Showing posts with label BIOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BIOLOGY. Show all posts

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Minerals and their Significance to a Human Body

Minerals and their Significance to a Human Body

Mineral Elements Sources Significance Effects of deficiency.
Macro Elements
Calcium(Ca)# Milk, cereals, Cheese, Green Vegetables. Required for formation of teeth and Bones , blood clotting, function of nerves and muscles Weak theeth and bones ; retarded body growth.
Phosphorus(P) Weak theeth and bones ; retarded body growth and physiology.
Sulphur(S) Many protiens of food. Component of many amino acids. Distributed protein metabolism.
Pottassium(K) Meat, milk, cereals,fruits and vegetables. Required for acid-base balance, water regulation nad function of nerevs.. Low blood pressure, weak muscles; risk of paralysis..
Chlorine(Cl) Table salt Required for acid base balance; component of gastric juice. Loss of appetite; muscles cramps
Magnesium(Mg) Cereals, green vegetables. Cofactor of many enzymes of glycolysis anda number of another metabolic reactions dependent upon ATP Irregularties of metabolism principally affecting nervous functions.
Iron(Fe) Meat, eggs , cereals, green vegetables. Component of haemoglobin and cytochromes. Anaemia, weakness and weak immunity.
Iodine(I) Milk, cheese, sea food, iodized salt important component of thyroxine hormone Goitre, Cretinism
Micro Elements
Fluorine(F) Drinking water, tea , sea food Maintence of bones and teeth. Weak theeth, larger amount causes motting of teeth.
Zinc(Zn) Cereals, Milk, eggs, meat, sea food Cofactor of digestive and many other enzymes Retarded growth, anaemia, rough skin, weak immunity and fertility
Copper(Cu) Meat, dry fruits , POds , Green vegetables, sea food Cofactor of cytochrome oxidase enzyme.Necessary for iron metabolism and development of blood vessels and connective tissues Anaemia,weak blood vessels and connective tissues
Manganese(MN) Dry fruits, cereals,tea fruits and green vegetables Cofactor of some enzymes of urea synthesis and transfer of phosphate group Irregular growth of bones, cartilages and connective tissues
Cobalt(Co) MIlk, cheese, meat Important component of vitamin B12 Anaemia
Selenium(SE) Meat, cereals, sea food Cofactor of many enzymes; assists vitamin E Muscular pain; weakness of cardiac muscles
Chromium(CR) Yeast, sea food, meat, some vegetables Important for catabolic metabolism Irregularities of catabolic meatbolism and ATP production
Molybdenum(MO) Cereals, pods, some vegetables Cofactor of some enzymes Irregular excreation of nitrogenous waste products
Vitamin Chemical Name Properties Deficiency disease
A Retinol General health giving vitamin, can be stored liver Night blindness
B1 Thiamine For Growth, carbohydrate metabolism, functioning of heart Beri-Beri
B2 Riboflavin For Keeping skin and mouth healthy Cheilosis
B5 Niacin For healthy skin, sound mental health Pellagra
B6 Pyridoxine Processing of proteins and for nervous system Convulsions in child
B12 Cynacobalamin Required for formation and maturation of RBCs Pernicious anaemia
C Ascorbic Acid For keeping teeth , gums and joints healthy .Gets destroyed on heating Scurvy
D Calciferol For normal bones and teeth, can be stored in liver Rickets
E Tocopherol For normal reproduction , removes scars and wrincles Sterility
K Phylloquinone For normal clotting of blood Haemophilia

Saturday, June 12, 2010



1. Stem is modified into cladode :
(A) Casuarina
(B) Asparagus
(C) Opuntia
(D) Euphorbia

2. Verticillaster type of inflorescence is found in :
(A) Cotton
(B) Datura
(C) Lilium
(D) Ocimum

3. A simple one seeded fruit in which pericarp is fused with seed coat is :
(A) Achene
(B) Caryopsis
(C) Cypsela
(D) Nut

4. The portion of DNA which contains information for an entire polypeptide is called :
(A) Cistron
(B) Muton
(C) Recon
(D) Operon

5. Bicarpellary, syncarpous ovary with axile placentation is seen in :
(A) Solanaceae
(B) Caesalpinaceae
(C) Asteraceae
(D) Malvaceae

6. Alburnum is also called :
(A) Autumn wood
(B) Heart wood
(C) Sap wood
(D) Spring wood

7. The entry of pollen tube into the ovule through micropyle is called :
(A) Porogamy
(B) Mesogamy
(C) Anisogamy
(D) Chalazogamy

