Showing posts with label CURRENT AFFAIRS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label CURRENT AFFAIRS. Show all posts

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

GST is a unified taxation system which would end multiple taxation across the states and create a level playing field for businesses throughout the country, much like the developed nations. It is a multi-stage destination-based tax which will be collected at every stage, starting from procuring the raw material to selling the final product. The credit of taxes paid at the previous stage(s) will be available for set-off at the next stage of supply. Being destination or a consumption based, the GST will also end multiple taxes levied by Centre and the State Governments like Central Excise, Service Tax, VAT, Central Sales Tax, Octroi, Entry Tax, Luxury Tax and Entertainment Tax etc.  This will lower the overall tax burden on the consumer and will benefit the industry through better cash flows and working capital management. Currently, 17 State and Central levies are being applied on goods as they move from one State to the other.


Different estimates peg the net advantage to the Gross Domestic Product, up to two percentage points.  The GST regime is also expected to result in better tax compliance, thereby increasing its revenue and narrowing the Budget deficit. All the imported goods will be charged Integrated Goods & Services Tax (IGST) which is equivalent to the Central GST + State GST. This will bring equality with taxation on local products.

Mainly, there will be three types of taxes under the GST regime: Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST), State (or Union Territory) Goods and Services Tax (SGST) and Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST). Tax levied by the Centre on intra-State supply of goods or services would be called the CGST and that to be levied by the States and Union Territories(UTs) would be called the SGST respectively. The IGST would be levied and collected by the Centre on inter-State supply of goods and services. Four supplementary legislations approving these taxes, namely the Central GST Bill, the Integrated GST Bill, The GST (Compensation to States) Bill, and the Union Territory GST Bill were passed by the Lok Sabha in May this year, making the realisation of 1st July, 2017 deadline a reality.

All the matters related to the GST are dealt upon by the GST Council headed by the Union Finance Minister while all the State Finance Ministers are its Members. The GST Council also has a provision to adjudicate disputes arising out of its recommendation or implementation thereof.


The GST Council has fixed four broad tax slabs under the new GST system - 5 per cent, 12 per cent, 18 per cent and 28 per cent. On top of the highest slab, there is a cess on luxury and demerit goods to compensate the States for revenue loss in the first five years of GST implementation. Most of the goods and services have been listed under the four slabs, but a few like gold and rough diamonds have exclusive tax rates. Also, some items have been exempted from taxation. The essential items have been kept in the lowest tax bracket, whereas luxury goods and tobacco products will invite higher tax.


Many countries in the world switched to a unified taxation system very early. France was the first country to do so in 1954 and many others followed, some by implementing GST and others by using a different form of Value Added Tax (VAT). In India, the discussion on GST started in the year 2000, in the NDA Government led by the former Prime Minister, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Finally, after 17 years of consensus building, 101st Constitution Amendment Bill was passed by Parliament in 2016. The States had apprehension of reduction in their revenue and their desire to keep some lucrative goods out of the GST baskets like alcohol, petroleum and real estate among others.


From agarbattis (incense sticks) to luxury cars - all these goods will be taxed under different slabs. Movie tickets costing less than Rs 100 have been kept in the 18% GST slab while those over Rs 100 will attract 28% tax under GST. Tobacco products have been kept under a higher tax bracket. Industries such as textiles and, gems and jewellery are subject to a GST rate of 5%

The Government has shown its strong determination and stuck to implementing the GST with effect from 1st July, 2017. The road ahead would require a lot of resolve by the implementing agencies like the Goods and Services Network, states and the industry.    To sail through initial hiccups and successfully steer the ship of the economy, the Government needs to show the same determination and courage. A bold initiative like GST taken for the welfare of the country must lead to a grand success.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Multiple-planet solar system discovered

Planetary scientists have discovered what they claim is an unusual multiple-planet solar system containing a ‘super-Earth’ and two Neptune-sized planets orbiting in resonance with each other. A team led by Bill Cochran of The University of Texas at Austin, used NASA’s Kepler spacecraft to discover the multi -planet system.

The planets have been designated b, c, and d. All three planets orbit much closer to Kepler-18 , a star similar to the sun , say the scientists.

Planet b weighs in at about 6.9 times the mass of Earth, and is twice Earth’s size and considered a super-Earth with a 3.5-day period; planet c has a mass of about 17 Earths, is about 5.5 times Earth’s size and orbits Kepler-18 in 7.6 days. Planet d weighs in at 16 Earths, at 7 times Earth’s size, and has a 14.9-day orbit.

Asia’s largest solar farm commissioned

Moser Baer energy Limited (MBCEL) has successfully commissioned the 30 MW solar farm at Gunthawada, District Banaskantha, Gujarat. It is the largest solar energy farm of Asia, built on 305 acres of land, using 2,36,000 thin film modules. The project will generate 52 million KWh energy per year, and will help save about 50,000 tonnes of carbon emission annually.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

sushil kumar wins Rs. 5 crore jackpot on Kaun Banega Crorepati 5

KBC 5 has  got its first contestant to win ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati 5′. Sushil kumar from Bihar who is a computer operator and a tutor has won the jackpot amount of Rs 5 crore. Sushil Kumar earns Rs 6000 per month .the episode will be telecated on 2 November.Five months back, he got married.
 Sushil made wise moves while answering the questions. His deftness and presence of mind saw him cross all the hurdles until he got stuck at the thirteenth question, which was about the colonial power that withdrew its involvement from the Nicobar Island in 1968.
Sushil was doubtful about the answer so he made use of two of his lifelines – Phone a Friend and Double Dip – and came up with the answer that won him the dream amount. As a youngster, Sushil wanted to take the civil services exams. He wanted to come to Delhi and prepare for the exams. However, he could not do so as he was unable to afford the expensive coaching classes in the Capital. Now, after having won the bounty, Sushil plans to enroll himself at a prominent coaching institute in Delhi and start preparing for his dream job.

