Showing posts with label APPSC GROUP-1 GENERAL ENGLISH. Show all posts
Showing posts with label APPSC GROUP-1 GENERAL ENGLISH. Show all posts

Tuesday, July 19, 2011


Cotton Textiles   Mumbai, Sholapur, Nagpur, Pune, Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Indore; Chennai, Madurai and Coimbatore, Kanpur and Kolkata.
Jute Textiles   West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, U.P. and M.P.
Silk Textiles   Asom, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Orissa, U.P., M.P., W. Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Punjab.
Woollen Textile   The chief centres of woollen textiles are Punjab, U.P., Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal.
Sugar Industry   U.P., Bihar and some centres are there in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Punjab
Cement Industry   Jharkhand, M.P., Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Haryana, U.P. and Orissa have some factories also.
Paper Industry   West Bengal, Maharashtra, U.P., Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
Iron and Steel Industry   Jamshedpur, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Bhilai (Chattisgarh), Durgapur, Hirapur, Kulti, Burnpur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Rourkela (Orissa) and Neyveli (Tamil Nadu).
Leather Industry   Chennai, Agra, Kolkata, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai, Deonaar, Deevaghat.
Aluminium   Alwaye (Kerala), Muri (Jharkhand), Hirakud (Orissa), Renukoot (U.P.), Bailur (W. Bengal), Koyna Mettur (Tamilnadu) and Hirakud (Orissa).
Matches   Bareilly, Kolkata, Chennai, Gwalior and Hyderabad.
Photo Film Industry   Ootacamund (Tamil Nadu)
Glass   Ferozabad, Shikohabad, Bahjoi, Naini, Haorah, Bangalore and Belgaon.
Chemical Industry   Delhi, Pimpri, Pune, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Rishikesh, Bangalore and Amritsar.
Rubber-Goods Industry   Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ballabhgarh, Shahaganj, Chamanacheri and Ambatoor.
Locomotive Industry   Chittaranjan (West Bengal), Varanasi in U.P., Perambur (Tamil Nadu)
Automobile Industry   Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Pune and Gurgaon
Antibiotic Industry   Rishikesh, Pimpri and Delhi
Aircraft Manufacturing Industry   Bangalore, Kanpur, Nasik, Koraput and Hyderabad
Fertilizers Industry   Durgapur, Kanpur, Foolpur (Uttar Pradesh), Haldia, Namrup, Rourkela, Vadodara, Barauni,Vishakhapatnam, Gorakhpur, etc.
Plastic Industry   Mumbai, Kolkata, Amritsar, Kanpur, Hyderabad and Coimbatore.
Petro-Chemical Industry   Vadodara and Mumbai, Bongaigoan, Asom

Saturday, July 31, 2010


1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Heritage Tourism is Good for Us
(b) Importance of a Work-Ethic
(c) Should Mercy-Killing be Legalized for Terminally ill Patients?
(d) The Culture of Modesty
(e) "Eternal Vigilance is the Price of Liberty".

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language: (5 x 15 = 75)
An educated man should know what is first-rate in those activities which spring from the creative and intellectual faculties of human nature, such as literature, art, architecture and music. I should like to add science and philosophy, but in these two subjects it is difficult for any but the expert to estimate quality, and many educated people have not the close knowledge necessary to judge their real worth. On the other hand everyone has close and daily contact with the other four. Architecture surrounds him in every city, literature meets him on every book-stall, music assails his ears on his radio set and from every juke-box; and art in its protean aspects of form and colour is a part of daily life. The architecture may often be bad, the literature and music often puerile, the art often undeserving of the name; but that is all the more reason why we should be able, in all of them, to distinguish good from bad.

To judge by the literature offered us in hotel book-stands, and by most of the music played on the radio and by jukeboxes we might be more discriminating in these fields than we are if it be said that music and art and literature are not essentials of life but. its frills, I would reply that if so, it is curious that they are among the few immortal things in the world, and that should a man wish to be remembered two thousand years hence, the only certain way is to write a great poem or book, compose a great symphony, paint a great picture, carve a great sculpture, or build a great building.

(a) What is it that is necessary for an educated person to know?
(b) Why does the author exclude science and philosophy from it?
(c) What makes it practically easy for an educated man to be able to know literature, art, architecture and music?
(d) How does exposure to ordinary literature and music help us?
(e) What is the author's argument to prove that music, art and literature are essentials of life?

3. Make a précis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The précis must be written on the separate précis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. (75)

What part should reading play in our lives? It should certainly not be a substitute for action, not for independent thinking, nor for conversation; but it may be a help and stimulant to action; thought and talk; and it is capable of providing almost infinite pleasure. There on our bookshelves or on summons from a library are wits, wisdom, adventure, romance from all ages and from all over the world. Is there any wonder that our eyes sometimes stray wistfully to the bookshelves and away from a dull visitor, or that we shirk a tiresome duty for an exciting book?

Books or people? Reading or conversation, listening in to a broadcast or watching a television programme? Which is the better way to gain knowledge or to spend your leisure? Some fortunate people seem always to find time for both and to enjoy both almost equally. My great friend, Arthur Wanchope, a fine soldier, an able administrator and a very gifted personality, was a constant reader; yet always ready to lay aside a book for talk.

The advantages of reading over talk are, of course, many. We can select the book that suits our mood, can go at our own pace, skip or turn back whereas we cannot turn over two pages of a tedious companion or close him or her, with a bang. But reading too has its own drawbacks. It lacks the human touch, the salt of life, and is therefore a dangerous substitute for thought or action. Bacon in one of his essays observes that reading maketh a full man; conference (that is talking) a ready man; and writing an exact man. One would like to be full of knowledge, ready in speech and exact by training. What short of books have impressed me and what books have found a permanent place on my bookshelves?

To begin with my profession-soldiering. I do not believe that soldiering, a practical business, in which human nature is the main element, can be learnt from text-books. But for those who have grasped the principles of war and have understood that the human factor is the most important element in it. There is military reading that is quite fascinating and valuable. Real and re-read the campaigns of the great commanders, said Napoleon. I would venture to put it differently and would say that the lives and characters of the great commanders are what students of war should examine, since their campaigns are only incidents in them; and that the behaviour of leaders and of their men in the field is the real subject for study.