8. Type of pollination in Commelina is :
(A) Chasmogamy
(B) Geitonogamy
(C) Xenogamy
(D) Cleistogamy

9. The process of embryo formation without fertilization is known as :
(A) Apospory
(B) Apogamy
(C) Parthenocarpy
(D) Polyembryony

10. Which of the process Cholodny-Went theory is concerned with ?
(A) Photomorphogenesis
(B) Photoperiodism
(C) Phototropism
(D) Photorespiration

11. The hormone present in the liquid endosperm of coconut is :
(A) Cytokinin
(B) Gibberellin
(C) Ethylene
(D) Auxin

12. The phytohormone which influences apical dominance growth is :
(C) GA3
(D) C2H4

13. An example of short day plant is :
(A) Wheat
(B) Maize
(C) Chrysanthemum
(D) Radish

14. The ovary after fertilization is converted into :
(A) Embryo
(B) Endosperm
(C) Fruit
(D) Seed

15. The molecular formula of Chlorophyll ‘a’ is :
(A) C55H72O5N4Mg
(B) C55H70O5N4Mg
(C) C55H72O6N4Mg
(D) C50H72O5N4Mg

16. The first compound that accepts CO2 during dark phase is :
(B) Ferrodoxin
(D) Cytochrome

17. Initiation codon for methionine is :

18. The deficiency of this micronutrient results in little leaf disease :
(A) Copper
(B) Zinc
(C) Boron
(D) Iron

19. Kranz anatomy is a morphological diversity in the leaves of :
(A) C3-plants
(B) C4-plants
(C) C3 and C4-plants
(D) CAM plants

20. Prechilling treatment to break seed dormancy is :
(A) Scarification
(B) Stratification
(C) Impaction
(D) Vernalization

21. The pyruvic acid formed during glycolysis is oxidized to CO2 and H2O in a cycle called :
(A) Calvin cycle
(B) Nitrogen cycle
(C) Hill reaction
(D) Krebs cycle

22. Respiratory quotient (RQ) is one in case of :
(A) Fatty acids
(B) Nucleic acids
(C) Carbohydrates
(D) Organic acids

23. An example of free living nitrogen fixing aerobic bacteria is :
(A) Clostridium
(B) Rhizobium
(C) Azotobacter
(D) Rhodospirillum

24. Identify the plant belonging to the Reed-Swamp stage in hydrarch succession :
(A) Juncus
(B) Sagittaria
(C) Salix
(D) Trapa

25. A gas produced by paddy fields and connected with global warming is :
(A) CO2
(B) Chlorine
(C) H2S
(D) Methane

26. If the strong partner is benefited and the weak partner is damaged, it is known as :
(A) Predation
(B) Allelopathy
(C) Symbiosis
(D) Commensalism

27. Acid rain is mainly caused due to increase in the levels of the gas(es) :
(A) SO2 only
(B) CO2 only
(C) SO2, CO2
(D) NO2 and SO2

28. The flow of energy among various trophic levels of an ecosystem is :
(A) Unidirectional
(B) Bidirectional
(C) Multidirectional
(D) Circular

29. Increase in atmospheric temperature due to CO2 is called :
(A) Pasteur effect
(B) Green-house effect
(C) Blackman effect
(D) Emerson effect

30. The protective-ozone layer is present in :
(A) Ionosphere
(B) Stratosphere
(C) Troposphere
(D) Lithosphere

31. Decomposition of organic matter is brought about by :
(A) Protozoa
(B) Plants
(C) Micro-organisms
(D) None of these

32. The smallest taxon is called :
(A) Class
(B) Order
(C) Genus
(D) Species

33. Which one of the following is the first National Park in India ?
(A) Kanha National Park
(B) Periyar National Park
(C) Corbett National Park
(D) Bandipur National Park

34. Which one of the following is having ssRNA ?
(B) T2-bacteriophage
(C) Polio Virus

35. In Whittaker’s system of classification, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom :
(A) Protista
(B) Monera
(C) Plantae
(D) Animalia

36. Virus consists of :
(A) Nucleic acid and protein
(B) Nucleic acid
(C) Orotein
(D) None of these

37. This substance is present in the cell walls of Gram Positive bacteria only :
(A) Peptidoglycan
(B) Lipopolysaccharides
(C) Teichoic acids
(D) None of these