Friday, October 14, 2011

World Championships, 2011

The IAAF World Championships were held in Daegu, South Korea.

The United States led the team tally with 12 gold and 25 medals in all. Russia was next with nine gold and 19 total, followed by Kenya with seven gold and 17 in all. Jamaica took home nine medals—four of those gold—while Germany and Great Britain & Northern Ireland each won seven medals apiece.

Several multiple medallist emerged from the championships, with Kenyan Vivian Cheruiyot, who took top honors in the 5000 and 10,000m, the lone double champion.

Allyson Felix notched four medal finishes, a pair of golds in the Relays and individual silver (400m) and bronze (200m). Her compatriot Carmelita Jeter collected three, gold in the 100m, the 4x100m Relay, and silver in the 200m.

Jamaica's Yohan Blake won the world championships 100m final after red hot favourite and defending champion Usain Bolt sensationally false started. Bolt, running in lane five, went early, stunning a hugely expectant crowd in Daegu, who looked on shocked as the distraught superstar ripped off his shirt and held his head in disbelief before leaving the track.

Carmelita Jeter of the United States held off a strong field to claim gold in the women's 100m. Jeter, who won bronze at the last two world championships, was locked with defending champion Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce of Jamaica right through until the line.

American Brittney Reese successfully defended her world long jump title with her first and only legitimate jump of 6.82 metres. Reese was the first woman to successfully defend the world title since compatriot Jackie Joyner-Kersee in 1991 and her victory gave the United States their first medal of the championships.

In all, athletes from 41 countries took home medals.

The 2013 edition of the championships will be held in Moscow, Russia.

Switch from coal to natural gas no boon to climate

Relying more on natural gas than on coal would not significantly slow down the effects of climate change, even though direct carbon dioxide emissions would be less, a new study has found.

Burning coal emits far more climate-warming carbon dioxide than natural gas does, but it also releases lots of sulfates and other particles that block incoming sunlight and help cool the Earth.

Using more natural gas for fuel could also produce leaks of methane, a heat-trapping greenhouse gas more than 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, study author Tom Wigley said in a statement.

A global, partial shift from coal to natural gas would speed up global warming slightly through at least 2050, even with no methane leaks from natural gas operations. If there were substantial methane leaks, the acceleration of climate change would continue through as late as 2140, according to Wigley's computer simulations.

Monday, October 10, 2011


In which country 2011 CLT20 tournament was held?

In which cities 2011 CLT20 matches were played?
Bangalore,Hyderabad and Chennai

Which 3 Indian teams qualified for the main tournament?
Mumbai Indians, Royal Challengers Bangalore and Chennai Super Kings

Which Indian team was knocked out in the Robin Round format of 2011 CLt20?
Kolkata Knight Riders

Who is leading Mumbai Indian team in CLT20 2011?
Harbhajan Singh

Which team were the defending champions?
Chennai Super Kings

Which team had scored the fastest hundred in 2011 CLT20 tournament?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB)

In how many overs RCB team scored the fastest hundred of the tournament?
8.4 overs

Which cricketer holds the record for most runs scored in a CLT20 tournament?
David Warner

Which cricketer had hit six on the last ball of the match to make team RCB qualify for 2011 CLT20 semifinal?
Arun Kartik

In which city the first semi final of 2011 CLT20 was played?

Which two teams played the first semifinal of 2011 CLT20 at Bangalore?
RCB and New South Wales

Which team won the first semifinal played at Bengaluru to qualify for 2011 CLT20 final?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB)

Which cricketer had hit 11 sixes in the first semifinal match against RCB?
David Warner

Who was awarded Man of the Match in first semifinal match played between RCB and NSW?
Virat Kohli for his knock of 84 runs in just 49 balls

In which city was CLT20 second semifinal played?

Which two teams played the second semifinal match of CLT20 2011?
Mumbai Indians and Somerset

Which team won the second semifinal match played at Chennai?
Mumbai Indians

Who was awarded the Man of the match in the second semifinal of 2011 CLT20?
Lasith Malinga for claiming 4 wickets

Which two Indian teams played the 2011 CLT20 final match?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) vs Mumbai Indians (MI)

On which date was 2011 CLT20 final match played?
9th October,2011

In which city was the CLT20 2011 final match held?

Who won the CLT20 2011 title?
Mumbai Indians

Who was awarded man of the match in CLT20 2011 finals?
Habhajan Singh

Who was awarded man of the series in CLT20 2011?

Friday, September 30, 2011

CAG of India Appointed External Auditor OF IAEA and WIPO

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has been appointed as the external auditor of two major UN organizations - the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Geneva. Both these organizations have traditionally been the stronghold of the developed world and it is for the first time that a Supreme Audit Institution from outside Europe has been appointed to these prestigious positions. These appointments were made in the face of competition from other developed countries like United Kingdom, Spain and Norway.

These appointments for organizations such as IAEA and WIPO, which are specialized agencies, is a recognition of the professional capabilities of the CAG`s auditing talent pool. The international community has acknowledged that public auditors of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department have high professional competence. In particular, their knowledge, expertise and domain experience in conducting performance audits has been highly acclaimed. It is in recognition of such expertise that in the face of competition from Auditors` General of developed countries such as UK and Norway, the CAG of India has been preferred. The tenure of these audits could extend up to six years.

The CAG of India is on the Panel of External Auditors of the United Nations and its Agencies. He is the chair of the Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Services Committee of the International Organization of the Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI), the global body of Auditors` General which has a membership of 184. He also chairs the INTOSAI Working Group on IT Audit. The CAG of India is also on the Governing Board of the Asian Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (ASOSAI) and is poised to take over as its Chairman for a term of three years from March 2012.

The institution of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) is recognized as one of the most professionally accomplished Supreme Audit Institutions in the world. The CAG occupies a pre-eminent position in the international community of public auditors and is a prominent member of INTOSAI. The recognition of the capabilities of the CAG of India has in the past manifested in his appointment on the Board of Auditors of the United Nations and as external auditor to a number of other major UN agencies like Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), International Maritime Organization (IMO), Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) etc.