In my general reading history, biography and travel occupy a prominent place; and since I have spent a considerable proportion of my life in the East there are a good number of volumes on India and the Middle East. There is plenty of poetry on my shelves and a good deal of it is in my head. Poetry should dance in the mind, and blow one a kiss; or gallop to adventure with a cheer; or whisper gently of things past; not shuffle or slouch past with dark incomprehensible mutterings. Perhaps I am getting old, anyway I prefer the old poets.

Lastly comes what is sometimes called 'escapist literature, the books we read with no other aim, than to rest or amuse the mind; to forget the day's chores and the morrow's anxieties. This is perhaps the most pleasant form of reading for most, and I suspect the only form of reading for many. The volume chosen may either be a thriller or soother — a thriller to bring sense of adventure into the dull daily routine or a soother to rest tired nerves. Our grandfathers in their leisurely days were content with the stately, comfortable three volume novel, but that had passed before the beginning of this century.

You will choose your books as you choose your friends, with taste and discrimination; I hope; because they can tell you something of your profession and interests, because they are wise and helpful, because they can stir your blood with tales of adventure, or because they are gay and witty. I can only wish you will get as much pleasure from them as I get from my books. (Words: 703)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) The Greeks were brave peoples.
(ii) His hat was blown off by the strong air.
(iii) I am the one who am to blame.
(iv) We should sympathies with blind.
(v) I'd rather play cricket and not swim.
(vi) Walking through the front door a wasp stung him.
(vii) Two plus nine are eleven.
(viii) I have built the house in 1960.
(ix) Their wedding has not been a very happy one.
(x) Choose only such friends whom you can trust.

(b) Rewrite the following sentences, inserting suitable articles where necessary: (5)
(i) What kind of ______ animals is it?
(ii) He will return in _____ hour.
(iii) He is ______ richest man in our street.
(iv) Gold is not ______ useful metal.
(v) While there is ______ life there is hope.

(c) Form Verbs from the following Nouns: (5)
(i) Courage
(ii) Memory
(iii) Prison
(iv) Class
(v) Friend

(d) Put the verbs in bracket in the correct tense and rewrite the following: (5)
India (have) many calendars which Indians (use) since very early times. More than thirty (be) still in use. One difficulty about having so many calendars (be) that the same date (fall) on different days according to each.

5. (a) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a Noun and then as a Verb: (10)
(i) Bank
(ii) Battle
(iii) Bite
(iv) Brave
(v) Brush

(b) Change the following sentences into their corresponding (a) Negatives and (b) Questions: (10)
(i) Ram resembles his father.
(ii) Raju studies French.
(iii) The bicycle costs Rs. 500.
(iv) The thief broke the window open.
(v) My mother has a beautiful umbrella.

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) The Lion's share
(ii) Close shave
(iii) At daggers drawn
(iv) (To) die in harness
(v) (To) eat one's words

ESSAY - 2007
Write an essay on any one of the following topics
1. Independent thinking should be encouraged right from the childhood.
2. Evaluation of Panchayati Raj Systems in India from the point of view of eradication of poverty to power to people.
3. Attitude makes habit, habit makes character and character makes a man.
4. Is autonomy the best answer t0 combat balkanization?
5. How has satellite television brought about cultural change in the Indian mindset?
6. BPO boom in India.


1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Social Impact of Black Money
(b) Women Combat Forces
(c) Internet as Virtual Library
(d) Fashion Boom in India
(e) Are we Aggressive and Rude People?

2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language (5 x 15 = 75)
There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another. There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding.

It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience. Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that 'Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,'

(a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions?
(b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West?
(c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization?
(d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies?
(e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel 'facile generalization'?

3. Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. Clearly state the number of words in the precis at the end. (75)

We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one's behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use.

Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say. They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals. With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people 'on and off' if done at the appropriate time.

Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone's behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak. The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them.

Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener's gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705)

4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10)
(i) Neither percept nor dscipline are so forceful as example.
(ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood.
(iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?
(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet.
(v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them,
(vi) On entering the hail, the humber of visitors surprised me
(vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words.
(viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly.
(ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.
(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.

(b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences: (5)
(i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod.
(ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance.
(iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits.
(iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks.
(v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.

(c) Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences: (5)
(i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take.
(A) knows (B) is known
(C) has been known (D) has known

(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken
(C) broke (D) has broken

(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed.
(A) had answered (B) would have answered
(C) would answer (D) has broken

(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department.
(A) to have given (B) having given
(C) have given (D) to give

(v) Please don't ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open
(C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door

(d) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (5)
(i) He said, "I will not approve of such a behaviour in future."
(ii) He said on the telephone, "We kept on doing our work till late night."
(iii) She said, "As your mother is ill, you must go home at once."
(iv) Ram said to Sita, "Do you intend to come with me to the forest?"
(v) The child said to the Sherpa, "Why didn't you choose to climb to the Moon?"

5. (a) Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences: (10)
For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days.
(i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work.
(ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk.
(iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people.
(iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan.
(v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years.
(vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir.
(vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs.
(viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________.
(ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility.
(x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold.

(b) Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning: 10
(i) Pitch (as noun and verb)
(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)
(iii) Humble (as adjective and verb)
(iv) In (as adverb and preposition)

(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5)
(i) bell the cat
(ii) thank one's stars
(iii) be on tenterhooks
(iv) true to one's salt colours
(v) come ant with flying


1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Environment and Conservation
(b) Role of Women in Social Transformation
(c) Nuclear Energy in War and Peace
(d) India's Foreign Policy and World Power
(e) Television and its Impact on Youth

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
It is wrong to believe that science has totally eclipsed literature with its inspiring zeal. That literature plays a subordinate role to science is equally untrue. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that science has comparatively a wider range for its impact on the physical world than literature. But that does not mean that literature has been incorporated in the realm of science to the extent that it loses its distinct individuality. The reality is that both co-exist without the one overshadowing the other, Those who think that science has pushed literature into shade reducing it to a non-entity seem to be simply imaginative and illogical in the comparisons of their respective merits. It is no doubt unquestionable that products of science are of greater material value than those which make an emotional appeal, e.g., a bridge is of greater use to the public than a poem. But thereby one should not ignore the importance of a poem which will continue to appeal to human mind for time to come. It is indisputable that a scientific theory like the one propounded by Einstein is not without its philosophical import as it lays its impress on the future growth of literature. But to be effective in this respect, science should unfold its principles by appealing to human emotions and not through crude and concrete material facts. Darwin's theory of Natural Selection in its exposition of the evolution of man by appeal to emotions and imagination of men has been conducive to the growth of nineteenth century literature. Mans emotional attitudes to life and vicissitudes of his fortune are colored not only by his inherited instincts and faith in his fate but also by his hope in point of longevity of life and betterment of future prospects. Oriented by a scientific theory, they give a colour to literature.

