Tuesday, February 28, 2012

84th Academy Awards

The 84th Academy Awards ceremony, hosted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2011. The ceremony took place at the Hollywood and Highland Center in Hollywood, California and was televised live in the United States on ABC on February 26, 2012.
The ceremony was hosted by Billy Crystal, marking his ninth time as host, and produced by Brian Grazer. Eddie Murphy was originally scheduled to be the host, and Brett Ratner was to be producer. However, Murphy stepped down after Ratner resigned, following Ratner's use of a gay slur when discussing rehearsals.
The Artist and Hugo each won five awards, with the former winning Best Picture and its star Jean Dujardin winning Best Actor. The Iron Lady won two awards, including Best Actress for Meryl Streep. The Artist became the first silent motion picture in 83 years (after Wings, which won Best Picture at the 1st Academy Awards) and the first French film to win Best Picture.
Best Picture: The Artist
Actress in Leading Role: Meryl Streep
Actor In Leading Role: Jean Dujardin
Actress in Supporting Role: Octavia Spencer for ‘The Help’
Actor in Supporting Role: Christopher Plummer for ‘Beginners’
Animated Feature Film: Rango
Cinematography: Hugo
Art Direction: Hugo
Costume Design: The Artist
Directing: The Artist
Documentary Feature: Undefeated
Documentary Short: Saving Face
Film Editing: The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo
Foreign Language Film: Iran ‘A Separation’
Makeup: The Iron Lady
Music (Original Score): The Artist
Music (Original Song): Man or Muppet from The Muppets
Short Film (Animated): The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr Morris Lessmore
Short Film (Live Action): The Shore
Sound Editing: Hugo
Sound Mixing: Hugo
Visual Effects: Hugo
Writing (Adapted Screenplay): The Descendants
Writing (Original Screenplay): Midnight in Paris

Sunday, February 19, 2012

National Disaster Management Authority

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister of India, is the Apex Body for Disaster Management in India. The setting up of the NDMA and the creation of an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
India envisions the development of an ethos of Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and will strive to promote a National resolve to mitigate the damage and destruction caused by natural and man-made disasters, through sustained and collective efforts of all Government agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations and People’s participation, by adopting a Technology-Driven, Pro-Active, Multi-Hazard and Multi-Sectoral Strategy for building a Safer, Disaster Resilient and Dynamic India.
The Logo reflects the aspirations of this National Vision, of empowering all stakeholders for improving the effectiveness of Disaster Management in India. The Map of India, embossed in Gold, in the middle of the logo, circumscribed by the National Tricolour of Saffron, White and Green represents the aspirations to contain the potential threat of natural and man-made disasters through Capacity Development of all Stakeholders. The Outer Circle is a Golden Ring of Partnership of all Stakeholders, whose holding of hands is an expression of their solidarity to supplement the efforts of the Government. NDMA in the Inner Circle in tranquil blue integrates the entire process by Empowering all Stakeholders at the local, district, state and national levels. NDMA will catalyse this Community Empowerment through institutional capacity development, strengthened public awareness and community resilience by mainstreaming disaster management in India.

National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted with the Prime Minister of India as its Chairman, a Vice Chairman with the status of Cabinet Minister, and eight members with the status of Ministers of State. Each of the members has a well defined functional domain covering various states as also disaster specific areas of focus and concern To carry out the mandated functions, NDMA has evolved a lean and professional organization which is IT-enabled and knowledge based. Skills and expertise of the specialists are extensively used to address all the disaster related issues. . A functional and operational infrastructure has been built which is appropriate for disaster management involving uncertainties coupled with desired plans of action.
The concept of the organization is based on a disaster divisions-cum-secretariat system. Each member of the Authority heads disaster-specific divisions for specific disaster and functional domains. Each member has also been given the responsibility of specified states and UTs for close interaction and coordination.
The NDMA Secretariat, headed by a Secretary is responsible to provide secretarial support and continuity. It is proposed to have two Disaster Management Wings under the Secretariat. They are :-

    DM I wing dealing with mitigation, preparedness, plans, reconstruction, community awareness and dealing with financial/administrative aspects.
    DM II wing is proposed to be composed of the National Disaster Management Operations Centre with the state-of-the-art multi-redundant communication systems, to carry out the tasks of capacity development, training and knowledge management.


Earthquakes have caused huge damage to life and property worldwide and pose a significant threat to India also because of falling of almost 59% of its geographical area in earthquake vulnerable zones. The most clearly observable impacts of an earthquake are the loss of human lives and property, economic & social losses and environmental degradation. Over the last century, about 75% of fatalities attributed to earthquakes have been caused by the collapse of buildings. A great number of victims die in the collapse of non-engineered weak masonry buildings, which make up a large proportion in India’s existing building stock. India’s substantial percentage of population of earthquake vulnerable zones continue to live in these structures due to absence of knowledge in earthquake resistant construction & retrofitting techniques at the grassroots and non-compliance of appropriate building regulations and town planning legislations for earthquake safe guided physical development in towns. Besides, ignorance of basic tips of earthquake survivability in the mindset of common people during shaking of earth increases the casualty in many folds. Further, least expertise by rescuers in search & rescue in collapse buildings and no knowledge of first-aid technique for earthquake victims make the situation worst during any post earthquake scenario.

The above issues justify for launching of nationwide mass awareness generation activities as a foundation layer of earthquake preparedness in the country.

In the absence of any early warning possibility of any earthquake, awareness generation strategy for seismic risk reduction in the country would have no option but to concentrate more on earthquake resistant construction techniques, appropriate techno-legal regime (building regulations/acts), basic survivability tips during shaking of ground.

During 2002-2009 a national initiative namely Disaster Risk Management Programme was implemented in collaboration with State Governments by Government of India and UNDP under a multi-donor resource framework to reduce vulnerabilities of communities in some of the most hazard prone districts of India. Under the programme, several resource materials were prepared and widely circulated for disaster risk management. We are here posting several of such resource materials that will contribute the communities, civil societies, policy/decision makers, city managers for better preparedness and earthquake risk mitigation in the countries.


Floods are the most frequent natural calamity that India has to face almost every year in varying magnitudes in some or other parts of the country. The annual precipitation including snow-fall is estimated at 4000 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM). Out of this, the seasonal rainfall in monsoon is of the order of 3000 BCM. Rainfall in India is mainly dependent on the South-West and North-East monsoons, on cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on violent local storms. Most of the rainfall in India (80%) takes place under the influence of South-West monsoon between June and September (4 months). Remaining (20%) rainfall is received from North-east monsoon, cyclonic storm, local storms and cloud bursts. Flooding is caused by the inadequate capacity within the banks of the rivers to contain the high flows brought down from the upper catchment due to heavy rainfall. Areas having poor drainage characteristic get flooded by accumulation of water from heavy rainfall. According to the estimate of the National Commission on Flood, the area prone to floods in the country was of the order of 40 million hectares, out of which it is considered that 80%, i.e., 32 million hectares could be provided with reasonable degree of protection.


Cyclones are caused by atmospheric disturbances around a low-pressure area distinguished by swift and often destructive air circulation. They are usually accompanied by violent storms and bad weather. The air circulates inward in an anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. Cyclones are classified as: (i) extra tropical cyclones (also called temperate cyclones); and (ii) tropical cyclones.
The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO, 1976) uses the term ‘tropical cyclone’ to cover weather systems in which winds exceed ‘gale force’ (minimum of 34 knots or 63 Kph). Tropical cyclones are the progeny of ocean and atmosphere, powered by the heat from the sea, driven by the easterly trades and temperate westerlies, the high planetary winds and their own fierce energy. In India, cyclones are classified due to the:

  • Strength of the associated winds,
  • Storm surge and
  • Exceptional rainfall occurrences.

Extra tropical cyclones occur in temperate zones and high latitude regions, though they are known to originate in the polar regions. Cyclones that developin the regions between the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer are called tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones are large-scale weather systems developing over tropical or subtropical waters, where they get organized into surface wind circulation. Cyclones are given many names in different regions of the world – they are known as typhoons in the China Sea and Pacific Ocean; hurricanes in the West Indian islands in the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean; tornados in the Guinea lands of West Africa and the southern USA.; willy-willies in north-western Australia and tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean. The word cyclone is derived from the Greek word `Cyclos’ meaning the coils of a snake. It was coined by Henry Peddington because the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea.