Saturday, September 3, 2011

National Green Tribunal

National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a judicial body constituted to try all matters related to environmental issues. The Tribunal is headed by Justice L.S. Panta. The first sitting of NGT was held on July 4, 2011.

Monday, August 29, 2011

State-Wise Minor Ports

Union Minister of Shipping, Shri G.K. Vasan informed the Lok Sabha today in a written reply to a question that as per the records available with the Ministry of Shipping, state-wise break-up of Non – Major Ports (Minor Ports) are as follows:
                     Gujarat                -    41                       Lakshadweep       -      10
                     Maharashtra        -    48                       A & N Islands      -     23
                     Karnataka            -    10                       Tamilnadu            -      15
                     Andhra Pradesh   -    12                      Goa                      -       5
                     Orissa                  -    13                      Daman & Diu        -       2
                     Kerala                  -    17                       Pondicherry          -        2
                     West Bengal        -      1

The Minister further stated that the Union Government is responsible for development of 12 Major Ports wherein loading and unloading of cargo from large ships is done.   

As per Indian Ports Act, 1908,   the responsibility for development and promotion of such ports vests with the respective State Governments, the Minister added.

Capitals, Governors and Chief Ministers of States

States CapitalsGovernorsChief Ministers
(1) Andhra PradeshHyderabadMr. E.S.L.NarasimhanMr. N.Kiran Kumar Reddy
(2) Arunachal PradeshItanagarGen. (Retd.) J. J. SinghMr. Jarbom Gamlin
(3) AssamDispurMr. J. B. PatnaikMr. Tarun Gogoi
(4) BiharPatnaMr. Devanand KonwarMr. Nitish Kumar
(5) ChhattisgarhRaipurMr. Shekhar DuttDr. Raman Singh
(6) GoaPanajiMr. K. SankaranarayanMr. Digambar V. Kamat
(7) GujaratGandhinagarDr. Kamla BeniwalMr. Narendra Modi
(8) HaryanaChandigarhMr. Jagannath PahadiaMr. Bhupinder S. Hooda
(9) Himachal PradeshShimlaMs. Urmila SinghMr. Prem Kumar Dhumal
(10) Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (Summer) Jammu (Winter)Mr. N. N. VohraMr. Omar Abdullah
(11) JharkhandRanchiDr. Syed Ahmed Mr. Arjun Munda
(12) KarnatakaBengaluruMr. Hans Raj BhardwajMr. DV Sadananda Gowda
(13) KeralaThiruvananthapuramMr. M. O. H. FarookMr. V. S. Achuthanandan
(14) Madhya PradeshBhopalMr. Ram Naresh YadavMr. Shivraj Singh Chauhan
(15) MaharashtraMumbaiMr. K. Sankaranarayan Mr. Prithviraj Chavan
(16) ManipurImphalMr. Gurbachan JagatMr.Okram Ibobi Singh
(17) MeghalayaShillongMr. R. S. MooshaharyMr. Mukul A. Sangma
(18) MizoramAizawlMr. Vakkom PurushothamanMr.Lalthanhawla
(19) NagalandKohimaMr. Nikhil KumarMr. Neiphiu Rio
(20) OrissaBhubaneswarMr. M. C. BhandareMr. Naveen Patnaik
(21) PunjabChandigarhMr. Shivraj V. PatilMr. Parkash Singh Badal
(22) RajasthanJaipurMr. Shivraj V. Patil (Acting)Mr. Ashok Gehlot
(23) SikkimGangtokMr. Balmiki Prasad SinghMr. Pawan Chamling
(24) Tamil NaduChennaiMr. K RosaiahMs. Jayalalithaa
(25) TripuraAgartalaMr. D. Y. PatilMr. Manik Sarkar
(26) UttarakhandDehradunMs. Margaret AlvaMr. Ramesh Pokhriyal
(27) Uttar PradeshLucknowMr. B. L. JoshiMs. Mayawati
(28) West BengalKolkataMr. M. K. NarayananMs. Mamata Banerjee

Saturday, August 6, 2011

Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture in India

Inland fisheries resources of India are noted as much for their heterogeneity in composition as for their rich production potential. India is bestowed with vast and varied inland fisheries resources comprising rivers and canals, reservoirs, ponds and tanks, floodplain lakes and wetlands and brackish-waters. Besides, substantial area amenable for coldwater fisheries exists in the medium and higher-altitudes of the Himalayan belt. Inland fisheries including aquaculture have been a vital source of food, nutrition, employment and economic gain for humanity, since ancient times. However, the sector has assumed more significance in recent years, especially in developing countries like India, due to the large contributions to the overall fish production, nutritional security and gainful employment generation.

India is the second largest producer of fish in the world contributing to 5.5 per cent of global fish production. India is also a major producer of fish through aquaculture and ranks second in the world after China. The total fish production achieved during 2010-11 (provisional) is at 8.03 million metric tonnes and the contribution of fish from inland sector alone is at 5.07 million metric tonnes which is about 63% of overall fish production. As per the estimates of Central Statistical Organization (CSO), the values of output from fisheries sector at current price during 2009-10 was 67,913 crore which is 4.9 per cent of the total output of Agriculture and allied sectors. It is one of the major contributors to India’s exports. During 2010-11 (Provisional) the volume of fish and fish products exported was 7,52,791 tonnes worth 12,100 crore.

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector with an annual growth of around 7 per cent. It has been estimated that by the end of XI Five Year Plan (2011-12) the demand for fish and fish products would be around 9.74 million tons, and this increase has to be mostly met from aquaculture and culture based captured fisheries in reservoirs. Taking into consideration the vast aquatic resources in the country, the target seems achievable.

Although, it has long been recognized that fish production from inland waters can play a definite role in mitigating the protein deficiency in India, this resource is not contributing to the nutrition requirement of Indian masses to the extent that it should have been .This has been mainly on account of more emphasis on marine fishery in the past and due to lack of awareness and proper training skills for fishing community.