38. Highest degree of polymorphism is found in :
(A) Protozoa
(B) Cnidaria
(C) Platyhelminthes
(D) Arthropoda

39. Sea mouse belongs to phylum :
(A) Mollusca
(B) Cnidaria
(C) Arthropoda
(D) Annelida

40. One of the following animal belongs to Cyclostomata :
(A) Channa
(B) Loris
(C) Dodo
(D) Petromyzon

41. An egg laying mammal is :
(A) Delphinus
(B) Macaca
(C) Ornithorhynchus
(D) Macropus

42. In sharks, one of the following is absent :
(A) Claspers
(B) Placoid scales
(C) Cartilaginous endoskeleton
(D) Air bladder

43. The devil fish and sea hare are :
(A) Molluscs
(B) Crustaceans
(C) Coelenterates
(D) Marine fish and mammal

44. Endothelium of blood vessels is made up of :
(A) Simple cuboidal epithelium
(B) Simple squamous epithelium
(C) Simple columnar epithelium
(D) Simple non-ciliated columnar

45. In humans, sphincter of Oddi is associated with the opening of :
(A) Common hepatopancreatic duct
(B) Pyloric stomach
(C) Oesophagus
(D) Colon

46. In human beings, the duration of cardiac cycle is :
(A) 0•08 second
(B) 0•5 second
(C) 0•8 second
(D) 8•0 second

47. In which part of nephron, reabsorption is minimum from filtrate ?
(A) Henle’s loop
(B) Proximal convoluted tubule
(C) Distal convoluted tubule
(D) Collecting duct

48. Which hormone level reaches peak during luteal phase of menstrual cycle ?
(A) Luteinizing hormone
(B) Progesterone
(C) Follicle stimulating hormone
(D) Estrogen

49. The largest subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes is :
(A) 30S
(B) 40S
(C) 50S
(D) 60S

50. Which of the following is a part of endomembrane system of eukaryotic cell ?
(A) Peroxisomes
(B) Chloroplasts
(C) Mitochondria
(D) Golgi complexes

51. Inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid crystals is called as :
(A) Gout
(B) Myasthenia gravis
(C) Osteoporosis
(D) Osteomalacia

52. Chromosomes are visible with chromatids at this phase of mitosis :
(A) Interphase
(B) Prophase
(C) Metaphase
(D) Anaphase

53. Inheritance of ABO blood grouping is an example of :
(A) Dominance
(B) Codominance
(C) Incomplete dominance
(D) All of these

54. In a dihybrid cross between RRYY and rryy parents, the number of RrYy genotypes in F2 generation will be :
(A) 4
(B) 3
(C) 2
(D) 1

55. Identify a 47, + 21 disorder from the following :
(A) Down’s syndrome
(B) Turner’s syndrome
(C) Phenylketonuria
(D) Klinefelter’s syndrome

56. Uracil is present in RNA at the place of :
(A) Adenine
(B) Guanine
(C) Cytosine
(D) Thymine

57. Copying genetic information from one strand of DNA into RNA is :
(A) Translation
(B) Transcription
(C) Transformation
(D) Transduction

58. S. L. Miller’s closed flask contained :
(A) CH4
(B) H2
(C) NH3 and Water vapour
(D) All of these

59. Change of frequency of alleles in a population results in evolution is proposed in :
(A) Darwin’s theory
(B) Lamarck’s theory
(C) Hardy-Weinberg principle
(D) De Vries theory

60. One of the following is the vestigial organ in human beings :
(A) Nictitating membrane
(B) Spleen
(C) Femur
(D) Tibia

61. The golden age of reptiles is :
(A) Cenozoic era
(B) Palaeozoic era
(C) Mesozoic era
(D) Silurian period

62. The theory of use and disuse of organ was proposed by :
(A) Darwin
(B) Lamarck
(C) De Vries
(D) Hooker

63. One of the following theories were proposed by Weissman :
(A) Law of inheritance
(B) Theory of inheritance of acquired characters
(C) Theory of natural selection
(D) Theory of germplasm

64. Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny—
this theory is called :
(A) Biogenetic law
(B) Law of embryology
(C) Law of acquired characters
(D) Law of Bridges

65. The brain capacity of Homoerectus is :
(A) 800 cc
(B) 900 cc
(C) 1200 cc
(D) 1400 cc

66. An example of Innate immunity is :
(A) PMNL-neutrophils
(B) T-lymphocytes
(C) B-lymphocytes
(D) TH cells

67. Cocaine is extracted from :
(A) Erythroxylum coca
(B) Cannabis sativa
(C) Papaver somniferum
(D) Atropa belladonna

68. The enzyme that cuts DNA is :
(A) DNA-polymerase
(B) DNA-ligase
(C) DNA-lyase
(D) Restriction endonuclease

69. In the association between two organisms, if one organism is benefited and the other is not benefited, this relationship is known as :
(A) Symbiotism
(B) Mutualism
(C) Commensalism
(D) Parasitism

