      c) At the time of Jallianwala Bagh tragedy
      d) None of the above
Hint: Gandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection with the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad mill strikers demanded a 35% increase in wages. Gandhi undertook a fast unto death in support of the workers’ demands. The mill owners finally relented and worker got a 35% increase in their wages. Jallianwala bagh massacre – 1919   |   Calcutta Riot – 1946    |    Delhi Riot – 1948
50. Sir Thomas Roe was sent as the British Ambassador to the Court of :
      a) Aurangzeb
      b) Jahangir
      c) Shahjahan
      d) None of the above
51. In which of the following respects the various Harappan sites a marked uniformity?
     a) Agricultural Practices
     b) Crafts
     c) Town Planning
     d) None of the above
52.  The entry port for trade between the Indus trading centers and Mesopotamia was:
     a) Elam
     b) Oman
     c) Bahrain
     d) None of the above
Hint:  Trade between Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and Indus Valley (now in Pakistan and India) was facilitated by the small island Bahrain in the Persian Gulf.
53. The most common crime in Rigveda was:
     a) Murder
     b) Kidnapping
     c) Cattle-lifting
     d) None of the above
54. The ‘Jana’ during vedic period refers to:
      a) District
      b) Tribe
      c) Villages
      d) None of the above
55. What was the normal form of Government in Vedic Period ?
     a) Monarchy
     b) Oligarchy
     c) Republic
     d) None of the above
56.  Who of the following was the earliest known greek follower of Bhagavatism?
     a) Megasthenes
     b) Antialkidas
     c) Heliodorus
     d) None of the above
57. The earliest exposition of Saiva System was established by:
     a) Basava
     b) Lakula
     c) Sankaracharya
     d) None of the above
58.  Under the aegis of which of the following kings was the third Buddhist council held?
     a) Ashoka
     b) Kanishka
     c) Menander (Milinda)
     d) None of the above
Hint: The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Patiliputta under the patronage of Emperor Asoka.
59. Which of the following was first great royal patron of Buddhism?
     a) Ajatashatru
     b) Udayayan
     c) Ashoka
     d) None of the above
60. Jainism has derived its metaphysical thoughts from:
      a) Buddhism
      b) Arivakas
      c) Samkhya Philosophy
      d) None of the above
61. Jainsim was propagated in South India by:
      a) Bhadrabahu
      b) Gautama
      c) Sudharaman
      d) None of the above
Hint: Jaina history in the South commences from the 3rd Century B.C. Jainism entered into Karnataka and south India during the days of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya when Bhadrabahu the distinguished leader of Jainas led the migration of the Jaina ‘Sangha’  to the South.
62. The Asokan inscriptions and their Brahmi Script were first deciphered by:
      a) Alexander Cunningham
      b) Max Mullar
      c) James Princep
      d) None of the above
          The Brahmi Script was deciphered in 1837 by James Princep, an archaeologist.
63. The key-note of Ashoka’s Policy of Dhamma was:
      a) Toleration and General Behaviour
      b) Charity
      c) Moderation
      d) None of the above
64. In the Mauryan Period tax evasion was punished with:
      a) Death
      b) Confiscation of goods
      c) Imprisonment
      d) None of the above
65. The famous Queen’s Edict (Minor Pillar Edict-IV) inscribed on a pillar at Allahabad was issued by Ashoka’s queen:
      a) Vedisa Mahadevi
      b) Asandhamitra
      c) Karuvaki
      d) None of the above
66. Kautilya’s Arthashastra’s chapter on Kantak-Shodhana is mostly devoted to:
      a) Regulation of profits, wages and prices
      b) Regulation against adulteration of goods
      c) Strict control of artisans and traders by the state
      d) None of the above
67. An early ancient Indian city, which was a nodal point for trade routes from east to west and from North to South, was:
      a) Mathura
      b) Vidisha
      c) Ujjain
      d) None of the above
68. In the Mauryan Government women could be employed as:
      a) Royal Bodyguards
      b) Superintendents of weaving establishments
      c) Intelligence agents & spices
      d) All the above
69. Which one of the following rulling dynasties of South India was the biggest rival of the Cholas?
      a) The Pandyas
      b) The Chalukyas of Kalyani
      c) The Gangas of Orissa
      d) None of the above
Correct Answer : Chalukyas of Vakataka
70. Who of the following Chola kings assumed the title of the Mummadi Chola?
      a) Vijayalaya
      b) Rajaraya
      c) Rajendra I
      d) None of the above
71. In the Chola kingdom, a very large village administered as a single unit was called:
      a) Nadu
      b) Kurram
      c) Kottram
      d) All the above
72. The first sultan of Delhi to issue regular currency and declare Delhi as the capital of his empire was:
      a) Aram Shah
      b) Iltumish
      c) Nasiruddin Mahmud
      d) None of the above
73. From the death of Iltumish till the accession of Balban the actual power was wielded by:
      a) The army
      b) The nobility
      c) The theologians
      d) None of the above
74. In a formal sense, which of the following correctly describes the nature of the state during
      sultanate period in India?
      a) Theocracy
      b) Democracy
      c) Autocracy
      d) None of the above
75. During Sultanate period, the nobility of the sultanate was largely composed of:
      a) Arabs
      b) Afghans
      c) Turks
      d) None of the above
76. Who were called barids?
      a) The spy reporters
      b) The king’s bodyguards
      c) The officers in-charge of accounts and receipts
      d) None of the above
77. The South India ruler whose kingdom could not be annexed to sultanate of Delhi by the Tughlaq?
      a) Yadavas of Devagiri
      b) Kakatiyas of Warangal
      c) Hoysalas of Dwarasumudra
      d) None of the above
78. Krishnadeva Raya belonged to the :
      a) Sangama dynasty
      b) Saluva dynasty
      c) Tuluva dynasty
      d) None of the above
79. Which of the following crops in Vijayanagar empire was widely exported?
      a) Black Pepper
      b) Tea
      c) Tobacco
      d) None of the above
80. With the construction of which of the following buildings of Mandu is the name of
      Mahmud Khilji not associated?
      a) Hindola Mahal
      b) Jahaz Mahal
      c) Jama Maszid
      d) None of the above
Hint: Hindola Mahal in Mandu is an ancient construction which was built under the rule of Ghiyasud-din Khilji’s reign.