Recognising the economic, social, nutritional, environmental and aesthetic importance of inland fisheries and aquaculture, the Government through several measures have aspired to introduce buoyancy in the inland fishery sector .Therefore, to draw the economic, social and nutritional benefits from inland fisheries and aquaculture in a sustainable manner, it has been perceived to adopt a judicious combination of implementation and effective regulatory framework, eco-friendly fishing and aquaculture practices with the larger involvement of the fisher communities and fish farmers.

With this objective in mind, the Government recently drafted model guidelines on Inland fisheries and aquaculture, which has been circulated to all State Governments for effective implementation. Through these guidelines, the Government intends to ensure sustainable fish productive to meet the needs of food and nutritional security, generation of gainful employment in rural sector and to improve the socio-economic condition of the target groups.

The Government recognizes the need for availability of quality seed and feed if the growth in inland fish production has to be sustained in the long run. Therefore, the Government circulated guidelines to all the State Governments for establishment of a seed certification and accreditation system in their respective States. These guidelines, inter-alia, provide procedures for accreditation of hatcheries and seed farms, quality benchmarks, seed certification process and the structure of the implementing agency.

It has been observed that inland fishery today is dominated mainly by the freshwater fishery. In order for enhanced production, there is a need for diversification of fish production in other areas like integrated fish farming, cold water fisheries, riverine fisheries, capture fisheries, brackish water fishery etc. The recent measures therefore have targeted Intensive Aquaculture in ponds and tanks through integrated fish farming, carp polyculture, freshwater prawn culture, running water fish culture and development of riverine fisheries. The reservoir fisheries is being promoted through cage culture and pen culture and by setting up fish rearing units on large scale.

The Centrally Sponsored Scheme –“Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture” provide assistance to fish farmers through State Governments, with the objective of developing various components of inland fisheries and aquaculture that include development of freshwater, brackish water, cold water, reservoir fisheries and also to encourage integrated fish farming.

A new mission mode scheme called “National Mission for protein Supplements (NMPS)” was launched very recently with an outlay of Rs 100 crore for undertaking cage and pen culture in reservoirs and for intensive aquaculture in ponds and tanks in 12 identified States with an objective of enhancing the fish production and productivity of reservoirs and ponds and tanks.

All these measures are expected to improve the fisheries and aquaculture sector further and will consolidate the position of India in the Global fish production and aquaculture

Juno leaves for Jupiter

NASA on August 05 launched the billion-dollar solar-powered spacecraft Juno on a five-year journey to Jupiter. The unmanned satellite observatory shot into space aboard a 197-foot-tall (60 metres) Atlas V rocket, blasting off from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 12:25 p.m.
“Ignition and lift-off on the Atlas V with Juno on a trek to Jupiter, a planetary piece of the puzzle on the beginning of our solar system,” said a NASA television commentator.
Once it arrives in July 2016, the spacecraft will orbit the poles of the gas giant, which has more than twice the mass of all planets in the solar system combined and is believed to be the first planet that took shape around the Sun.
Named after the wife of the Roman god Jupiter, the $1.1 billion spacecraft is NASA's first mission to the planet since Galileo was launched in 1989. It aims for 30 orbits over a period of one year.
Juno will get closer to Jupiter than any other NASA spacecraft has and will be the first to undertake a polar orbit of the planet, said Scott Bolton, Juno principal investigator and scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. 
“Juno is set up to learn about that early part of the solar system and learn how Jupiter formed and by measuring the ingredients. We are really looking for the recipe of planet formation.”
The orbiter Galileo entered the planet's orbit in 1995 and plunged into Jupiter in 2003, ending its life.
Other NASA spacecraft — including Voyager 1 and 2, Ulysses and New Horizons — have done flybys of the planet.
Juno will spend the first two years of its mission going around the Sun, then return for a flyby of the Earth, which will give a gravitational boost to accelerate the spacecraft on a three-year path toward Jupiter.
When it gets there, Juno — orbiting around 5,000 km (3,100 miles) above the gas giant — will make use of a series of instruments, some of which were provided by European space agency partners in Italy, Belgium, France and Denmark, to learn about the workings of the planet and what is inside.
Two key experiments will gauge how much water is in Jupiter and whether the planet “has a core of heavy elements at the centre, or whether it is just gas all the way down,” Mr. Bolton said at a press briefing last week.
Scientists also hope to learn more about Jupiter's magnetic fields and its Great Red Spot, a storm that has been raging for more than 300 years.
“One of the fundamental questions is how deep are the roots to that red spot? How does it maintain itself for so long?" said Mr. Bolton.
Juno is carrying a few toys as part of a campaign to raise awareness among young people about math and science.
Three 1.5 inch figurines made by LEGO toys are on board — a likeness of the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, who discovered four of Jupiter's moons, the Roman god Jupiter, and his wife Juno.
Back in 2003, when plans for Juno were being crafted, NASA briefly considered using some sort of nuclear fuel to power the spacecraft, but engineers decided it would be quicker and less risky to go with solar.
Juno is part of a series of new planetary science missions, to be followed by GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory), which is headed to the moon in September, and the Mars Science Laboratory set to take off in November

Friday, August 5, 2011

National Rural Livelihoods Mission

Odisha has become the first state in the country to launch National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) in its bid to bring down rural poverty by promoting diversified and gainful self-employment to the rural poor. NRLM will replace the Swarnajayanti Gram Swrojgar Yojana (SGSY) aimed at poverty reduction. The main weaknesses of the SGSY were uneven spread in the formation of Self-Help Groups (SHGs), high attrition rate in the SHGs, lack of adequate access to banking facilities, lack of capacity building and training and inadequate risk mitigation. NRLM would provide greater focus and momentum for poverty reduction to achieve the various Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