70. Opiate narcotics drugs are :
(A) Antianxiety
(B) Analgesic
(C) Hypnotic
(D) Antihistamine

71. The drug useful to increase cardiovascular effects in human beings is :
(A) Cocaine
(B) Barbiturate
(C) Benzodiazetine
(D) Insulin

72. In echolocation, the animal that produces high frequency sounds is :
(A) Monkey
(B) Butterfly
(C) Squirrel
(D) Bat

73. Two kingdoms constantly figured in all biological classifications are :
(A) Plantae and Animalia
(B) Monera and Animalia
(C) Protista and Animalia
(D) Protista and Plantae

74. The dioecious animal is :
(A) Liverfluke
(B) Hookworm
(C) Tapeworm
(D) Earthworm

75. Comb plates are found in :
(A) Adamsia
(B) Aurelia
(C) Nereis
(D) Pleurobrachia

Answers with Hints
1. (B) Cladode is a type of phylloclade consisting of one internode only. These are cylindrical (not fleshy) and are mistaken for leaves.
2. (D) Verticillaster is a complex inflorescence found in the Ocimum sanctum, a member of family Labiatae.
3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (A) 6. (C) 7. (A)
8. (D) Cleistogamy is seen in underground flowers of Commelina bengalensis which are small and inconspicuous. This plant also bears chasmogamous blue flowers above.
9. (B) 10. (C) 11. (A) 12. (A)
13. (C) Short day plant (SDP) requires a relatively short day light period (usually 8-10 hrs.) and a continuous dark period of about 14–16 hours for subsequent flowering.
14. (C) 15. (A) 16. (C) 17. (D) 18. (B)
19. (B) Kranz anatomy—It is a typical structure in the leaves of plants that have a C4–pathway of CO2 fixation. The leaves contain a ring of mesophyll cells, containing a few chloroplasts surroundings a sheath of bundle sheath cells having large chloroplasts involved in the Calvin cycle.
20. (B) 21. (D) 22. (C) 23. (C) 24. (B) 25. (D) 26. (A)
27. (D) Acid rain results from the emission into the atmosphere of various pollutant gases in particular sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO2), which originate from the burning of fossil fuels and from motor-car exhaust fumes, respectively.
28. (A) 29. (B) 30. (B) 31. (C) 32. (D)
33. (C) The first National Park in India was set up in 1935 in the foot hills of Himalayas and was known as Hailey National Park. It is now known as Corbett National Park.
34. (A) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a rigid rod-shaped ssRNA-containing virus that causes distortion and blistering of leaves in a wide range of plants.
35. (B) Kingdom Monera includes all prokaryotes. They are basically unicellular but can be mycelial, colonial and filamentous.
36. (A) 37. (A)
38. (B) A striking feature of cnidarians is the high degree of polymorphism often seen in a single species. Two basic types—sessile polyp and free-swimming medusa–occur.
39. (D) 40. (D) 41. (C)
42. (D) Members of Elasmobranchii subclass have no swim (air) bladders.
43. (D) 44. (B) 45. (A) 46. (C) 47. (C) 48. (B) 49. (C)
50. (D) Golgi complex is a part of endomembrane system, which is the system of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles.
51. (A) 52. (B)
53. (B) AB blood group in human is an example of codominance in which both the alleles IA IB are equally expressed. It means IA IB individuals have a phenotype that is essentially a combination of those shown by individuals with A and B blood groups.
54. (A)
55. (A) A small autosome, chromosome 21, added to the normal complement (47, + 21) causes Down syndrome. This is a trisomic for chromosome 21.
56. (D) 57. (B) 58. (D) 59. (C) 60. (A)
61. (C) The Mesozoic era is often known as the “Golden Age of Reptiles” as these animals, which included the dinosaurs and ichthyosaurs, became dominant lifeform.
62. (B) 63. (D) 64. (A) 65. (B) 66. (A) 67. (A)
68. (D) Restriction enzyme is a class of nucleases originally extracted from the E . coli. Type I restriction enzymes bind to a recognition site of duplex DNA, travel along the molecule and cleave one strand only. Type II cleaves the duplex at specific target site at or near the binding site.
69. (C) 70. (B) 71. (A) 72. (C) 73. (A) 74. (B) 75. (D)