Literature feeds the emotional and imaginative hunger of man in this perspective science will not oust literature but enrich it by its impact on human life. Science can provide amenities of life for human comfort but fails to lend or impart spiritual pleasure Delight that literature instills in man far transcends the comforts which science provides.

(a) What is the basic contribution of science to humankind?
(b) What aspect of human life is fulfilled by works of literature?
(c) How have Darwin's and Einstein's theories proved conducive to the growth of literature?
(d) How is science friendly and not hostile to the growth of literature?
(e) Briefly enumerate the key ideas in the passage.

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will he deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Gautama, the Buddha, has suffered as much as anyone from critics without a sense of history. He has been cried up, and cried down, with an equal lack of historical imagination". Buddhism came to be widely known in the west in the latter part of the 19th century when a wave of scepticism spread over the world as a result of the growth of science and enlightenment. Positivism, agnosticism atheism and ethical humanism found wide support. In much of the literature of doubt and disbelief, the name of Buddha is mentioned with respect. The humanists honour him as one of the earliest protagonists of their cause- the happiness the dignity, and the mental integrity of mankind.

Those who declare that man cannot know reality and others who affirm that there is no reality to know, use his name. Agnostics quote his example. Social idealists, ethical mystic's rationalist prophets are all attracted by his teaching. Great as is the value of the Buddha's teaching for our age, we cannot hope to understand its true significance without reference to the environment in which he lived. This effort of historical imagination is not easy. To view the Buddha as a thinker of the sixth century B.C., living, moving and teaching in its peculiar conditions, is a task of extreme difficulty and delicacy; and the work of reconstruction can never be complete. But we may be reasonably certain that it yields a picture which in its main outlines, at least, must correspond fairly well to the reality. The supremacy of the ethical is the clue to the teaching of the Buddha. His conceptions of life and the universe are derived from his severely practical outlook. The existence of everything depends on a cause. If we remove the cause, the effect will disappear. If the source of all suffering is destroyed, suffering will disappear. The only way in which we can remove the cause of suffering is by purifying the heart and following the moral law. Man is not divine but is to become divine. His divine status is something to be built up by good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. The ego consists of the feelings that burn us, of the passions we brood over, of the desires that hunt us and of the decisions we make. These are the things that give life its dramatic character. There is nothing absolute and permanent in them.

That is why we can become something different from what we are. The reality of the person is the creative will. When we deny the clamour of emotions, stay the stream of things, silence the appetites of body, we feel the power of self within our own being. For the Buddha, the impulse to dharma, to justice and kindliness is operative in things, and its efficient activity will mean the reduction of disorder, cruelty and oppression. Dharma is organic to existence and its implication of karma or right action is the builder of the world. There is not in the Buddha's teaching that deep personal loyalty, passion of love, and intimate dialogue between soul and soul resembling closely in its expression of earthly love. And yet the essence of religion, the vision of a reality which stands beyond and within the passing flux of immediate things, the intuitive loyalty to something larger than and beyond oneself, and absolute active in the world, is in him. We find in Gautama, the Buddha, in powerful combination, spiritual profundity and moral strength of the highest order and a discreet intellectual reserve.

He is one of those rare spirits who bring to men a realization of their own divinity and make the spiritual life seem adventurous and attractive, so that they may go forth into the world with a new interest and a new joy of heart. While his great intellect and wisdom gave him comprehension of the highest truth, his warm heart led him to devote his life to save from sorrow suffering humanity. The greatness of his personality, his prophetic zeal, and burning love for suffering humanity made a deep impression on those with whom he lived; but his true greatness stands out clearer and brighter as the ages pass, and even the sceptical minded are turning to him with a more real appreciations a deeper reverence and a truer worship. He is one of those few heroes of humanity who have made epochs in the history of our race, with a message for other times as well as their own.

4. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) Too great a variety of studies destruct the mind.
(ii) The whole fleet of their ships were captured
(iii) Each of these students have done their work.
(iv) None but fools has ever believed it.
(v) He is one of the cleverest boys that has passed through the school.
(vi) My friend, philosopher and guide have come.
(vii) The majority are opposed to this proposal.
(viii) He told me that he saw his father last month.
(ix) If he would have worked hard, he would have passed the examination.
(x) Unless he will be more careful, he will not recover.

(b) Add the suffix 'able' or 'ible' to each of the following words making necessary changes in spelling. Write out the "new" words. (10)
(i) Advice
(ii) Contempt
(iii) Force
(iv) Access
(v) Value
(vi) Reduce
(vii) Discern
(viii) Agree
(ix) Detach
(x) Reverse

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) Apple of discord
(ii) A bolt from the blue
(iii) A feather in one's cap
(iv) Achilles' heel
(v) A man of letters

5. (a) Which of the two words within brackets in the following sentences is correct in the context? (10)
(i) Poets often (sore, soar) to great heights of imagination.
(ii) Knowledge (proceeds, proceeds) from the Goddess of Learning.
(iii) The tower was struck by (lightning, lightening) and fell down.
(iv) Kanpur lies on the air (rout, route) to Calcutta.
(v) Everyone is (jealous, zealous) of him.
(vi) The crocodile emerged from the river and (seized, ceased) a goat.
(vii) He was found in (collusion, collision) with the plotters.
(viii) Wicked persons are not (illegible, eligible) for responsible posts.
(ix) He is a man of (lose, loose) character.
(x) The Emperor is staying at the royal (mansion, mention).