In the first phase, NRLM has been launched in 38 backward poverty stricken blocks of 10 districts where the World Bank-funded Targeted Rural Initiatives for Poverty Termination and Infrastructure (TRIPTI) is being implemented. Though objectives of NRLM and TRIPTI are almost same, the former is now restructured to target the poorest of the poor who have been uncovered yet. In the second phase of the project, Schedule Areas, including four blocks from 11 districts covered under Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP), JEEVIKA and The Orissa Tribal Empowerment and Livelihood Programme (OTELP) and five Left Wing Extremists- affected districts such as Gajapati, Malkangiri, Rayagada, Sambalpur and Deogarh will be covered. By the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan, all 30 districts would have come under NRLM. The programme is expected to adopt a multipronged strategy to reduce poverty by enabling the poor households to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities. This programme is designed in a way to be implemented by a dedicated support structure starting from bottom to top. Cluster-level forum and gram panchayat level forum will be constituted and through them, various activities for livelihood generation will be created, so that wastage of funds can be stopped and maximum dividend of the project is made available to the needy section of the society

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

First Indian record of supernova found in Kashmir

With the help of a mural at the mosque of Madani in Srinagar, researchers claim to have found the “first firm record” of a supernova event, which occurred in the Indian subcontinent centuries ago.
Researchers from the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the University of Kashmir said the mural, depicted on a door arch in the mosque, shows the supernova as a dragon-head on the tail of the Sagittarius constellation.
Although the original mural is now lost, some descriptions about it are available and a reproduction exists with the Department of Central Asian Studies’ museum in University of Kashmir, the journal Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes) published from Germany said.
“Now, for the first time, we have found an Indian record of a supernova event,” Prof. Mayank Vahia of TIFR, co-author of the study and principal investigator of the research project ‘Archaeoastronomy in Indian Context’ said.
“Many researchers had extensively searched Sanskrit literature for years and when no record was found, it was generally assumed that no records would ever be found. We looked at the non-literary sources and that proved to be decisive,” he said.
“I was always puzzled why the Sagittarius in this mural had a dragon-head on its tail. We had information about the mural including its rough period, but did not understand its meaning,” Prof. Aijaz Bandey from Kashmir University said.
“Archaeoastronomy project brought the astronomers and us together. The discovery again underscores multidisciplinary nature of modern research,” he added. For centuries, astronomers from different countries have noted such supernovae appearing in the sky from time to time.
While Chinese were the most meticulous record-keepers, records have also been found in Japan, Korea, Arab world, Europe and amongst native Americans.
The supernova of 1572 AD was systematically observed by famous astronomer Tycho Brahe and the one in 1604 AD was studied by another legendary astronomer Johannes Kepler. These records span from 185 AD to 1604 AD, overlapping with the golden era of Indian astronomy.
“Thus, it was enigmatic that no Indian record of a supernova had been found till date,” Vahia said.
Explaining the mural, Dr. Aniket Sule of HBCSE, lead author of the study said, “This picture of Sagittarius is pretty much like other contemporary depictions in Mughal India, except for the dragon-head.”
“In the year 1604, a supernova exploded in the exact region, where that dragon-head is. Moreover, three other bright objects, namely Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were in close vicinity of the supernova when it exploded. Together they would have looked, as if, the tail of the Sagittarius was suddenly breathing fire,” he said.

Sunday, July 10, 2011

National Centre for Marine Biodiversity

National Centre for Marine Biodiversity (NCMB) is coming up at Jamnagar for safeguarding the biodiversity of the coastal areas. This is country’s first research institute established in public private partnership (PPP) mode in the country.

With a growing emphasis on coastal and marine area management, it has now become inevitable to institutionalize a process for greater and in-depth research in the marine environment, to ensure that measured steps are taken in the direction for better and efficient management of the fast depleting marine resource. With this objective, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, in collaboration with the Gujarat Ecology Commission, launched the NCMB in Jamnagar. Jamnagar, a port town, was selected for the centre because of its proximity to India's only National Marine Park — spread over some 200 in the Gulf of Kutch.

The Centre envisions a long-term conservation and better management of coastal and marine biodiversity in India. Its overall mission is to support integrated management of coastal and marine biodiversity and ensure sustainable development and hazard risk management. The Centre aims at developing a repository of information on marine life to facilitate marine biodiversity conservation and management in India. The Centre will also be instrumental in promoting world class research activity in respect of the coastal and marine eco-systems, and would impart training and education to the youth for maintaining the ecological balance in the fragile coastal areas, awareness with respect to marine biodiversity conservation and ecological literacy.

By inculcating aspects of research and development into conservation process, this facility is likely to mitigate the severe rise in number of endangered biodiversity. It has been noted that over the years, marine biodiversity has been readily ignored in India’s conservation programs. So far, around 25 species of fish and amphibians have been listed as critically endangered species in India, and without proper conservational and research programs, much of marine biodiversity may face the brunt extinction. All the marine species listed as critically endangered do not have protected habitats and hence there is a need to expand the network of marine national parks to begin addressing this important issue.

The centre is a part of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project launched recently by the Ministry with World Bank assistance through the Society for Integrated Coastal Management, to be managed in the State by the Gujarat Ecology Commission. It will be the first marine national park of India located under the Reliance turf of Jamnagar.The RIL has committed an initial contribution of Rs. 10 Crore to the centre. A total of Rs 20 crore has been earmarked for the next two to three years .More financial resources would be required.

Achievements of Indian Polar Program

National Center for Antarctica and Ocean Research (NCAOR) launched and led India’s first ever National scientific Expedition to South Pole. They participated in the international celebration of centenary of man’s reaching South Pole in 1911 and unfurled the Indian Flag on Geographical South Pole on 20th November, 2010. The 8 member team of expert in the field of specific scientific activity carried out many experiments and collected many specimens.         
Scientific highlights
 The team conducted scientific experiments enroute. A number of new species of bacteria have been identified from cold habitats. In Antarctica 30 out of 240 new species discovered so far have been from India. 12 new species of bacteria have been reported from the Polar regions during 2008-2011.
Two genes namely t-RNA modification GTPase and aspratate aminotransferase have been identified as genes required for survival of bacteria at low temperature.  A number of cold active and heat labile enzymes (protease, RNAase, Time GTPase etc) with application in biotechnology have been purified to homogeneity.