The criteria below has been formulated by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), which classifies the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea on the basis of the capacity to damage, which is adopted by the WMO.
Type of Disturbances Wind Speed in Km/h Wind Speed in Knots
Low Pressure Less than 31 Less than 17
Depression 31-49 17-27
Deep Depression 49-61 27-33
Cyclonic Storm 61-88 33-47
Severe Cyclonic Storm 88-117 47-63
Super Cyclone More than 221 More than 120
1 knot - 1.85 km per hour
Cyclones are classified into five different levels on the basis of wind speed. They are further divided into the following categories according to their damage capacity.
Cyclone Category Wind Speed in Km/h Damage Capacity
01 120-150 Minimal
02 150-180 Moderate
03 180-210 Extensive
04 210-250 Extreme
05 250 and above Catastrophic
Storm surges (tidal waves) are defined as the rise in sea level above the normally predicted astronomical tide. The major factors include:
  • A fall in the atmospheric pressure over the sea surface
  • The effect of the wind
  • The influence of the sea bed
  • A funnelling effect
  • The angle and speed at which the storm approaches the coast
  • The tides
The very high specific humidity condenses into exceptionally large raindrops and giant cumulus clouds, resulting in high precipitation rates. When a cyclone makes landfall, the rain rapidly saturates the catchment areas and the rapid runoff may extensively flood the usual water sources or create new ones.
How Cyclones are formed
The development cycle of tropical cyclones may be divided into three stages:
i) Formation and Initial Development Stage
The formation/ initial development of a cyclonic storm depends upon various conditions. These are:
  • A warm sea (temperature in excess of 26 degrees Celsius to a depth of 60 m) with abundant and turbulent transfer of water vapour to the overlying atmosphere by evaporation.
  • Atmospheric instability encourages formation of massive vertical cumulus clouds due to convection with condensation of rising air above ocean surface. 
ii) Mature Tropical Cyclones
When the tropical storm intensifies, the air rises in vigorous thunderstorms and tends to spread out horizontally at the tropopause level. Once air spreads out, a positive perturbation pressure at high levels is produced, which accelerates the downward motion of air due to convection. With the inducement of subsidence, air warms up by compression and a warm ‘eye’ is generated. Generally, the ‘eye’ of the storms has three basic shapes: (a) circular; (b) concentric; and (c) elliptical. The main physical feature of a mature tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean is a concentric pattern of highly turbulent giant cumulus thundercloud bands.
iii) Modification and Decay
  A tropical cyclone begins to weaken in terms of its central low pressure, internal warmth and extremely high speeds, as soon as its source of warm moist air begins to ebb, or is abruptly cut off. This happens after the landfall or when it passes  over cold waters. The weakening of a cyclone does not mean the danger to life and property is over.

Indian Context
The Indian subcontinent is one of the worst affected regions in the world. The subcontinent with a long coastline of 8041 kilometre is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones. Of these, the majority have their initial genesis over the Bay of Bengal and strike the east coast of India. On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two  or three could be severe. More cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1. Cyclones occur frequently on both the coasts (The west coast - Arabian Sea; and the east coast - Bay of Bengal). An analysis of the frequency of cyclones on the east and west coasts of India  between 1891 and 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in a 50 km wide strip on the east coast. Less severe cyclonic activity has been noticed on the west coast, with 33 cyclones occurringin the same period, out of which 19  of these were severe.
Tropical cyclones occur in the months of May-June and October-November. The cyclones of severe intensity and frequency in the north Indian Ocean are bi-modal in character, with their primary peak in November and secondary peak in May.  The disaster potential is particularly high at the time of landfall in the north Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) due to the accompanying destructive wind, storm surges and torrential rainfall.  Of these, storm surges are the greatest killers of a cyclone, by which sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions and causes heavy floods, erodes beaches and embankments, destroys vegetation and reduces soil fertility.
Cyclones vary in diameter from 50 to 320 km but their effects dominate thousands of square kilometers of ocean surface and the lower atmosphere. The perimeter may measure 1,000 km but the powerhouse is located within the 100-km radius. Nearer the eye, winds may hit 320 kmph. Thus tropical cyclones, characterized by destructive winds, torrential rainfall and storm surges disrupt normal life with accompanying the phenomena of floods due to the exceptional level of rainfall and storm surge inundation into inland areas. Cyclones are characterized by their devastating potential to damage structures, viz. houses; lifeline infrastructure-power and communication towers; hospitals; food storage facilities; roads, bridges and culverts; crops etc. The most fatalities come from storm surges and the torrential rain  flooding  the lowland areas of the coastal territories.


India has a sensational record of catastrophes due to landslides, unique and unparalleled. Landslides & Avalanches are among the major hydro-geological hazards that affect large parts of India, especially the Himalayas, the Northeastern hill ranges, the Western Ghats, the Nilgiris, the Eastern Ghats and the Vindhyas, in that order. In the Himalayas alone, one could find landslides of every fame, name and description- big and small, quick and creeping, ancient and new. The northeastern region is badly affected by landslide problems of a bewildering variety. Landslides in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal as also those in Sikkim, Tripura, Meghalaya, Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh pose chronic problems causing recurring losses. There are landslides in the Western Ghats in the south, along the steep slopes overlooking the Konkan coast. Landslides are also very common in the Nilgiris, characterized by a lateratic cap, which is highly landslide prone.


India is developing as a key global player in the industrial and technology sector. Rapid industrialization has increased the hazard, risk and vulnerability to the industry and the environment. Major Chemical (Industrial) disasters are low in frequency but are very significant in the terms of loss of lives, injuries, environmental impact and property damage. Frequency and severity of chemical disasters has increased in last few years due to rapid development of chemical and petrochemical industries and increase in size of plants, storage and carriers, specifically in densely populated areas. There are more than 1500 MAH units and other small and medium–sized industries all across the nation and new industries are also establishing at a rapid rate. Chemical accidents can occur due to lack of safety measure, technical break down, or due to a human error. It, thereby, initiates a series of uncontrolled physiochemical phenomenon such as runaway chemical reactions, large spills, fires and explosions. These phenomenon eventually targets both human and non-human in the form of immediate and residual or long term consequences. Thus, it is imperative to develop preventive measures like adoption of safer engineering practices, improved performance of safety device and reduction of human errors by regular checks.

With the renewed emphasis of the Government on disaster management and the paradigm shift in focus from rescue, relief & rehabilitation to prevention/mitigation, and preparedness a need to revisit the management of Chemical Disaster has been felt to establish an institutionalized mechanism so that the chemical disaster can be prevented and if occurred can be effectively managed. The main stakeholders in the management of Chemical (Industrial) Disasters are the Chemical Industries, Ministry of Environment and Forests (the nodal Ministry), Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Surface Transport and Highways, Ministry of Defence, Department of Atomic Energy, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Ministry of Petroleum and Gas, Central and State Pollution Control Board and State Governments.

After the enactment of National Disaster Management Act, 2005, National Disaster Management Authority is required to prepare Guidelines, based on which, the Nodal Ministry will prepare a detailed Action Plan for the better and effective management of Chemical disasters. In view of achieving this objective, a meeting on Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management was convened by NDMA on 17th Feb 2006 with various Ministries of Government of India and all other stakeholders. In this workshop the present status of the Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management in the country was discussed and the critical gaps were identified. It was decided to articulate the CDM guidelines through a document called the National Disaster Management Guidelines – Chemical Disaster (NDMG-CD). A Core Group of the experts from the various fields related to chemical disaster management was constituted under the chairmanship of Lt. Gen (Dr.) J.R. Bhardwaj, PVSM, AVSM, VSM, PHS (Retd) to assist NDMA in the preparation of NDMG-CD. Several meetings were held to review the draft versions of the document and wider consultations with industries, regulatory bodies, along with concerned ministries was also held to evolve a consensus on the various issues of the Guidelines. A meeting to critically analyze and update by more than 150 industrial and other experts from all across the nation was also held on 7-8 September, 2006 at Bhopal in collaboration with Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal. The concepts of On-Site and Off-Site Disaster Management Plans were also evaluated by a mock drill at Hindustan Petroleum Company Limited, Greater Noida on 6th Oct, 2006. The guidelines has the major objective to evolve an attainable, achievable and a practical approach with due diligence of community, industry and all other governmental agencies for chemical disaster management in India. At present, the guideline document is under finalization and would be issued soon.

Friday, February 17, 2012

Disaster Reduction Day

 NIDM  will  be  observing  the  Day  for  Disaster  Reduction  on  12   October,  2011.  This day offers an opportunity  to focus national attention on  this important issue and to create  awareness about disasters and their
management.  Further to enhance  awareness among the students and to sensitize them towards disasters and their management a number of  activities will be organized at School and college levels.