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) Book
(ii) Bare
(iii) Clam
(iv) Drive
(v) Face

(c) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (10)
(i) He said, "I am too ill to speak now."
(ii) The policeman said to the man, "Where are you going?"
(iii) She said to her children, "Let me work undisturbed."
(iv) He said to the students, "Do not sit here."
(v) He said, "May god pardon the sinner."


1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) Indian Budget is a Gamble on the Monsoons
(b) Necessity of Water-Harvesting in India
(c) Social Harmony vs. Communal Frenzy
(d) Criminalization of Politics
(e) 'All That Glitters Is Not Gold'

2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow at the end (5 x 15 = 75)
The flowering of Indian civilization constitutes one of the most glorious chapters in the history of mankind. A culture, remarkable for its moral no less than for its material creativity, which has endured for three millennia and more, is necessarily a subject of great fascination. Yet over and above its longevity, Indian civilization is also characterized by some other features which deserve to be highlighted in any review of its past. The ability of this civilization to absorb alien cultures without losing its distinctive identity has intrigued scholars over the centuries; and this capacity for creative absorption is as much in evidence today, when India is undergoing a seminal transformation into a modern industrial community, as it was in the centuries past, when alien communities with novel ways of life migrated into the subcontinent, to be drawn into the living matrix of Indian society; The continuity of Indian civilization rests very substantially upon social institutions and upon the dissemination of a common corpus of religious values among different classes and communities in the subcontinent.

This civilization was also geared to a cycle of agricultural activity which substantially determined the total ordering of society. Hence, the fact that the great epicentres of Indian civilization were located in the plains of the Indus and the Ganga in the north; and those of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery in the south. Over the centuries the people living in these riverine regions had conjured into existence a round of economic activity and a set of social institutions, which were designed to produce the agricultural wealth which sustained life. Indeed, the structure of rural society; with a central place occupied by the cultivating classes, which were linked by ties of patronage and prescription to numerous artisanal and menial groups; and the fabric of caste society; with the interlocking institutions of Varna and Jati has to be looked upon as the historical answer of the Indian genius to the needs of sustaining production in a rural society; The striking feature of this social organization was the premium which it put on self-sufficiency and survival within the framework of an agrarian civilization.

(a) What is the most distinctive feature of Indian civilization?
(b) Which section of the society occupied a central place in Indian civilization?
(c) Identify the great epicentres of Indian civilization as narrated in the passage.
(d) On what did the Indian social organization lay emphasis?
(e) What does the phrase "conjured into existence" mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 220 to 240 words. Marks will be deduced if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and if it is longer or shorter than the prescribed limit. State the number of words used by you in the precis at its end and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

There is some similarity between Italy and India. Both are ancient countries with long raditions of culture behind them, though Italy is a newcomer compared to India, and India is a much more vast country Both are split up politically, and yet the conception of Italia, like that of India, never died, and in all their diversity the unity was predominant. In Italy the unity was largely a Roman unity, for that great city had dominated the country and been the fount and symbol of unity. In India there was no such single centre or dominant city, although Benares might well be called the Eternal City of the East, not only for India, but also for Eastern Asia. But, unlike Rome, Benares never dabbled in empire or thought of temporal power. Indian culture was so widespread all over India that no part of the country could be called the heart of that culture. From Kanyakumari to Amarnath and Badrinath in the Himalayas, from Dwarka to Pun, the same ideas coursed, and if there was a clash of ideas in one place, the noise of it soon reached distant parts of the country. Just as Italy gave the gift of culture and religion to Western Europe, India did so to Eastern Asia though China was as old and venerable as India. And even when Italy was lying prostrate politically, her life coursed through the veins of Europe. It was Metternich who called Italy a "geographical expression", and many a would-be Metternich has used that phrase for India, and, strangely enough, there is a similarity even in their geographical positions in the two continents.

More interesting is the comparison of England with Austria, for has not England of the twentieth century been compared to Austria of the nineteenth, proud and haughty and imposing still, but with the roots that gave strength shriveling up and decay eating its way into the mighty fabric. It is curious how one cannot resist the tendency to give an anthropomorphic form to a country. Such is the force of habit and early associations. India becomes Bharat Mata, Mother India, a beautiful lady, very old but ever youthful in appearance, sad-eyed and forlorn, cruelly treated by aliens and outsiders, and calling upon her children to protect her. Some such picture rouses the emotions of hundreds of thousands and drives them to action and sacrifice. And yet India is in the main, the peasant and the worker, not beautiful to look at, for poverty is not beautiful.

Does the beautiful lady of our imaginations represent the bare-bodied and bent workers in the fields and factories? Or the small group of those who have from ages past crushed the masses and exploited them, imposed cruel customs on them and made many of them even untouchable ? We seek to cover truth by the creatures of our imaginations and endeavour to escape from reality to a world of dreams. And yet, despite these different classes and their mutual conflicts there was a common bond which united them in India, and one is amazed at its persistence and tenacity and enduring vitality. What was this strength due to? Nor merely the passive strength and weight of inertia and tradition, great as these always are. There was an active sustaining principle, for it resisted successfully powerful outside influences and absorbed internal forces that rose to combat it.

And yet with all its strength it could not preserve political freedom or endeavour to bring about political unity. These latter do not appear to have been considered worth much trouble; their importance was very foolishly ignored, and we have suffered for this neglect. Right through history the old Indian ideal did not glorify political and military triumph, and it looked down upon money and the professional moneymaking class. Honour and wealth did not go together, and honour was meant to go, at least in theory, to the men who served the community with little in the shape of financial reward. The old culture managed to live through many a fierce storm and tempest, but though it kept its outer form, it lost its real content. Today it is fighting silently and desperately against a new and all-powerful opponent — the bania civilization of the capitalist West. It will succumb to this newcomer, for the West brings science, and science brings food for the hungry millions. But the West also brings an antidote to the evils of this cut-throat civilization -- the principles of socialism, of cooperation, and service to the community for the common good.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
burn, near, harm, perfect, invite, create, join, administer, spendthrift, skill