Using meta-genome analysis, bacterial diversity has been found to be extremely diverse and a few of them have been implicated in hydrocarbon remediation.

 Biological samples which include soil samples from Antarctica have indicated Leads for some pharmaceutical uses. These are being developed in association  with  Piramal Life Sciences, to take it further.
 Scientific Publications
·         A Special Issue in the Indian Journal of Marine Sciences entitled “Antarctic and Southern ocean physical processes, published in March 2008, vol. 37(1), p.1-110, ISSN:0379-5136
·         A Special Issue in the   Indian Journal of Marine Sciences entitled “International Polar Year – Studies on Antarctic and Southern Ocean” published in
December 2008, vol. 37(4), p.1-110, ISSN: 0379-5136
·         A Special Issue in the Indian Journal of Geosciences entitled “Antarctica Special”, brought out in the Journal from Geological Survey of India.
 Vol.63, No.2, 2009, ISSN 0019-5936
·         Three Technical Reports comprising of  Scientific Report of the Indian Antarctic Programme has been published
a.       Technical Publication No.19 – Scientific Report of the
 XXI Indian Expedition to Antarctica
b.      Technical Publication No.20 – Scientific Report of the
XXII Indian Expedition to Antarctica
c.       Technical Publication No.21 – Scientific Report of the
 XXIII Indian Expedition to Antarctica
·         A Monograph on Lichens from Antarctic published by NCAOR in 2010 April.
·         Bi-Annual Polar News is being publishes , bilingually, since last three years.
Capacity Building
·         A total of 106 scientific members have participated in the last three years from 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10 respectively representing different organizations and institutions.
·         Under Student Participation Scheme in the Indian Antarctic Program to develop human resource in the field of polar regions, 05 students have participated in the last three expeditions and two have joined NCAOR as Junior Research Fellows for furtherance of the scientific research.
·         Universities have been encouraged to participate and the participants include members from Barkatullah University- Bhopal, Dr.R.M.L.Avadh University, Faizabad, Allahabad University [KBCAOS], Visva Bharati Santiniketan

Antarctica linked to Goa by IT Connectivity
·         NCAOR is now linked with Maitri – Antarctica 24 X 7 by a Satellite connectivity. This was made operational by installing 3.2 meters C-band antenna enclosed in a RAYDOME at Maitri and a corresponding facility at NCAOR Campus.
International recognition
Ø India is represented in the international bodies linked to Polar activity by NCAOR.
Ø India  elected as Vice Chair of Council of Managers of Antarctic Program (COMNAP) 2008-10
Ø India elected as Vice Chair of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) 2008-10, 2010-12.
Ø India  is currently the Chair of  the Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS)  for the term  2010-12
Ø India was a member of Selection Committee of Martha Muse Award of US $100, 00 for outstanding contributions in Antarctic science and policy matters.
Ø  Two SCAR fellowships, in the years 2009-10 and 2010-11 were bagged by NCAOR researchers namely:  Nuncio Murukesh  and
Dr. Sunil Kumar Shukla
NCAOR scientist continues to represent India in UNCLOS, a UN body to oversee the claims of nations pertaining to legal continental shelf.

Friday, July 8, 2011


1.International Day for Disaster Reduction is observed on:
(a) 9th August                        
 (b) 13th October 
(c) 24th November                
(d) 11th December
2. Who authored the book ‘The Science of Bharat Natyam’?
(a) Saroja Vaidyanathan          
(b) Yamini Krishnamurthi 
( c) J. Sushila                          
(d) None of these
Answer a

3. Tianhe 1A, the world’s fastest supercomputer is made by
(a) United States 
(b) Japan   
(c) China   
(d) None of these
 Answer :c

4. Which is India’s first ever Pollution Control Warship?
(a) Samudra Prahari   
(b) Nischaya   
(c) Varuna   
(d) None of these

5. Who became India’s youngest grandmaster?
(a) Parimarjan Negi   
(b) Dronavali Harika   
(c) Praveen Thipse  
 (d) S P Sethuraman

6. K C Kulich International Award is associated with:
(a) Medicine     
(b) Economics  
 (c) Journalism   
(d) Sports

7. ‘Open’ is the autobiography of which sports personality?
(a) Adam Gilchrest    
(b) Glenn Merges   
(c) Andre Agassiz  
 (d) None of these

8. World Cup Football in 2022 is to be held at:
(a) Qatar   
(b) UK   
(c) Spain   
(d) France

9. Who is the first head of UN WOMEN?
(a) Laura Chinchilla  
 (b) Julia Gillard   
(c) Mitchell blachettt   
(d) None of these

10.Which of the following committee is related to Corporatisation of Stock Exchanges?
(a) Bimal Jalan Committee  
 (b) V Achuthan Committee   
(c) P M Nair Committee               
(d) None of these

11. Which is India’s newest stock exchange for currency derivatives
 (a) BSE        
  (b) NSE  
 (c) United Stock Exchange (USE)   
(d) None of these
Answer :c

12. Jeevan Reddy Committee is related to
(a)Illegal mining             
 (b) Armed Forces Special Power Act   
(c) Environmental Impact Assessment   
(d) None of these

13. Which of the following scheme is related with social security for unorganised sector?
(a) Swabhiman           
 (b) Sabla   
(c) Swavalamban   
(d) None of these

14. Polavaram Project is located in which state?
(a) Andhra Pradesh                             
(b) Maharashtra   
(c) Madhya Pradesh            
(d) Karnataka