Strengthening Disaster Management in India


SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) was set up in October 2006 at the premises of National Institute of Disaster Management in New Delhi. The Centre has the mandate to serve eight Member Countries of South Asia Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) - Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - by providing policy advice and facilitating capacity building services including strategic learning, research, training, system development and exchange of information for effective disaster risk reduction and management in South Asia.
The Centre is a sleek body of professionals working on various dimensions of disaster risk reduction and management in South Asia. The Centre is networking through the National Focal Points of the Member Countries with the various Ministries, Departments and Scientific, Technical, Research and Academic institutions within and outside the Government working on various aspects of disaster risk reduction and management.
The Centre conducts studies and research, organizes workshops and training programmes, publishes its reports and documents provides various policy advisory services to the Member Countries.
The Centre has the Vision to be recognized as a vibrant Centre of Excellence for knowledge, research and capacity building on disaster management in South Asia and in the rest of the world.

NIDM at a Glance

The National Institute of Disaster Management constituted under the Disaster Management Act 2005 has been entrusted with the nodal national responsibility for human resource development, capacity building, training, research, documentation and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management. Upgraded from the National Centre for Disaster Management of the Indian Institute of Public Administration on 16th October, 2003, NIDM is steadily marching forward to fulill its mission to make a disaster resilient India by developing and promoting a culture of prevention and preparedness at all levels.

Disaster Prevention & Mitigation

The Yokohama message emanating from the international decade for natural disaster reduction in May 1994 underlined the need for an emphatic shift in the strategy for disaster mitigation.  It was inter-alia stressed that disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and relief are four elements which contribute to and gain, from the implementation of the sustainable development policies.  These elements along with environmental protection and sustainable development, are closely inter related.  Therefore, nations should incorporate them in their development plans and ensure efficient follow up measures at the community, sub-regional, regional, national and international levels.  The Yokohama Strategy also emphasized  that disaster  prevention, mitigation and preparedness  are better than disaster response in achieving  the goals and objectives of vulnerability  reduction.  Disaster response alone is not sufficient as it yields only temporary results at a very high cost.  Prevention and mitigation contribute to lasting improvement in safety and are essential to integrated disaster management.
The Government of India have adopted mitigation and prevention as essential components of their development strategy.  The Tenth Five Year Plan document has a detailed chapter on Disaster Management.  The plan emphasizes the fact that development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built into developmental  process.  Each State is supposed to prepare a plan scheme for disaster mitigation in accordance with the approach outlined in the plan.  In brief, mitigation is being institutionalized into developmental planning.
The Finance Commission makes recommendations with regard to devolution of funds between the Central Government and State Governments as also outlays for relief and rehabilitation.  The earlier Finance Commissions were mandated to look at relief and rehabilitation.  The Terms of Reference of the Twelfth Finance Commission have been changed and the Finance Commission has been mandated to look at the requirements for mitigation and prevention apart from its existing mandate of looking at relief and rehabilitation.  A Memorandum has been submitted to the Twelfth Finance Commission after consultation with States. The Memorandum proposes a Mitigation Fund. 
The Government of India have issued guidelines that where there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given a priority.  It has also been mandated that each project in a hazard prone area will have disaster prevention/mitigation as a term of reference and the project document has to reflect as to how the project addresses that term of reference.
Measures for flood mitigation were taken from 1950 onwards.  As against the total of 40 million hectares prone to floods, area of about 15 million hectares have been protected by construction of embankments.  A number of dams and barrages have been constructed.  The State Governments have been assisted to take up mitigation programmes like construction of raised platforms etc.  Floods continue to be a menace however mainly because of the huge quantum of silt being carried by the rivers emanating from the Himalayas .  This silt has raised the bed level in many rivers to above the level of the countryside.  Embankments have also given rise to problems of drainage with heavy rainfall leading to water logging in areas outside the embankment. To evolve both short-term and long-term strategy for flood management/erosion control, Government of India have recently constituted a Central Task Force under the Chairmenship of Chairman, Central Water Commission.  The Task Force will examine causes of the problem of recurring floods and erosion in States and region prone to flood and erosion; and suggest short-term and long-term measures.   The Task Force will submit its report by December 2004.
Due to erratic behaviour of monsoons, both  low and medium rain fall regions, which constitute about 68%  of the total area, are vulnerable  to periodical droughts.  Our experience has been that  almost  every third year is a drought year.  However, in some of the States, there may be  successive  drought years  enhancing the  vulnerability  of the population  in these  areas.  Local communities have devised indigenous safety mechanisms and drought oriented farming methods in many parts of the country.  From the experience of managing the past droughts particularly the severe drought of 1987, a number of programmes have been launched by the Government to mitigate the impact of drought in the long run.  These programmes include Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA), Watershed Development Programme for Shifting Cultivation (WDPSC), Integrated Water Development Project (IWDP), Integrated Afforestation and Eco-development Project Scheme (IAEPS).
Flood preparedness and response
In order to respond effectively to floods, Ministry of Home Affairs have initiated National Disaster Risk Management Programme in all the flood-prone States. Assistance is being provided  to the States to draw up disaster management plans at the State, District, Block/Taluka and Village levels. Awareness generation campaigns to sensitize all the stakeholders on the need for flood preparedness and mitigation measures. Elected representatives and officials are being trained in flood disaster management under the programme. Bihar Orissa, West Bengal, Assam and Uttar Pradesh are among the 17 multi-hazard prone States where this programme is being implemented with UNDP. USAID and European Commission.  
A comprehensive programme has been taken up for earthquake risk mitigation.  Although, the BIS has laid down the standards for construction in the seismic zones, these were not being followed.  The building construction in urban and suburban areas is regulated by the Town and Country Planning Acts and Building Regulations.  In many cases, the Building regulations do not incorporate the BIS codes. Even where they do, the lack of knowledge regarding seismically safe construction among the architects and engineers as well as lack of awareness regarding their vulnerability among the population led to most of the construction in the urban/sub-urban areas being without reference to BIS standards.  In the rural areas, the bulk of the housing is non-engineered construction.  The mode of construction in the rural areas has also changed from mud and thatch to brick and concrete construction thereby increasing the vulnerability.  The increasing population has led to settlements in vulnerable areas close to the river bed areas which are prone to liquefaction.  The Government have moved to address these issues.
National Core  Group for Earthquake  Risk Mitigation has been constituted  consisting of experts in earthquake engineering and administrators.  The  Core Group  has been assigned  with the responsibility  of drawing up  a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact  of earthquakes; providing advice and guidance  to the States  on various aspects  of  earthquake mitigation; developing/organizing  the preparation of  handbooks/pamphlets/type designs for  earthquake  resistant  construction; working out systems for assisting the States in the seismically vulnerable  zones to adopt/integrate  appropriate  Bureau of Indian Standards codes in their building byelaws; evolving systems for training  of municipal engineers as also practicing  architects and engineers in the private sector in the salient features  of Bureau of Indian  Standards codes  and the amended byelaws; evolving a system  of certification of architects/engineers  for testing their knowledge  of earthquake resistant construction; evolving systems for training of masons  and carry out intensive  awareness  generation  campaigns.