(i) I did not accept the ……………….because I was angry
(ii) An honest man is the noblest …………….of God.
(iii) His father prevented him from ……………….a dance school.
(iv) A judge should ……………..equal justice to all.
(v) He looks gentle enough, but he can be …………………at times.
(vi) He has ………………his case to my satisfaction.
(vii) Your opponent is too …………………to cope with.
(viii) Despite suggestions to the contrary, he continued to be a ……………
(ix) The ………………..sun made the traveller thirsty.
(x) Bombay is the seaport ……………to Europe.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) present
(ii) move
(iii) issue
(iv) pain
(v) crowd

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)

(i) He had to sign or be executed.
(Turn into a complex sentence)

(ii) Given the order.
(Use the passive form)

(iii) I was doubtful whether it was you.
(Turn into a negative sentence)

(iv) He was disgraced his family.
(Use the noun form of "disgraced")

(v) He was so tired that he could not stand.
(Turn into a simple sentence replacing "so" by "too")

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) The rain was accompanied by hail and storm.
(ii) I cannot help but think that he is a fool.
(iii) I have never seen a clever man at engineering than him.
(iv) It is all the more better if he marries your daughter.
(v) Objections to this proposal can be stated as thus.
(vi) He travelled from one corner of India to the other.
(vii) She could not make up the mind.
(viii) They tried to wipe out the poor widow's tears.
(ix) It is the best ideal each person may aspire for.
(x) You are not entitled for admission

(b) Choose the appropriate words from those given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences:10

(i) She has a ………………….appearance.
(gracious, graceful)

(ii) Out principal is a man of kind and ………………nature
(judicious, judicial)

(iii) He is ………………to both praise and blame.
(sensible, sensitive)

(iv) Gandhiji was the ………………head of the Congress party
(virtuous, virtual)

(v) I do not regard his scheme as ………………
(practicable, practical)

(vi) The Equator is an ……………… line round the world.
(imaginative, imaginary)

(vii) The ship sailed ashore in spite of ……………… difficulties.
(elemental, elementary)

(viii) Acts of ……………… negligence are punishable by law.
(willing, wilful)

(ix) He was offered a ………………job.
(temporal, temporary)

(x) I am the ………………owner of the house.
(rightful, righteous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to call forth
(ii) to fall through
(iii) to get along
(iv) to lay bare
(v) to put up with


1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The Need for Alternative Sources of Energy
(b) The Role of Judiciary in India
(c) Freedom of Expression
(d) My Idea of an Administrator
(e) Pleasures of Reading

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 × 15 = 75)
This rule of trying always to do things as well as one can do them has an important bearing upon the problem of ambition. No man or woman should be without ambition, which is the inspiration of activity. But if one allows ambition to drive one to attempt things which are beyond one's own personal capacity, then unhappiness will result: If one imagines that one can do everything better than other people, then envy and jealousy, those twin monsters, will come to sadden one's days. But if one concentrates one's attention upon developing one's own special capacities, the things one is best at, then one does not worry over much if other people Ere more successful.

There are those again who are discontented with their own job and complain of drudgery. But there is no job in the world which does not contain a large element of drudgery. Do you imagine that a Prime Minister has no drudgery to do, or an artist, or an author? I loathe drudgery as much as any man; but I have learnt that the only way to conquer drudgery is to get through it as neatly, as efficiently as one can. You know I am right when I say that. A dull job slackly done becomes twice as dull; a dull job which you try to do just as well as you can becomes half as dull. Here again effort appears to me the main part of the art of living.

Have I any other, and less disagreeable, hints to suggest? I believe that every man and woman has somewhere tucked away inside them a sense of beauty. Without this sense life on this earth is veiled in dim grey clouds. It may be that you do not care, or think you do not care, for poetry or art or music. If you make the least effort, you may find that some or all of these things will cause you sudden delight; and once you catch that delight it will never leave you. Because if life, as I believe, is a constantly renewed effort, then the human frame aid nerves require some relaxation.

(a) When does ambition lead to unhappiness?
(b) How can a person avoid envy and jealousy?
(c) How can we avoid the feeling of drudgery?
(d) Should we avoid ambition?
(e) What does the phrase "to get through it" mean?

3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own words in about 230 words. Marks will be deducted if the precis is not written on the separate precis sheets provided and the length of the precis exceeds or falls short of more than 10 words of the prescribed length. State the number of words used by you in the precis and securely fasten the precis-sheets inside the answer-book. (75)

Some wars in the past were quite as disorganizing and as destructive of the civilization of devastated areas as was the Second World War. North Africa has never regained the level of rosperity that t enjoyed under the Romans. Persia never recovered from the Mongols nor Syria from the Turks. There have always been two kinds of wars, those in which the vanquished incurred disaster, and those in which they only incurred discomfort. We seem, unfortunately, to be entering upon an era in which wars are of the former sort.

The atom bomb, and still more the hydrogen bomb, have caused new fears, involving new doubts as to the effects of science on human life. Some eminent authorities, including Einstein, have pointed out that there is a danger of the extinction of all life on this planet. I do not myself think that this will happen in the next war, but I think it may well happen in the next but one, if that is allowed to occur. If this expectation is correct, we have to choose, within the next fifty years or so, between two alternatives. Either we must allow the human race to exterminate itself, or we must forgo certain liberties which are very dear to us, more especially the liberty to kill foreigners whenever we fell so disposed. I think it probable that mankind will choose its own extermination as the preferable alternative. The choice will be made, of course, by persuading ourselves that it is not being made, since (so militarists on both sides will say) the victory of the right is certain without risk of universal disaster. We are perhaps living in the last age of man, and, if so, it is to science that he will owe his extinction.

If, however, the human race decides to let itself go on living, it will have to make very drastic changes in its ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. We must learn not to say 'Never! Better death than dishonour'. We must learn to submit to law, even when imposed by aliens whom we hate and despise, and whom we believe to be blind to all considerations of righteousness. Consider some concrete examples. Jews and Arabs will have to agree to submit to arbitration; if the award goes against the Jews, the President of the United States will have to ensure the victory of the party to which he is opposed, since, if he supports the international authority, he will lose the Jewish vote in New York State. On the other hand, if the award goes in favour of the Jews, the Mohammedan world will be indignant, and will be supported by all other malcontents. Or, to take another instance, Eire will demand the right to oppress the Protestants of Ulster, and on this issue the United States will support Eire while Britain will support Ulster. Could an international authority survive such a dissension?