81. Which of the following introduced Perso-Arabic melodies (ragas) into Indian Music?
      a) Firdausi
      b) Sadi
      c) Amir Khusrau
      d) None of the above
82. The sultan of Delhi who did not contribute to the development of composite Hindustani music was :
      a) Kaiqubad
      b) Alauddin Khilji
      c) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
      d) None of the above
83. Which one of the following territories was not under the possession of the Afghans at the time of Akbar’s accession?
      a) Malwa
      b) Bengal
      c) Mewat
      d) None of the above     
84. Which one of the following province in north-west proved to be most valuable of acquisition of Akbar?
      a) Kabul
      b) Kashmir
      c) Kandhar
      d) None of the above
85. The English governor in India who was expelled by Aurangzeb was :
      a) Aungier
      b) Sir Jhon Child
      c) Sir John Gayer
      d) None of the above
86. Who called the English in Bengal ‘a company of base , quarrelling people and foul dealers’?
      a) Aurangzeb
      b) Shayista Khan, Mughal Governor of Bengal
      c) Mir Jumla
      d) None of the above
87. The chief gain to shivaji from his two raids on surat in 1664 and 1670 was:
      a) Immense increase in his prestige
      b) Demoralisation of the Mughal Forces
      c) A loot of booty
      d) None of the above
88. The most important achievement of Madhav Rao was that :
      a) He stored Shah Alam II, the exiled Mughal emperor, to the Delhi throne
      b) He subdued the Bhonsles of Nagpur
      c) He improved the moral tone of the Marathon administration
      d) None of the above
89. The Maratha Chief who did not join the alliance against the English at first and took the field
      only when it was too late?
      a) Holkar
      b) Bhonsle
      c) Gaekwar
      d) None of the above
90. The Maratha navy in the Eighteenth century was developed by:
      a) The Sindhias
      b) The Gaikwars
      c) The Angrias
      d) None of the above
91. The backbone of the armies of the misls was the:
      a) Infantary
      b) Cavalary
      c) Artillery
      d) None of the above
92. In fourth Anglo Mysore war (1799), Tipu was defeated and killed, who of the following did not get share in tipu’s territories?
      a) The English
      b) The Marathas
      c) The Nizam
      d) None of the above
93. Who of the following Nawab/Governors of Bengal concluded a treaty with the Maratha and agreed to pay them an annual tribute as Chauth and ceded to them the revenues of a part of Orissa?
      a) Marshid Qulikhan
      b) Shuja-ud-din
      c) Alivardi Khan
      d) None of the above
94. Ahmad shah abdali or durrani was one of the nadir shah’s ablest generals. He invaded india several times between 1748-1767. During which one of his campaigns was he defeated and
      put to flight ?
      a) First
      b) Third
      c) Fifth
      d) None of the above
95. What was the prime mistake committed by siraj ud daula in his campaign against the English in june 1756?
      a) He failed to assess the real strength of the English in Bengal.
      b) He was ignorant of the treachery of men in his court.
      c) He let the English escape with their ships to Fulta.
      d) He failed to win the support of his cousin Shakut Jang
96. After Bengal, the English secured the rights of duty free trade in the dominions of :
      a) Raya of Benaras
      b) Nawab of Awadh
      c) The Nizam of Hyderabad
      d) None of the above
97. In 1775, who reffered to the nawab of Bengal as “a Phantom, a man of straw” ?
      a) Warren Hastings
      b) A member of the court of Directors
      c) A judge of the supreme court of Calcutta
      d) None of the above
98. The ryotwari settlement was primarily introduced by British Government in ?
      a) Bengal & Bihar
      b) United Provinces
      c) Madras & Bombay
      d) None of the above
99. The trade which was virtually monopolised by the European merchants in india, was :
      a) Import trade
      b) Textile export
      c) Export trade in Agriculture produce
      d) None of the above
100. India’s growing poverty under the British rule is confirmed by :
      a) Increasing frequency and Intensity of Famines
      b) Increasing indebtedness of the Peasantry
      c) Transfer of land from cultivating to non cultivating classes
      d) None of the above


                        Answers   
    1. c    2. a    3. c    4. c    5. c    6. c    7. c    8. a    9. b    10. b          
  11. b    12. b    13. b    14. a    15. b    16. c    17. a    18. b    19. a    20. c       
21. c    22. c    23. b    24. b    25. a    26. b    27. b    28. b    29. b    30. a            
31. a    32. b    33. b    34. a    35. c    36. c    37. b    38. c    39. b    40. c            
41. b    42. b    43. b    44. a    45. b    46. c    47. c    48. b    49. d    50. b            
51. c    52. c    53. c    54. b    55. a    56. c    57. b    58. a    59. c    60. c           
61. a    62. c    63. a    64. a    65. c    66. c    67. c    68. d    69. d    70. d           
71. c    72. b    73. b    74. c    75. d    76. a    77. c    78. c    79. a    80. a
81. c    82. c    83. c    84. c    85. b    86. b    87. c    88. c    89. a    90. c           
91. b    92. b    93. c    94. a    95. c    96. c    97. c    98. c    99. b    100. b