Review of building bye-laws and their adoption
Most casualties during earthquakes are caused by the collapse of structures.  Therefore structural mitigation measures are the key to make a significant impact towards earthquake safety in our country.  In view of this the States in earthquake prone zones have been requested to review, and if necessary, amend their building bye-laws to incorporate the BIS seismic codes for construction in the concerned zones. Many States have initiated necessary action in this regard. An Expert Committee appointed by the Core Group on Earthquake Risk Mitigation has already submitted its report covering appropriateamendments to the existing Town & Country Planning Acts, Land Use Zoning Regulation, Development Control Regulations & Building Bylaws, which could be used by the State Governments & the local bodies there-under to upgrade the existing legal instruments. The Model Building Bylaws also cover the aspect of ensuring technical implementation of the safety aspects in all new constructions & upgrading the strength of existing structurally vulnerable constructions. To facilitate the review of   existing building byelaws and adoption of the proposed amendments by the State Governments & UT administrations, discussion workshops at regional level in the country are being organized.  It is expected that all planning authorities and local bodies will soon have development control regulations and building byelaws which would include multi-hazard safety provisions. 
Development and Revision of Codes
There are Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) codes which are relevant for multi-hazard resistant design and construction. These codes have to be regularly updated. An action plan has been drawn up for revision of existing codes, development of new codes and documents/commentaries, and making these codes and documents available all over the country including on-line access to these codes. An Apex committee consisting of representatives of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, BIS and MHA   has been constituted to review the mechanism and process of development of codes relevant to earthquake risk mitigation and establish a protocol for revision by BIS.
The States have been advised to constitute Hazard Safety Cells (HSC) headed by the Chief Engineer (Designs), State Public Works Department with necessary engineering staff  so as to establish mechanism for proper implementation of the building codes in all future Govt. constructions, and to ensures the safety of buildings and structures from various hazards.  The HSC will  also be responsible for carrying out appropriate design review of all Government buildings to be constructed in the State, act as an advisory cell to the State Government on the different aspects of building safety against hazards and act as a consultant to the State Government for retrofitting of the lifeline buildings.  Rajasthan, West Bengal and Chhatisgarh have already constituted these cells and other States are in the process.   
Two National Programmes for Capacity Building in Earthquake Risk Mitigation for Engineers and Architects respectively, have been approved to assist the State Govts in building capacities for earthquake mitigation. These two programmes are being implemented for training of 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects in the States in seismically safe building designs and related techno-legal requirements. Assistance is being provided to the State/UTs to build the capacities of more than 125 State Engineering Colleges and 110 Architecture Colleges to be able to provide advisory services to the State Govts to put in place appropriate techno-legal regime, assessment of building and infrastructures and their retrofitting.  These institutions will function as State Resource Institutions. Twenty-one National level Engineering and Architecture Institutions have been designated as National Resource Institutes to train the faculty members of selected State Engineering and Architecture colleges. 450 engineering faculty members and 250 architecture faculty members of these State Resource Institutions will be trained during the current year.
A programme to assist the States/UTs in training and certification of 50000 masons has been formulated in conultation with Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) and the Ministry of Rural Development. The training module for masons to include multi-hazard resistant construction has also been prepared by an expert committee, and revised curriculum will be introduced in the vocational training programme of Ministry of Human Resource Development.
Earthquake Engineering in Undergraduate Engineering/Architecture  Curricula
The role of engineers and architects is crucial in reducing earthquake risks by ensuring that the construction adhere to the norms of seismically safety. In view of this, the elements of earthquake engineering is being integrated into the undergraduate engineering and architecture courses.  The  model course curricula for adoption by various technical institutions and universities have been developed and circulated to the Universities and Technical Institutions for adoption in the under graduate curricula.  Ministry of Home Affairs  is working with All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and Council of Architecture (COA)  for introduction of revised curricula for engineering and architecture course from 2005-2006.   
Hospital Preparedness and Emergency Health Management in Medical Education
Hospital preparedness is crucial to any disaster response system. Each hospital should have an emergency preparedness plan to deal with mass casualty incidents and the hospital administration/ doctor trained for this emergency. The curriculum for medical doctors does not include Hospital Preparedness for  emergencies. Therefore capacity building through in-service training of the current heath managers and medical personnel in Hospital Preparedness for emergencies or mass causality incident management is essential. At the same time, the future health managers must acquire these skills systematically through the inclusion of health emergency management in the undergraduate and post graduate medical curricula. In consultation with Medical Council of India(MCI), two committees have been constituted for preparation of curriculum for introduction of emergency health management in MBBS curriculum, and preparation of in-service training of Hospital Managers and Professionals. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences Karnataka have been identified as the lead national resource institution for the purpose.
While  these mitigation measures will take care  of the new  constructions, the problem  of  unsafe  existing  buildings stock  would still  remain.  It will not be possible to address the entire existing building stock, therefore the life line buildings like hospitals, schools or buildings where people congregate like cinema halls, multi-storied apartments are being focussed on.  The States have been advised to have these buildings assessed and where necessary retrofitted.  The Ministries of Civil Aviation, Railways, Telecommunication, Power and Health and Family Welfare have been advised to take up necessary action for detailed evaluation and retrofitting of lifeline buildings located in seismically vulnerable zones so as  to ensure that they comply with BIS norms, Action plan have been drawn up by these Ministries for detailed vulnerability analysis and retrofitting/ strengthening of buildings and structures.   The Ministry of Finance have been requested to advise the financial institutions to give loans for retrofitting on easy terms. Accordingly the Ministry of Finance had advised Reserve Bank of India to issue suitable instructions to all the Banks and Financial Institutions to see that BIS codes/bye laws are scrupulously followed while financing/refinancing construction activities in seismically vulnerable zones. 
National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project
An Earthquake Mitigation Project has been drawn up, with an estimated cost of Rs.1132 crore.  The project has been given in-principle clearance by the Planning Commission.  The programme includes  detailed evaluation and retrofitting  of  lifeline buildings such as  hospitals, schools, water and power supply  units, telecommunication buildings, airports/airport control towers, railway stations, bus stands and important administrative buildings in the States in seismic zones  IV and  V.    The programme also includes  training of masons in earthquake resistant   constructions.  Besides, assistance will be provided  under this project  to the State Governments to put in place  appropriate  techno legal regime. Startup activities for implementation of this project have already been initiated.
Acceleration Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction Programme
An accelerated   urban  earthquake vulnerability reduction programme has been taken up in  38 cities in seismic  zones III, IV & V with population  of  half a million  and above. 474 Orientation programmes have been organized for senior officers and representatives of the local planning and development bodies to sensitize them on earthquake preparedness and mitigation measures. The training programme for engineers and architects are being organized to impart knowledge about  seismically  safe construction and implementation  of BIS  norms.  So far 1088 engineers and 825 architects have been trained. For enhanced school safety, education programmes have been organized in schools, colleges and other educational institutions. This programme will be further extended to 166 earthquake prone districts in seismic zones IV & V. Awareness generation programmes, community and neighbourhood organizations have been started in these cities. These cities are also being assisted to review and amend their building bye-laws to incorporate multi hazard safety provisions. City Disaster Management Plans are being developed under the project.  Nine Cities have prepared city Disaster Management Plans.
Mainstreaming Mitigation in Rural Development Schemes
Rural housing  and  community assets  for vulnerable  sections of the population are created at a fairly large scale  by the Ministry  of Rural Development under the Indira  Awas Yojna(IAY) and Sampooran Grameen Rojgar Yojna(SGRY).  About 250 thousand  small  but compact housing units are constructed every year,  besides community assets such as  community centres, recreation centres, anganwadi centres etc. Technology support  is provided  by about  two hundred  rural  housing  centres spread over the entire  country.  The Ministry of Home Affairs is working with the Ministry of Rural Development for changing the guidelines so that the houses constructed under IAY or school buildings/community buildings constructed under SGRY are earthquake/cyclone/flood resistant; as also that the schemes addressing mitigation are given priority under SGRY.  Ministry of Rural Development are carrying out an exercise for this purpose. This initiative is expected to go a long way in popularization of  seismically  safe construction  at village/block level .
A project for Cyclone Mitigation (estimated cost Rs. 1050 crore) has been drawn up in consultation with the cyclone prone States. This project envisages construction of cyclone shelters, coastal shelter belt plantation in areas which are prone to storm surges, strengthening of warning systems, training and education etc. This project has also been given in-principle clearance by the Planning Commission and is being taken up with World Bank assistance.