Again: India and Pakistan cannot agree about Kashmir, therefore one of them must support Russia and the other the United States. It will be obvious to anyone who is an interested party in one of these disputes that the issue is far more important than the continuance of life on our planet. The hope that the human race will allow itself to survive is therefore somewhat slender. But if human life is to continue in spite of science, mankind will have to learn a discipline of the passions which, in the past, has not been necessary. Men will have to submit to the law, even when they think the law unjust and iniquitous. Nations which are persuaded that they are only demanding the barest justice will have to acquiesce when this demand is denied them by the neutral authority. I do not say that this is easy; I do not prophesy that it will happen; I say only that if it does not happen the human race will perish, and will perish as a result of science.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of the words given below: (10)
offensive, imagination, psychological, conceive, vacation, entire, enthusiasm, lacerating, deify, margin
(i) I do not believe in the ……………….of an ordinary politician.
(ii) She could not bear to look at his …………….hand.
(iii) Most people do not have any clear ……………of judicial activism.
(iv) Who can dare to ………………….the boss?
(v) A sensible person can ………………….the plight of others.
(vi) You have to consider the matter in its …………………
(vii) It is difficult to ………………..such dullards.
(viii) We can no longer ………………..the poor and the suppressed.
(ix) You will have to …………….the house.
(x) ……………… an interesting subject.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) help
(ii) nurse
(iii) judge
(iv) pillory
(v) round

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed within brackets: (5)
(i) No metal is as costly as gold. (Use the comparative degree of "costly")
(ii) I doubt if you have done it. (Change into a negative sentence without changing the meaning)
(iii) He was elected leader. (Change into active voice)
(iv) She confessed that she was guilty. (Turn it into a simple sentence)
(v) She said, "Can you write a poem?" (Change into indirect speech)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) Each of the scholars, belonging to various countries, have spoken about it.
(ii) All were present except he and his sister.
(iii) I wonder if ten thousand rupees are a large sum.
(iv) She lay the table an hour ago.
(v) He absented from the class for no reason.
(vi) He is untidy boy.
(vii) All his plans fell out for lack of help.
(viii) Of milk, coke and coffee the latter is my favourite.
(ix) All this happened prior 1971 war.
(x) Scarcely had she gone that he arrived.

(b) Choose the appropriate words given in the brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: (10)
(i) Nehruji made a ………………. speech in Parliament on this occasion.
(historical, historic)
(ii) Such heavy responsibilities cannot be ………………….easily.
(born, borne)
(iii) The doctor visits him on ………………….days.
(alternative, alternate)
(iv) I do not know why he is …………………..towards me.
(contemptuous, contemptible)
(v) To work for more than eight hours is quite ……………………
(exhaustive, exhausting)
(vi) Democracy does not allow the ………………..of the minorities.
(prosecution, persecution)
(vii) No meeting of the ……………..of ministers has been scheduled for tomorrow.
(council, cabinet)
(viii) All worldly pleasures are considered to be ………………… saints.
(momentary, momentous)
(ix) Any …………………. of secret documents is punishable by law.
(tempering, tampering)
(x) He is an ……………..person to work with.
(amiable, amenable)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meaning: (5)
(i) to come across
(ii) to be cut out for
(iii) over head and ears
(iv) to see eye to eye
(v) to draw the line


1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The ways to enrich our regional languages.
(b) Whither Indian democracy today?
(c) Terrorism in India.
(d) Science and Religion.
(e) If I were the Prime Minister of India.

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The scientific and technological revolution has brought about fundamental changes in the socio - economic sphere. The use of diesel engine and electricity and the beginning of the application of atomic energy have changed the modes of production. These things have led to the concentration of capital in a few hands. Great enterprises are replacing cottage industries and small firms. The working classes have certainly benefited economically. The miracle of production has necessitated the miracle of consumption. Better amenities are available at a lower cost. A man can buy anything he wants today, if he can only afford. But what kinds of men are needed today for our society? Men who can cooperate in large groups, men whose tasks are standardized, men who feel free and independent and at the same time are willing to fit in the social machine without any friction. Modem man is faced with a sort of moral and spiritual dilemma. The crisis of values yawns before him. Today the old values are in the melting pot, and the new values have not found their foothold. Man has become the automaton he has contrived; he has lost ownership of himself. The discord between the development of positive science on the one hand and the dehumanization of man on the other is the worst crisis of the modem age.

Apart from the economic sphere, the socio-political sphere has not escaped this stratification and the congruent crisis of values. Since the Renaissance, man has been striving for individual rights and self-dignity. But under the present set-up, only two types of men are found — the conditioner and the conditioned. The propaganda offices and the planning bureaus have almost crushed the 'individual self', and it has resulted in the rise of the 'social self. Due to this pressure, the personality fulfillment or its all- round development is denied to many.

(a) What has changed the modes of production today?
(b) What things are being replaced by great enterprise?
(c) What kind of men is needed today for our society?
(d) Why has man become the automation of his own creation?
(e) Is modem man able to attain personality fulfillment?

3. Make a précis of the following passage in your own language in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. Indicate the number of words used by you in your précis.

N.B.: Marks will be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. (75)
"What is the use of a house if you haven't got a tolerable planet to put it on?" asked Henry David Thoreau. More than century later the Earth seems to be literally falling to pieces — recent environmental set-backs include billions of tonnes of ice shelves breaking off in the Antarctic and unusually warm temperatures in different parts of the world. Panic reactions range from predictions of sinking islands to the lamenting the ill-effects of global warming induced by release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The trouble is that we are too much obsessed with the problem of climatic Change to even acknowledge the fact that the state of the planet hinges on much more. Climatic change is at best a symptom of a far more complex malaise, just as a fever is most often only an Indicator of something that's gone awry in our body. It is time for a complete and comprehensive planetary health check that will examine the impacts of change in land use, loss of biodiversity, use of fertilizers and pesticides and consistent pollution of water bodies. This would overcome the limitations of evaluating how ecosystems work by reacting to just one major environmental concern as is happening in the case of global warming. These considerations have been responsible for the setting up of an international panel, the Milleniurn Ecosystem Assessment. Financed by four major international bodies, including the UNO and the World Bank, the eco-panel was set up without much fuss last June (2001), and is expected to determine, over a period of four years and at a cost of $ 21 million, the state of the Earth's ecosystems.