 15. David Perlman Award is given in which field?
(a) Sports         
(b) Music  
 (c) Photography      
(d) Journalism

16.Which of the following committee has redefined the definition of Slums?
(a) Pranab Sen Committee
(b) Arjun Sen gupta committee   
(c) C Ibrahim Committee 
(d) None of these

17. Arrow-III is an anti missile system of
(a) France 
(b) Pakistan 
(c) Israel        
(d) UK

18. India’s first jail BPO is going to came up at:
(a) Bangalore   
(b) Pune  
 (c) Chennai             
 (d) Hyderabad

19.World’s first aviation university coming up at:
(a) Bangalore   
(b) Nice           
(c) Glasgow      
(d) Venice
Answer: a

20. Khoj lab has been launched by which group?
(a) Future Group 
(b) dell   
(c) IBM      
(d) Times group

21. Which of the following became the first smoke free state in India?
(a) Sikkim   
(b) Himachal Pradesh   
(c) Uttarakhand 
(d) None of these
22. Which of the following became the Ist Asian Country to sign Free Trade Agreement with European Union?
(a) South Korea                      
 (b) China          
(c) India                        
(d) None of these

23. The Emissary’ is the book authored by:
(a) Tarun Tejpal                      
(b) Vinod Mehta   
(c) Aniruddh Bahl   
(d) None of these

24. Who is the new PM of Netherlands?
(a) Mark Ruttea   
 (b) Bill Carey        
(c) Thakshin Sinawatra   
 (d) None of these

25. Who is the new PM of Kosovo?
(a) Hashim Taci               
 (b) N K Name Krumoh   
(c) Jose Borosso  
(d) None of these

26. Who is the chairman of National Democratic Front of Bodoland?
(a) Paresh Barna        
 (b) Aravind Rajakhowa   
(c) Ranjan Daimary             
 (d) None of these

27. With which of the following countries India has not signed civil nuclear agreement?
(a) Namibia   
(b) Sweden   
(c) Mongolia            
(d) Argentina

28. Who is the PM of Sweden?
(a) Fredrick Rainfeldt  
 (b) Silvio Berlusconi   
(c) Garry Wanders        
(d) None of these

29. APEC Summit in November 2010 was held at  :
(a) Yokohama  
(b) Sydney                   
(c) Singapore                          
 (d) Busan
Answer a;

30. Which public sector bank was the banking partner in Commonwealth Games 2010?
(a) Central Bank of India        
 (b) State Bank of India     
(c) Bank of Baroda             
 (d) None of these

31. Who is the new vice chief of army staff?
(a) V.K. Singh  
(b) A.S. Lamba   
(c) C. Shekhawat                  
(d) None of these
Answer :b

32. Who has became the vice president of ICC?
(a) Ehsaan Mani                     
 (b) John Mulford   
(c) Alan Isaac                                 
 (d) Molcom Speed
Answer: c

33. Who is the Director General of National Investigation Agency ?
(a) R.V. Raju    
(b) Ved Marwah   
(c) K.F. Rustomji                 
(d) Sharad Chandra Sinha

34. Who is the Director of National Security Guard?
(a) R.K. Medhekar       
(b) J.K Dutt    
(c) B.K. Banerjee                       
(d) None of these

35. Who of the following Indian got the Australia Day achievement medal 2010?
(a) V.P. Unnikrishnan              
(b) Sandeep Pandey   
 (c) Vandana Shiva                  
(d) None of these
Answer: a

36. Which of the following country became the 187th member of IMF?
(a) Marshall Islands      
(b) Tuvalu      
(c) Fiji     
 (d) None of these
 Answer: b

37. India’s second National Institute of Design will come up at which of the following
(a) Amethi       
 (b) Jorahat         
(c) Aizowl    
(d) Itanagar
Ans- b

38. Benghazi is a port of :
(a) Libya          
 (b) Yemen             
(c) Egypt                             
(d) None of these

39. Jakhol Sankri Hydro Electric Project has been commissioned at
(a) Uttarakhand            
(b) Himachal Pradesh     
(c) J&K         
(d) Arunachal Pradesh
Answer: a
Answer: a

40. ‘Home Boy’ is a novel written by
(a) H M Naqvi  
(b) H S Narula   
(c) Anand Sarkar        
(d) Stephen Lipsett
 Ans- a

41. Pravasi Bhartiya Divas in 2011 was held at:
(a) Jaipur          
(b) New Delhi     
(c) Ujjain                               
 (d) Varanasi
 Answer :b

42. 98th Indian Science Congress in January 2011 was held at:
(a) Chennai     
  (b) Kharagpur      
(c) Kanpur               
(d) Delhi
Ans - a

43. Who of the following is the present Lokayukta of Karnataka:
(a) N Vittal                               
 (b) Santosh Hegde   
(c) Yashwant Sonawane
(d) None of these

44. Georgia’s capital is to be shifted from Tbilisi to:
(a) Akhan       
(b) Yeren      
(c) Kutaisi                                     
(d) Chisinau

45.  Which country topped the Terrorism Risk Index in 2010:
(a) Somalia      
(b) Samoa     
(c) Jamaica                     
 (d) Iraq

46. Which district is going to be named after Indira Gandhi?
(a) Medak                                
(b) Rai Bareli
(c) Chikmaglur                                     
(d) Bellary

47. Who received the Elis Island Medal of Honour in 2010?
(a) Dalai Lama                                     
(b) Zinedine Zidene
(c) Rao Anumlu                                  
 (d) B K Varghese

48. Enam Securities is to be purchased by:
(a) Union Bank of India                                   
 (b) BNP Paribas
(c) ANZ Grindlays                                
(d) Axis Bank
Answer: d

49. Which famous personality bagged the Man of Peace Award in 2010?
(a) Roberto Baggio                  
(b) Diegs Maradona
(c) Pope John Paul II               
(d) None of these

50. Who is the new National Security Advisor of United States?
(c) W Singham                         
(b) Thomas Donilon
(a) Colin Powell                       
 (b) Larry Page