National Core Group has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Secretary, Border Management and comprising of Secretary, Department of Science and Technology, Secretary, Road Transport & Highways, and the Heads of Geological Survey of India and National Remote Sensing Agency for drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of landslides, provide advise and guidance to the State Governments on various aspects of landslide mitigation, monitor the activities relating to landslide mitigation including landslide hazard zonation and to evolve early warning systems and protocols for landslides/landslide risk reduction. The Government have designated Geological Survey of India (GSI) as the nodal agency responsible for coordinating/ undertaking geological studies, landslides hazard zonation, monitoring landslides/avalanches, studying the factors responsible and suggesting precautionary and preventive measure. The States/UTs have been requested to share the list of habitation close to landslide prone areas in order to supplement GSI’s on going assessment of such areas based on the Survey of India’s Toposheet and their existing data base on landslide for the purpose of landslide hazard zonation being carried out by them. A national strategy for mitigating landslide hazard in the country is being drawn up in consultation with all the agencies concerned.
Disaster Risk Management Programme
Disaster Risk Management Programme has been taken up in 169 districts in 17 multi-hazard prone States with the assistance from UNDP, USAID and European Union. Under this project, the States are being assisted to draw up State, district and Block level disaster management plans;  village disaster management plans are being developed in conjunction with the Panchayati Raj Institutions and  disaster management teams consisting of village volunteers are being trained in various preparedness and response functions such as search and rescue, first aid, relief coordination, shelter management etc.    Equipment needs for district and State Emergency Operation Centres have been identified by the State nodal agencies and equipment is being provided to equip these  EOCs.  Orientation training of masons, engineers and architects in disaster resistant technologies have been initiated in these districts and construction of model demonstration buildings will be started soon.
Under this programme Disaster Management Plans have been prepared for 8643 villages, 1046 Gram Panchayat, 188 blocks and 82 districts. More than 29000 elected representatives of Panchayati Raj Institutions have already been trained, besides imparting training to members of voluntary organizations. About 18000 Government functionaries have been trained in disaster mitigation and preparedness at different levels. 865 engineers and 425 architects have been trained under this programme in vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of lifeline buildings. 600 master trainers and 1200 teachers have already been trained in different districts in disaster preparedness and mitigation. Disaster Management Committees consisting of elected representatives, civil society members, Civil Defence volunteers and Government functionaries have been constituted at all levels including village/urban local body/ward levels. Disaster Management Teams have been constituted in villages and are being imparted training in basic functions of first aid, rescue, evacuation and related issues. The thrust of the programme is to build up capabilities of the community since the community is invariably the first responder. During the recent past, it has been experienced that the capacity building of the community has been very helpful even in normal situations when isolated instances of drowning, burns etc. take place. With the creation of awareness generation on disaster mitigation, the community will be able to function as a well-knit unit in case of any emergency. Mock drills are carried out from time to time under the close supervision of Disaster Management Committees. The Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams have been established by notifications issued by the State Governments which will ensure that the entire system is institutionalized and does not disintegrate after the conclusion of the programme. The key points being stressed under this programme are the need to ensure sustainability of the programme, development of training modules; manuals and codes, focused attention to awareness generation campaigns; institutionalization of disaster management committees and disaster management teams, disaster management plans and mock-drills and establishment of techno-legal regimes.
Recognizing that awareness about vulnerabilities is a sine qua non for inducing a mindset of disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, the Government has initiated a nation-wide awareness generation campaign as part of its overall disaster risk management strategy. In order to devise an effective and holistic campaign, a steering committee for mass media campaign has been constituted at the national level with due representation of experts from diverse streams of communication. The Committee has formulated a campaign strategy aimed at changing peoples’ perception of natural hazards and has consulted the agencies and experts associated with advertising and media to instill a culture of safety against natural hazards.
Apart from the use of print and electronic media, it is proposed to utilize places with high public visibility viz. hospitals, schools, railway stations and bus terminals, airports and post offices, commercial complexes and municipality offices etc. to make people aware of their vulnerabilities and promote creation of a safe living environment.
A novel method being tried is the use of government stationery viz. postal letters, bank stationery, railway tickets, airline boarding cards and tickets etc. for disseminating the message of disaster risk reduction. Slogans and messages for this purpose have already been developed and have been communicated to concerned Ministries/agencies for printing and dissemination. The mass media campaign will help build the knowledge, attitude and skills of the people in vulnerability reduction and sustainable disaster risk management measures.
Disaster Awareness in School Curriculum
Disaster management as a subject in Social Sciences has been introduced in the school curriculum for Class VIII IX. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) which has introduced the curriculum runs a very large number of schools throughout the country and the course curriculum is invariably followed by the State Boards of Secondary Education. Teachers are being trained to teach disaster management Syllabus for Class X is being finalized and will be introduced in the course curriculum soon. The State Governments have been advised to take similar steps vis-à-vis their school boards.  Several Provincial Governments have already introduced the same curriculum in Class VII. Ministry is  working with the Council of Board of School Education (COBSE) to facilitate inclusion of disaster management in public education in all 39 School Boards in the country.
Information, Education and Communication
In order to assist the State Governments in capacity building and awareness generation activities and to learn from past experiences including sharing of best practices, the Ministry of Home Affairs has compiled/prepared a set of resource materials developed by various organisations/institutions to be replicated and disseminated by State Governments based on their vulnerabilities after translating it into the local languages. The voluminous material which runs in about 10000 pages has been divided into 4 broad sections in 7 volumes. These sections cover planning to cope with disasters; education and training; construction toolkit; and information, education and communication toolkit including multi-media resources on disaster mitigation and preparedness. The Planning section contains material for analyzing a community’s risk, development of Preparedness. Mitigation and disaster management plans, coordinating available resources and implementing measures for risk reduction. The model bye-laws, DM Policy, Act and model health sector plan have also been included. Education and Training includes material for capacity building and upgradation of skills of policy makers, administrators, trainers, engineers etc. in planning for and mitigating against natural disasters. Basic and detailed training modules in disaster preparedness have been incorporated along with training methodologies for trainers, for community preparedness and manuals for training at district, block, panchayat and village levels. For creating a disaster-resistant building environment, the Construction Toolkit addresses the issue of seismic resistant construction and retrofitting of existing buildings. BIS Codes, manuals and guidelines for RCC, Masonry and other construction methodologies as also for repair and retrofitting of masonry and low-rise buildings have been included.
IEC material seeks to generate awareness to induce mitigation and preparedness measures for risk reduction.  Material and strategies used by various States and international organizations, including tips on different hazards, have been incorporated along with multi-media CDs on disasters. The material has been disseminated to all the State Governments/UT Administrations with the request to have the relevant material, based on the vulnerability of each district, culled out, translated into local languages and disseminate it widely down to the village level.
Special Focus to Northeastern States
A special focus is being given to North-Eastern States and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.  The North-Eastern Council has been made the nodal agency for the NE States. The NEC has been provided with a resource person/advisor in disaster management.  A detailed presentation on the vulnerabilities of the NE region and the need for comprehensive disaster management plan has been made in the Governing Body of NE Council. An action plan has been drawn up by NEC and a declaration namely “Shillong Declaration” has been adopted by States in the NE region for integrating disaster management with development planning.  140 officials and non-officials  have been trained in disaster management to act as resource persons for the NE region.  State and district level sensitization and training programmes are being carried out.
The various prevention and mitigation measures outlined above are aimed at building up the capabilities of the communities, voluntary organisations and Government functionaries at all levels. Particular stress is being laid on ensuring that these measures are institutionalized considering the vast population and the geographical area of the country. This is a major task being undertaken by the Government to put in place mitigation measures for vulnerability reduction. This is just a beginning. The ultimate goal is to make prevention and mitigation a part of normal day-to-day life. The above mentioned initiatives will be put in place and information disseminated over a period of five to eight years. We have a firm conviction that with these measures in place, we could say with confidence that disasters like Orissa cyclone and Bhuj earthquake will not be allowed to recur in this country; at least not at the cost, which the country has paid in these two disasters in terms of human lives, livestock, loss of property and means of livelihood.  