The eco-panel will have source inputs from more than 2,000 natural and social scientists the world over. Put simply, the Earth will go through the equivalent of a thorough physical analysis, so that biological, economic and social information can be collated to help scientists arrive at a final diagnosis. What is crucial, says one of the scientists, and is that "no one has previously tried to work out how all of these conflicting pressures interact." The other important factor is how well we can orchestrate trade-offs and interactions in order to maintain ecological balance. Scientific bodies like the international Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have access to vast amounts of baseline data relating to the subject — although critics points out that the information available is mostly from the North, leaving the concerns of he south largely unrepresented. The newly-constituted eco-panel will have to take all these aspects into account. For instance, it will have to ensure that data collection is more representative of the regions of the world. Today, we have the advantage of sourcing data from remote sensing satellites as well. The information thus gathered would have to be sorted out and analyzed by specialists and also by generalists before the panel comes out with specific periodic predictions, prescriptions and warnings. The healing process can begin only if all the scientific evidence and direction is made available to a wide audience and not just restricted to policy makers. Rather than depending solely upon governments to listen to and take corrective action, the focus should now be on convincing individuals and communities whose collective or individual action will eventually make the difference between regression and recovery.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: (10)
ride, diminish, devotion, shout, watch, contest, disastrous, pleasure, philosophizing, finance.
(i) Mohan is …………to his father.
(ii) None seems to have been ……………with his speech.
(iii) She ……………at the peon when he sat down.
(iv) His …………….condition is at a low ebb now.
(v) Several candidates are ………………..the Panchayat elections.
(vi) The boy was frightened to …………………the movie.
(vii) What does Samkara's ……………….teach us
(viii) Hariharans suspicious moves herald a………………….
(ix) In the circus show, I saw a bear ……………a bicycle.
(x) The chances of starvation deaths have ……………….today

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: (10)
(i) race
(ii) hit
(iii) play
(iv) touch
(v) experiment

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically: 5
(i) "Do not make a noise." said the teacher to his students. (Change into indirect form)
(ii) Han is so short that he cannot touch the ceiling. (Replace 'so by 'too')
(iii) I gave him a ten-rupee not yesterday. (Change into passive voice)
(iv) She bought a house last year. The house is white. (Change into a simple sentence)
(v) Hard as he worked, he failed in the examination. (Use 'though')

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: (10)
(i) He boasts his achievements now and then.
(ii) She is living in this flat since 1995.
(iii) The Principal was angry upon the boys.
(iv) Character is more preferable than intelligence.
(v) Krishna hanged all the pictures on the wall.
(vi) The sceneries of Kashmir more me most.
(vii) Cattle is grazing in the field.
(viii) Han is going foreign next month.
(ix) She knew that I am leaving the place.
(x) His elder brother gave him many good advices.

(b) Of the words given in the brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks: 10
(i) The road accident proved to be…………... (fateful, fatal)
(ii) He got a ………………..opportunity to qualify in the test. (gold, golden)
(iii) Fariciabad is an …………….. city. (industrial, industrious)
(iv) An ashram is a ……………… (quite, quiet)
(v) Sohan's handwriting is…………….(eligible. illegible)
(vi) We should not disturb the ……………. of his mind. (piece. peace)
(vii) You should ………………… an example to strengthen your viewpoint (site, cite)
(viii) Akbar was an ………………… Humayun. (hair, heir)
(ix) Rajasthan is a well-known ……………….. (desert, dessert)
(ix) The ………………..turned me out of the class. (principle, principal)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning; (5)
(i) bring about
(ii) call names
(iii) run out
(iv) by leaps and bounds
(v) lame excuse


1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Knowledge is power
(b) Consequences of globalization
(c) Value of yoga
(d) Science and human happiness
(e) Tourism in India

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The world we live in presents an endless variety of fascinating problems which excite our wonder and curiosity. The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment. Such questions as 'What, 'How', 'Where' and 'When' challenge him to find the clues that may suggest possible replies. Confronted by the many problems presented by, let us say, an active volcano, we may ask 'What are the lavas made of? How does the volcano work and how Is the heat generated? Where do the lavas and gases come from? When did the volcano first begin to erupt and when is it likely to erupt again?

In terms of chemical compounds and elements, the question 'How' refers to processes — the way things are made or happen or change. The ancients regarded natural processes as manifestations of energy acting on or through matter. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes no longer reflect the erratic behaviour of the gods of the underworld; they arise from the action of the earth's internal heat on and through the surrounding crust. The source of the energy lies in the material of inner earth. In many directions, of course, our knowledge is still incomplete, only the first of the questions we have asked about volcanoes, for example, can as yet be satisfactorily answered. The point is not that we now pretend to understand everything but that we have faith in the orderliness of natural processes. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation, we have come to believe that Nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

(a) How does the author describe the task of the scientific worker?
(b) Why does the author speak about volcanoes?
(c) What does the equation 'How' refer to?
(d) How did the ancients look upon volcanoes and earthquakes?
(e) What does the author say about our knowledge of the world?

3. Make a précis of the following passage, in your own words, in about 230 words, on the special
précis-sheets provided. Marks will be deducted for précis not written on the précis sheets. Marks will
also be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. The précissheets
should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your précis. (75)

No amount of improvement and reconstruction in education will bear much fruit if our schools and colleges are undermined by indiscipline. An impartial examination makes it clear that students and teachers alike need more of the spirit of discipline. If proper education is to be given, acts of indiscipline prevalent in our educational institutions have to be checked. Indiscipline may take the shape of group indiscipline or individual indiscipline. Group indiscipline is the worse of the two. While as individuals many of our students are as good as students elsewhere, the tendency to group indiscipline has increased in recent years. Many causes have led to this group indiscipline. For various reasons under a foreign regime, acts of indiscipline became frequent, often necessitated by the political activities, which were launched against a foreign government. While there may have been justification for such indiscipline under different political circumstances, we feel that there is no justification on for such acts of indiscipline after the attainment of independence. The democratic constitution which the country has adopted permits the redressing of grievances through democratic machinery. It would be against all principles of democracy if such acts of indiscipline were to continue.