51. Who is the new president of UN General Assembly?
(a) Joseph Deiss                     (b) Hans Rasmus Sen
(c) Leon Panetta                     (d) None of these

52. Luka and Fire of Life is the latest book by:
(a) Arun Som                           
(b) Salman Rushdie
(c) Vikram Seth                                   
(d) None of these

53. What is the name of India’s latest and Seventh Super Computer?
(a) Annapurna                          
(b) Param
(c) Pinak                                  
(d) None of these

54. Tembli became the first village in India to get UID. In which state it is located?
(a) Andhra Pradesh                 
(b) Chattisgarh
(c) Maharashtra                                   
(d) None of these

55.Who has been declared the ‘Business Leader of the year’ in Economic Times Corporate Excellence Awards 2010?
(a) Aditya Puri                          
(b) N Nrayanmurthy
(c) Azim Premji                                   
 (d) Mukesh Ambani

56. What is the mascot of 2011 cricket world cup?
(a) Hoho                                   
(b) Cobe
(c) Stumpy                               
(d) None of these

57. SAF (South Asian Federation) games in 2012 will be held at
(a) Kathmandu                                            
(b) Delhi
(c) Bangalore                                 
 (d) None of these

58. Agni III was launched from which of the following places:
(a) Wheeler Island                   
 (b) Sriharikota
(c) Bikaner                               
(d) None of these
Answer a;

59. Who of the following is the Chairperson of National Green Tribunal?
(a) Lokeshwar Singh Parata    
(b) Anil Pandey
(c) K Vijay Kumar                    
(d) None of these

60. Which Indian Company is slated to buy the English football club Blackburn?
(a) U B groups                         
(b) RPG
(c) Videocon                
(d) Vicky
Answer : d

61. Who is the Union Minister of Corporate Affairs?
(a) Murali Deora                       
(b) Jaipal Reddy
(c) C P Joshi                            
(d) M S Gill
Answer: a

62. Who is the new President Elect of BCCI?
(a) Chirayu Amin                     
(b) Jyotiraditya Schindia
(c) Shashank manohar                        
(d) Jagmohan Dalmia

63. Karrar is the unmaned bomber aircraft of which country?
(a) Iran                                     
(b) Syria
(c) Israel                       
(d) None of these

64. Who is the CMD of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited?
(a) S K Jain                  
(b) Harsh Marital
(c) Oskar Singh                       
(d) None of these
Answer: a

65. Who is the Director of Intelligence Bureau?
(a) Rajeev Mathur                  
(b) Nehchal Sandhu
(c) Saikat Dutta                        
(d) None of these
 Answer: b

66. Ramagundanar thermal power project is in which state?
a) Andhra Pradesh                   
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Kerala                                
 (d) Karnataka
Ans- a

67. Project Big Green has been initiated by which company?
(a) Microsoft                
(b) Apple
(c) Infosys                    
(d) IBM

68. Vansadhara River dispute is between which states?
(a) Orissa and Andhra Pradesh           
(b) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
(c) Kerala and Tamil Nadu      
(d) None of these
Answer: a

69. Who is the Chairperson of National Housing Board?
(a) B N Kapoor                         
(b) Mata Prasad
(c) R B Verma                         
(d) None of these
Ans- c

70. Who is India’s permanent representative to United Nations?
(a) Hardeep Singh Puri                       
 (b) M.K. Agnihotri
(c) Vijay Pasricha                    
(d) None of these
Answer :a

71. Who is the principal scientific advisor to Government of India?
(a) R. Chidambaram                
(b) V.K. Saraswat
(c) T.K. Thomas                                 
(d) None of these
Ans - a

72. Who is the Chairman of Central Water Commission?
(a) Balraj Madhok                  
(b) A.K. Bajaj
(c) Shivran Puri                        
(d) None of these
Ans - b

73. Who is the Deputy National Security Advisor?
(a) Shiv Shankar Menon                    
 (b) M.K. Narayanan
(c) Shekhar Dutt                      
(d) None of these

74. Aligarh Muslim University is going to set its new campus at:
(a) Saharanpur                                     
(b) Meerut
(c) Murshidabad                       
(d) Azamgarh

75. Who is the new Chairperson of National Commission for Backward classes?
(a) M.N. Rao                            
(b) T.K. Maken
(c) Ram Singh Senbar                         
(d) None of these

76. Who is the Chairperson of 19th Law Commission?
(a) P.V. Reddy                       
(b) A.K. Lakshmanan
(c) K.R. Kurup              
(d) None of these

77. Who is the Chairman of National Commission for Protection of Child Rights?
(a) Buta Singh                        
(b) M.K. Kurup
(c) Shanta Sinha                      
(d) Dheeraj Rohatgi

78. Mini Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas in October 2010 was held at:
(a) Cape Town                                     
(b) Durban
(c) Johannesburg                    
 (d) None of these
Answer: b

79. G-8 summit in June 2010 was held at:
(a) Ontario                   
 (b) Vancouver
(c) Huntsville                
(d) Quebec

80. Who is the CEO of Twitter?
(a) Dick Costello                      
(b) Jorma Olila  
 (c) Allan Bolt  
(d) None of these

81. Which country topped the Global Peace Index Report in 2010?
(a) New Zealand                      
(b) Iceland
(c) Denmark                            
(d) Sweden

82. Who of the following is the recipient of Turner Prize 2010?
(a) Alex Rodriques                  
 (b) Sergie Bryan
(c) Susan Philipsz                  
(d) None of these

83. Who of the following is the recipient of Cervantes Prize 2010?
(a) John Stocker                      
(b) Ana Maria
(c) C Andrew Stephen                         
(d) None of these  

84. M. B. Shah Commission is related to:
(a) Illegal mining                       
(b) Agricultural Statistics
(c) Microfinance Institutions    
(d) None of these

85. Who is the secretary General of Rajya Sabha?
(a) T.K. Vishwanathan            
(b) Vivek Agnihotri
(c) V.K. Gupta                       
 (d) None of these