1. The earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian sub-continent is found at—
(A) Lothal
(B) Harappa
(C) Mehrgarh
(D) Mundigak
Ans : (C)
2. During the Rig Vedic period Niska was an ornament of—
(A) Ear
(B) Neck
(C) Arm
(D) Wrist
Ans : (B)
3. Which of the following were regarded as the hub of Aryan culture during the later Vedic period ?
(A) Anga, Magadh
(B) Kosal, Videha
(C) Kuru, Panchal
(D) Matsya, Surasena
Ans : (C)
4. Who among the following was the first to take initiative for water resource management in the Girnar region ?
(A) Chandragupta Maurya
(B) Asoka
(C) Rudradaman
(D) Skandagupta
Ans : (A)
5. That Lumbini was the birth place of Gautama Buddha, is confirmed by an inscription of—
(A) Asoka
(B) Kanishka
(C) Harsha
(D) Dharmapala
Ans : (A)
6. Who among the following Gupta Kings had another name Devagupta ?
(A) Samudragupta
(B) Chandragupta II
(C) Kumaragupta
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)
7. Kumaradevi, a queen of Govinda Chandra Gahadavala, constructed Dharma-Chakra Jina Vihara at—
(A) Bodha Gaya
(B) Rajgrih
(C) Kushinagar
(D) Sarnath
Ans : (D)
8. Which of the following dynasties frequently assigned to the ladies high ranking positions in administration ?
(A) Chola
(B) Chalukya
(C) Pala
(D) Sena
Ans : (B)
9. Who among the following Rajput rulers is known to have written a book on music ?
(A) Jayachandra Gahadavala
(B) Prithviraj Chauhan
(C) Rana Kumbha
(D) Man Singh
Ans : (C)
10. Which Sultan of Delhi was a contemporary of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan ?
(A) Iltutmish
(B) Razia
(C) Balban
(D) Alauddin Khalji
Ans : (A)
11. Who among the following was the continuing link between Sher Shah and Akbar in the field of land revenue administration ?
(A) Birbal
(B) Todar Mal
(C) Bhagwan Das
(D) Bhar Mal
Ans : (B)
12. With which medieval ruler would you associate the statement ‘I would have lost the empire just for a handful of millet’ ?
(A) Alauddin Khalji
(B) Muhammad Tughlaq
(C) Sher Shah
(D) Aurangzeb
Ans : (C)
13. The Maratha King became a nonentity and the Peshwa the virtual ruler from the time of—
(A) Balaji Vishwanath
(B) Baji Rao I
(C) Balaji Rao
(D) Madnav Rao I
Ans : (B)
14. Thomas Roe was received in audience by Jehangir at—
(A) Agra
(B) Ajmer
(C) Delhi
(D) Fatehpur Sikri
Ans : (A)
15. Which one of the following musical instruments was mastered by Aurangzeb ?
(A) Sitar
(B) Pakhawaj
(C) Veena
(D) None of the above
Ans : (C)
16. Which son of Aurangzeb revolted against his father, weakening the latter’s position against the Rajputs ?
(A) Azam
(B) Akbar
(C) Muazzam
(D) Kam Baksh
Ans : (B)
17. Who were the first Europeans to come to India for trade ?
(A) Dutch
(B) English
(C) French
(D) Portuguese
Ans : (D)
18. What did the Act V of 1843 make illegal ?
(A) Child marriage
(B) Infanticide
(C) Sati
(D) Slavery
Ans : (D)
19. Who among the following was the leader of the revolution of 1857 in Assam ?
(A) Diwan Maniram Dutta
(B) Kandarpeshwar Singh
(C) Purandar Singh
(D) Piali Barua
Ans : (A)
20. Which of the following Acts transferred the Government of India from East India Company to the Crown ?
(A) Government of India Act 1858
(B) Indian Councils Act 1861
(C) Royal Titles Act 1876
(D) Indian Councils Act 1892
Ans : (A)
21. The first meeting of Indian National Congress was held at—
(A) Bombay
(B) Poona
(C) Madras
(D) Calcutta
Ans : (A)
22. The paper ‘Indian Mirror’ was published during 1861 from—
(A) Bombay
(B) Calcutta
(C) Madras
(D) Pondicherry
Ans : (B)
23. Name the organization formed by Surendranath Banerjee which merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886—
(A) East India Association
(B) London India Society
(C) Indian Association
(D) Indian National Conference
Ans : (C)
24. Who among the following introduced the Vernacular Press Act ?
(A) Lord Lytton
(B) Lord Ripon
(C) Lord Curzon
(D) Lord Hastings
Ans : (A)
25. The President of Surat Session of Indian National Congress, 1907 was—
(A) R. B. Ghosh
(B) B. G. Tilak
(C) Annie Besant
(D) G. K. Gokhale
Ans : (A)
26. Who among the following had started Indian Home Rule Society in London ?
(A) Annie Besant
(B) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(C) Shyamji Krishna Varma
(D) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Ans : (C)
27. The first Trade Union was founded in India in the year 1918 by—
(A) N. M. Joshi
(B) B. P. Wadia
(C) V. V. Giri
(D) S. A. Dange
Ans : (B)
28. Who resigned from the membership of Viceroy’s Executive Council as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ?
(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Rabindranath Tagore
(C) Shankaran Nair
(D) Jamnalal Bajaj
Ans : (C)
29. Who had opposed the Champaran Satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi ?
(A) Rabindranath Tagore
(B) N. G. Ranga
(C) Rajkumar Shukla
(D) Rajendra Prasad
Ans : (A)
30. In which one of the following languages was the first issue of the Journal Ghadar published ?
(A) Urdu
(B) Hindi
(C) English
(D) Marathi
Ans : (A)
31. Who was the author of the book ‘Bandi Jiwan’ ?
(A) Dinabandhu Mitra
(B) Hema Chandrakar
(C) Ram Prasad Bismil
(D) Sachindra Sanyal
Ans : (D)
32. Consider the following events connected with Indian National Movement :
1. Gandhi-Irvin Pact
2. Execution of Bhagat Singh
3. Karachi Session of Indian National Congress, 1931
4. Martyrdom of Chandra Shekhar Azad
Find the correct chronological order of the events from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 4, 1, 2, 3
(B) 1, 2, 3, 4
(C) 2, 3, 4, 1
(D) 4, 1, 3, 2
Ans : (A)
33. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists : List-I
(a) Annie Besant
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(d) Ambika Charan Majumdar
1. Home Rule Movement
2. Champaran Satyagraha
3. Lucknow Session of Indian
National Congress, 1916
4. Lahore Session of Indian
National Congress, 1929
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 4 3
(B) 1 2 3 4
(C) 4 3 2 1
(D) 3 2 1 4
Ans : (A)
34. Who among the following said about the Act of 1935 “a car which has brake but no engine” ?
(A) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(B) C. Rajgopalachari
(C) Mahatma Gandhi
(D) S. C. Bose
Ans : (A)
35. Who formed the Radical Democratic Party in 1940 ?
(A) Indrasen
(B) M. N. Roy
(C) Somendranath Tagore
(D) Shachindranath Sanyal
Ans : (B)
36. Who started the individual Satyagraha ?
(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Pattabhi Sitaramayya
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) Vinoba Bhave
Ans : (D)
37. Who among the following called the movements of Gandhiji as ‘political blackmail’ ?
(A) Lord Chelmsford
(B) Lord Wavel
(C) Lord Linlithgow
(D) Lord Montague
Ans : (C)
38. Muslim League observed the ‘Direct Action Day’ on—
(A) 12 August 1942
(B) 16 August 1943
(C) 16 August 1946
(D) 14 August 1947
Ans : (C)
39. Arrange in chronological order the following events which occurred during post-independence period :
1. Liberation of Goa
2. Dalai Lama fled to India
3. Chou En-Lai visited India
4. India visit of Khrushchev and Bulganin
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1, 3, 2, 4
(B) 2, 1, 4, 3
(C) 3, 4, 1, 2
(D) 4, 2, 3, 1
Ans : (D)
40. Who among the following were responsible for the creation of Ratha monuments at Mamallapuram ?
(A) Cholas
(B) Pallavas
(C) Pandyas
(D) Chalukyas
Ans : (B)
41. The ancient monuments of Elephanta are mostly
1. Buddhist
2. Jain
3. Saivite
4. Vaishnavite
Select the correct answer from the code given below—
Code :
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 1 and 3
Ans : (C)
42. Which of the following temples is considered as a wonder of rock-cut architecture ?
(A) Brihadisvara Temple, Tanjavur
(B) Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneshwar
(C) Kailash Temple, Ellora
(D) Kandaria Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho
Ans : (C)
43. Ruins of which of the following represent the old capital of Vijayanagar ?
(A) Ahmadnagar
(B) Bijapur
(C) Golconda
(D) Hampi
Ans : (D)
44. Which one of the following is not correctly matched ?
(A) Akbar’s Tomb —Sikandara
(B) Jahangir’s Tomb —Sahdara
(C) Tomb of Shaikh Salim Chishti —Fatehpur Sikri
(D) Tomb of Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia —Ajmer
Ans : (D)
45. Which of the following was the birth place of Guru Nanak ?
(A) Amritsar
(B) Nabha
(C) Nankana
(D) Nander
Ans : (C)
46. Where did Maharaja Jaisingh II built observatories ?
1. Delhi
2. Jaipur
3. Ujjain
4. Varanasi
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 1 and 3
(C) 2 and 3
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans : (D)
47. Who among the following transformed the traditional Ganapati festival of Maharashtra into a national festival and gave it a political character ?
(A) Ramdas
(B) Shivaji
(C) Mahadev Govind Ranade
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Ans : (D)
48. Who among the following had founded the ‘Indian Society of Oriental Art’ to revive ancient art traditions of India ?
(A) Abanindra Nath Tagore
(B) Nand Lal Bose
(C) Asit Kumar Haldhar
(D) Amrita Shergill
Ans : (A)
49. Who among the following was offered Membership of the Royal Asiatic Society of Paris ?
(A) Dadabhai Naoroji
(B) Michael Madhusudan Dutta
(C) Raja Rammohan Roy
(D) Vivekanand
Ans : (B)
50. The first University Chair of Sanskrit was founded in—
(A) England
(B) France
(C) Germany
(D) Russia
Ans : (C)
51. Who among the following had said, ‘God intended me to look upon all religions with one eye, that is why he took away the light from the other’ ?
(A) Maharaja Ranjit Singh
(B) Maharaja Sher Singh
(C) Maharaja Dalip Singh
(D) None of the above
Ans : (A)
52. Who among the following deities is represented in art as holding a plough ?
(A) Krishna
(B) Balarama
(C) Kartikeya
(D) Maitreya
Ans : (B)
53. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Jawahar Lal Nehru —Hind Swaraj
(B) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad —India Wins Freedom
(C) Subhash Chandra Bose —Indian Struggle
(D) Lala Lajpat Rai —Unhappy India
Ans : (A)
54. Which one of the following will be the year of Saka Samvat in December 2009 ?
(A) 1931
(B) 1952
(C) 2066
(D) 2087
Ans : (A)
55. The smallest million city of India is—
(A) Amritsar
(B) Allahabad
(C) Rajkot
(D) Vijayawada
Ans : (C)
56. Why is Dhanbad most densely inhabited district of Chhota Nagpur plateau ?
(A) Fertile soil and irrigational facilities by canals from the Damodar
(B) Availability of coal, iron ore, mica, copper etc.
(C) Development of mining industries and industrialization
(D) All the above
Ans : (D)
57. Which one of the following classes of towns are included in the category of small towns by the Census of India ?
(A) Class VI
(B) Class V and VI
(C) Class IV, V and VI
(D) Class III, IV, V and VI
Ans : (D)
58. In India maximum number of cities reporting slums are found in—
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (B)
59. The coast areas of which of the following oceans are called ‘ring of fire’ ?
(A) Atlantic Ocean
(B) Pacific Ocean
(C) Indian Ocean
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)
60. ‘Operation Green’ was launched in Uttar Pradesh on—
(A) July 1, 2001
(B) October 2, 2001
(C) July 1, 2005
(D) June 6, 2006
Ans : (C)
61. The country which has the finest system of protected lands in the world is—
(A) China
(B) Costa Rica
(C) India
(D) Switzerland
Ans : (D)
62. In India maximum alkali area is found in the State of—
(A) Gujarat
(B) Haryana
(C) Punjab
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (A)
63. In India Project Elephant was launched in the year—
(A) 1968
(B) 1970
(C) 1972
(D) 1974
Ans : Project Elephant was started in 1992
64. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
(A) Simlipal —Assam
(B) Nokrek —Meghalaya
(C) Dehong Debang —Sikkim
(D) Agasthyamalai —Karnataka
Ans : (B)
65. According to the 2001 Census Report, male female ratio in India is—
(A) 1000 : 930
(B) 1000 : 934
(C) 1000 : 926
(D) 1000 : 933
Ans : (D)
66. Which State of India has the largest Muslim population according to the 2001 Census ?
(A) Assam
(B) Bihar
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) West Bengal
Ans : (C)
67. Among the following States which one has the highest sex ratio, according to 2001 Census ?
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Chhattisgarh
(C) Himachal Pradesh
(D) Jharkhand
Ans : (B)
68. The State which recorded the minimum population growth rate during 1991-2001 is—
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Kerala
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) West Bengal
Ans : (B)
69. In which year was the first regular Census held in India ?
(A) 1921
(B) 1881
(C) 1911
(D) 1931
Ans : (B)
70. Which of the following countries are included in the ‘Golden Crescent’ ?
1. Afghanistan
2. Iran
3. Iraq
4. Pakstan
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 3 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 1, 2 and 4
Ans : (D)
71. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Kimberley —Diamond
(B) Witwatersrand —Gold
(C) Katomga —Copper
(D) Saar —Iron ore
Ans : (D)
72. Which one of the following countries has the highest birth rate ?
(A) Afghanistan
(B) Bangladesh
(C) India
(D) Pakistan
Ans : (D)
73. Alexandria is a port of—
(A) Egypt
(B) Israel
(C) Jordan
(D) Libya
Ans : (A)
74. Which one of the following South Asian countries has the highest population density ?
(A) Sri Lanka
(B) India
(C) Nepal
(D) Pakistan
Ans : (B)
75. Persian Gulf does not form border with—
(A) Bahrain
(B) Iraq
(C) Kuwait
(D) Oman
Ans : (D)
76. Which one of the following countries is the third largest economy of the world ?
(A) Japan
(B) Malaysia
(C) India
(D) China
Ans : (A)
77. The Equator passes through—
(A) Central African Republic
(B) Kenya
(C) Sarawak
(D) Venezuela
Ans : (B)
78. Which of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
Minerals—Producing Areas
(A) Copper—Arizona
(B) Coal—Carajas
(C) Iron Ore—Rastanura
(D) Petroleum—Donbas
Ans : (A)
79. Which of the following are active volcanoes ?
1. Aconagua
2. Cotopaxi
3. Etna
4. Fujiyama
Select the correct answer from the code given below—
Code :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 3 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Ans : Incorrect Options
80. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Ghana—Accra
(B) Kenya—Nairobi
(C) Namibia—Windhooks
(D) Nigeria—Rabat
Ans : (D)
81. Through which of the following straits does a tunnel connect the United Kingdom and France ?
(A) Davis Strait
(B) Denmark Strait
(C) Strait of Dover
(D) Strait of Gibralter
Ans : (C)
82. In which of the following group of countries maize is used as staple food ?
(A) Western Europe
(B) Russia
(C) Middle Africa
(D) South-East Asia
Ans : (C)
83. The biggest port in India is—
(A) Vishakhapatnam
(B) Mumbai
(C) Tuticorin
(D) Kandla
Ans : (B)
84. Sankosh river forms boundary between—
(A) Bihar and West Bengal
(B) Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
(C) Assam and West Bengal
(D) Bihar and Jharkhand
Ans : (B)
85. Pir Panjal range lies in—
(A) Arunachal Pradesh
(B) Jammu and Kashmir
(C) Punjab
(D) Uttarakhand
Ans : (B)
86. Which of the following city of Uttar Pradesh is not joined by Nationla Highway 2 ?
(A) Agra
(B) Allahabad
(C) Lucknow
(D) Varanasi
Ans : (C)
87. Which of the following rivers is an example of the superimposed drainage ?
(A) Alaknanda
(B) Kosi
(C) Chambal
(D) Godawari
Ans : (C)
88. Which factors have facilitated the locational shift of the sugar industry from North India to South India ?
1. Per acre higher yield of sugar cane
2. Higher sucrose content of sugar cane
3. Longer crushing season
4. Cheap labour
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 2 and 3
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Ans : (C)
89. Which of the following crops are grown mostly under subsistence farming ?
(A) Millets and Rice
(B) Cotton and Tobacco
(C) Tea and Coffee
(D) Vegetables and Fruits
Ans : (A)
90. Teak and Sal are the products of—
(A) Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
(B) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(C) Tropical Thorn Forests
(D) Alpine Forests
Ans : (A)
91. On which one of the following rivers is ‘Tulbul’ Project located ?
(A) Chenab
(B) Ravi
(C) Beas
(D) Jhelum
Ans : (D)
92. Which one of the following is the actual source of the Son river ?
(A) Amarkantak in Shahdol district
(B) Son Muda in Shahdol district
(C) Son Bachharwar in Bilaspur district
(D) Mandla plateau
Ans : (A)
93. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
Nuclear Plant—Year of Commissioning
(A) Kota—1989
(B) Kakrapar—1984
(C) Kaiga—1999
(D) Kalpakkam—1995
Ans : (C)
94. Rubber industry in India is located at—
(A) Panjim
(B) Bangalore
(C) Puducherri
(D) Aurangabad
Ans : (B)
95. In March 2009 the BrahMos Missile was tested at—
(A) Pokharan
(B) Chandipur
(C) Cape Canveral
(D) Sri Harikota
Ans : (A)
96. The countries, which participated in Malabar-2009 exercises, were—
(A) China, England, Russia
(B) China, India, Russia
(C) India, USA, Japan
(D) Japan, England, USA
Ans : (C)
97. Three ‘Phalcon AWACS’ supplied by Israel were received in India for the first time in—
(A) March 2009
(B) April 2009
(C) May 2009
(D) February 2009
Ans : (C)
98. The winner of Nobel Peace Prize for 2008 is—
(A) Al Gore
(B) Muhammad Yunus
(C) Martti Ahtisaari
(D) Wangari Maathai
Ans : (C)
99. Who among the following has been chosen for ‘Hoover Medal’ in March 2009 for his contribution to the upliftment of the poor and the rural people ?
(A) Sam Patroda
(B) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
(C) M. S. Swaminathan
(D) Baba Amte
Ans : (B)
100. In April 2009, G-20 Summit was held in—
(A) Geneva
(B) London
(C) Paris
(D) Rome
Ans : (B)
101. India was represented in the Annual Meet of the World Economic Forum, held in Davos (Switzerland) in January 2009, by—
(A) Manmohan Singh
(B) Kamal Nath
(C) P. Chidambaram
(D) Kapil Sibbal
Ans : (B)
102. The first woman to be the Speaker of Lok Sabha is—
(A) Vijay Lakshmi Pandit
(B) Sarojini Naidu
(C) Indira Gandhi
(D) Meira Kumar
Ans : (D)
103. Which movie has been given the Best Movie Award in 66th Golden Globe Awards ?
(A) Mall E
(B) Slumdog Millionaire
(C) The Dark Night
(D) The Reader
Ans : (B)
104. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
Recent Padma Awardees—Awards
(A) Bhimsen Joshi– Bharat Ratna
(B) Abhinav Bindra – Padma Vibhushan
(C) Shekhar Gupta – Padma Bhushan
(D) Aishwarya Rai – Padma Shri
Ans : (B)
105. Who among the following won the best actor award in the awards ceremony of International Indian Film Academy held at Macau ?
(A) Amitabh Bachchan
(B) Hritik Roshan
(C) Abhishek Bachchan
(D) Salman Khan
Ans : (B)
106. Where did Prime Minsiter Manmohan Singh, having taken charge of the new government after 2009 elections, meet Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari for the first time ?
(A) Cairo
(B) London
(C) Shanghai
(D) Yekaterinburg
Ans : (D)
107. Which among the following countries attended as observers the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Summit held on 16 June 2009 ?
1. Russia
2. India
3. Pakistan
4. Iran
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 2 and 3
(C) 3 and 4
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Ans : (D)
108. Name the player who has been awarded the 2008 Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award ?
(A) Sachin Tendulkar
(B) Anil Kumble
(C) Gautam Gambhir
(D) M. S. Dhoni
Ans : (D)
109. The only Indian Gold Medal Winner in Olympic 2008 is—
(A) Sudesh Kumar
(B) Pankaj Advani
(C) Mahesh Bhupati
(D) Abhinav Bindra
Ans : (D)
110. The winner of Asia Cup Hockey Tournament, 2009 was—
(A) China
(B) Malaysia
(C) Pakistan
(D) South Korea
Ans : (D)
111. The winner State of 17th Senior National Women’s Football Championship held in March 2009, was—
(A) Manipur
(B) Nagaland
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) West Bengal
Ans : (A)
112. The two games, which have been excluded from the Olympic Games to be held in 2012 in London, are—
(A) Badminton and Table Tennis
(B) Basketball and Volleyball
(C) Tennis and Wrestling
(D) Softball and Baseball
Ans : (D)
113. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Sushil Kumar—Wrestling
(B) Anand Pawar—Badminton
(C) Arjun Rao—Archery
(D) Pankaj Advani—Shooting
Ans : (D)
114. The captain of the Indian Hockey Team which won Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament, 2009 was—
(A) Dilip Tirkey
(B) Rajpal Singh
(C) Sandeep Singh
(D) V. Raghunath
Ans : (C)
115. Asia Cup Hockey Tournament was held in May 2009 in—
(A) India
(B) Malaysia
(C) South Korea
Ans : (B)
116. In which of the following States the National Games, 2011 will be held ?
(A) Delhi
(B) Goa
(C) Maharashtra
(D) Rajasthan
Ans : (B)
117. A cropping system where crops are grown in the inter spaces between rows of planted trees is called—
(A) Relay cropping
(B) Mixed cropping
(C) Inter-cropping
(D) Alley cropping
Ans : (D)
118. Application of gypsum is required more in the crop of—
(A) Paddy
(B) Berseem
(C) Wheat
(D) Groundnut
Ans : (A)
119. The upper limit of available water in soil is determined at—
(A) 1/3 bar
(B) 1/2 bar
(C) 2/3 bar
(D) 1 bar
Ans : (A)
120. The place of origin of red gram is—
(A) America
(B) India
(C) South Africa
(D) Egypt
Ans : (C)
121. University of Horticulture and Forestry is located at—
(A) Coimbatore
(B) Solan
(C) Palampur
(D) Pant Nagar
Ans : (B)
122. Heroin is obtained from—
(A) Indian hemp
(B) Opium poppy
(C) Tobacco
(D) Arecanut
Ans : (B)
123. The leading producer of soybean in India is—
(A) Chhattisgarh
(B) Madhya Pradesh
(C) Maharashtra
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (B)
124. ‘Varuna’ is a variety of—
(A) Mustard
(B) Linseed
(C) Sunflower
(D) Sesamum
Ans : (A)
125. Farming of cloves is done in—
(A) Kerala
(B) Karnataka
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (A)
126. Consider the following statements—
Assertion (A) : West Bengal is the leading producer of fish in India.
Reason (R) : West Bengal has well developed fishing industry along the sea coast.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans : (C)
127. In India the largest area under rice cultivation lies in the State of—
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Orissa
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) West Bengal
Ans : (C)
128. The most popular sport goods come from—
(A) Ludhiana
(B) Jalandhar
(C) Kanpur
(D) Agra
Ans : (B)
129. Which bank became the first bank to open its branch in China ?
(A) IDBI Bank
(B) HDFC Bank
(C) State Bank of India
(D) Punjab National Bank
Ans : (C)
130. After the merger of Air India and Indian Airlines, the new entity is now known as—
(A) Indian Airways
(B) India Airlines
(C) Air India
(D) Indo-Air
Ans : (A)
131. Which sector got high rate of growth in its cooperative units ?
(A) Sugar
(B) Cotton textile
(C) Jute
(D) Cement
Ans : (B)
132. The headquarters of the World Bank are at—
(A) Manila
(B) Washington
(C) New York
(D) Geneva
Ans : (B)
133. Inside trading is related to—
(A) Share market
(B) Horse racing
(C) Taxation
(D) International trade
Ans : (A)
134. Mixed Economy means—
(A) Co-existence of small and large industries
(B) Co-existence of public and private sectors
(C) Co-existence of rich and poor
(D) Promoting both agriculture and industry in the economy
Ans : (B)
135. Diesel Locomotive engines are manufactured in India at—
(A) Chitranjan
(B) Jamshedpur
(C) Varanasi
(D) Chennai
Ans : (C)
136. Invisible Export means export of—
(A) Services
(B) Prohibited goods
(C) Unrecorded goods
(D) Goods through smuggling
Ans : (A)
137. The headquarters of World Trade Organization are at—
(A) Doha
(B) Geneva
(C) Rome
(D) New York
Ans : (B)
138. The city of Jaunpur was founded by—
(A) Muhammad Tughlaq
(B) Firoz Shah Tughlaq
(C) Ibrahim Shah Sharqi
(D) Sikandar Lodi
Ans : (B)
139. The density of population of Uttar Pradesh according to 2001 Census, is—
(A) 689 per square km
(B) 589 per square km
(C) 489 per square km
(D) 389 per square km
Ans : (A)
140. In U.P. which one of the following tribes has the highest population ?
(A) Saharia
(B) Tharu
(C) Agaria
(D) Mahigir
Ans : (B)
141. The State of Uttar Pradesh accounts for—
(A) 60 Lok Sabha seats
(B) 70 Lok Sabha seats
(C) 80 Lok Sabha seats
(D) 90 Lok Sabha seats
Ans : (C)
142. Obra Thermal Power Plant was established with the help of—
(A) Soviet Russia
(B) Japan
(C) Germany
(D) America
Ans : (A)
143. According to 2001 Census the female literacy percentage in U.P. is—
(A) 38•87
(B) 43•53
(C) 33•12
(D) 42•22
Ans : (D)
144. Which is the highest Dam in U.P. ?
(A) Mata-Tila
(B) Meja
(C) Rihand
(D) Ram-Ganga
Ans : (D)
145. In U.P. Uranium is available in the district of—
(A) Lalitpur
(B) Jhansi
(C) Mirjapur
(D) Hamirpur
Ans : (A)
146. Firozabad is famous for producing—
(A) Bangles
(B) Locks
(C) Knives
(D) Shoes
Ans : (A)
147. Which one of the following is not a folk song of U.P. ?
(A) Birha
(B) Dhola Maru
(C) Kajri
(D) Rasia
Ans : (B)
148. Syed Salar Fair is held at—
(A) Bahraich
(B) Mankapur
(C) Barabanki
(D) Khalilabad
Ans : (A)
149. In U.P. Urdu Training and Research Centre is situated in—
(A) Barabanki
(B) Bareilly
(C) Lucknow
(D) Rampur
Ans : (C)
150. Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture is located at—
(A) Jhansi
(B) Saharanpur
(C) Lucknow
(D) Varanasi
Ans : (C)