The real purpose of education is to train youth to discharge the duties of citizenship properly. All other objectives are incidental. Discipline, therefore, should be the responsibility of parents, teachers, the general public and the authorities concerned. There are some positive factors promoting discipline. The Indian student's natural tendency is to be disciplined. It is only when forces act strongly on him that he may sometimes be led astray. He appreciates rules and is normally inclined to abide by them. Much can be done to encourage this trend in school and college life. Personal contact between teacher and pupil is essential. Emphasis is also to be laid on the role of the class teacher or tutorial guide in promoting general discipline and the welfare of the pupils. Further a greater responsibility should devolve upon the students themselves in the maintenance of discipline. Nothing is more calculated to develop a proper sense of self-discipline and proper behaviour than their enforcement, not by any outside authority with any symbol of punishment but by the students themselves. They should choose their own representatives to see that proper codes of conduct are observed.

Another important method of bringing home to pupils the value of discipline is through group games. It is on the playing fields that the virtue of playing the game for its own sake and the team spirit can be cultivated. Such extracurricular activities as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, the National Cadet Corps, Junior Red Cross and Social Service activities will promote a proper spirit of discipline. The building up of a truly harmonious and united form of community life should be the endeavour of all progressive educational institutions.

Besides these positive factors, certain negative factors also promote discipline. The discipline of the youth of any country depends upon the discipline that is exercised by the elders. It is a well - known fact that in all democracies election time is a time offeverish activity not always conducted in the most healthy spirit, and the utilization by politicians of immature minds like students for purposes of electioneering campaigns, with or without slogans attached thereto, is not calculated to promote sound discipline among students. It should be considered an election offence for any member or party to utilize the services of pupils under the age of 17 in political or civic campaigns. Besides, while the educative value of leading politicians addressing our students from time to time may be readily admitted, the tendency often is for the leaders not to speak to the audience before hem but to a wider audience whose attention they wish to attract through the press. It is not necessary that every speech made by a politician should be a political speech. Lastly, discipline among students can only be promoted if there is discipline among the staff. The teacher and the educational administrator should realize that their activities are all being watched by their pupils. To what extent, therefore, both in their personal conduct and in their general attitude to all problems concerning their country, they have to realize that there are limitations within which they must act for the best interests of education. Ultimately, it is the school or college atmosphere and the quality of the teachers there that ensure proper codes of conduct and discipline among our students.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: 10
Value, offend, strike, jealous, put, grant, disturb, learn, fly, economic
(i) The man …………………. into a rage and tore away his garments.
(ii) A sensible man never takes everything for ………………
(iii) No one seems to have taken ……………….at her manners.
(iv) When are you ………………out to sea again?
(v) I have no mind to trespass upon you ………………..time.
(vi) Try to rise above petty personal …………………
(vii) The officer ………………….through one paragraph and accepted the rest.
(viii) The report I have received is very …………………indeed.
(ix) She has sent her paper to a ………………..journal.
(x) These new measures will give a boost to our ………………………

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: 10
(i) tum
(ii) spell
(iii) part
(iv) contact
(v) meet

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed:
(i) You are too early for the show. (Use "enough")
(ii) The Mahanadi is not as long as the Gange. (Use the comparative degree)
(iii) Varsha readily complied …………… request. (Fill in the gap with a preposition)
(iv) We are sure of his honesty. (Change into a complex sentence)
(v) Santa said, "Don't open the window." (Change into the indirect form)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: 10
(i) May 1 now take your leave?
(ii) The soup will taste better if it had more salt in it.
(iii) Is he used to come late everyday?
(iv) Your daughter is twelve years old, isn't it?
(v) We must be true to our words.
(vi) Datta is living here since 1998.
(vii) A twenty miles walk is really very hard.
(viii) We watched the man to disappear in the woods.
(ix) Kalidas has written Meghadutam.
(x) Let's have coffee.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks (10)
(i) He seems to be…………….. to hard work. (adverse; averse)
(ii) The building does not ……………… safety regulations (conform; confirm)
(iii) Asharam was accused of …………the workers against the management. (exciting; inciting)
(iv) Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane…………… (crass; crash)
(v) Gagan uses expensive ………….for his letters. (stationery; stationary)
(vi) The factory was ………………making toys. (seized; ceased)
(vii) Shakil is …………….. at solving difficult crossword puzzles (ingenuous; ingenious)
(viii) I wish you a …………….. recovery (fast; speedy)
(ix) Everybody said that her decision was ………………. (judicious; judicial)
(x) You will have to ………………. your afternoon tea as we have no more sugar.
(forego; forgo)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 5
(i) deal in
(ii) prime of life
(iii) above board
(iv) dwell upon
(v) in full swing


Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Man is saved not by faith but by work
(b) Indian Culture
(c) Contribution of Science to human progress
(d) Political reform you want in India
(e) Laughter is the best medicine

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow : 5 x 15 = 75
Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was agriculture. Agriculture, which began in the river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia, was a step in human progress to which subsequently there was nothing comparable until our own machine age. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the numbers of the human species in the regions where it could be successfully practised but at first these regions were few. These were in fact, only those in which nature fertilised the soil after each harvest. Agriculture met with violent resistance, analogous to that which our Ruskins and Samuel Butlers offered to machines. Pastoral nomads considered themselves vastly superior to the tame folk who stayed in one place and were enslaved to the soil. But although the nomads repeatedly won military victories, the physical comforts which the upper classes derived from agricultural serfs always prevailed in the end, and the area of agriculture gradually increased. Even now this process is not at an end, but what remains for it to achieve is no longer very important.

The only fundamental technical advance that preceded the emergence of man into recorded history was the invention of writing. Writing, like spoken language, developed gradually. It developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a certain stage. it made possible the keeping of records and the transmission of information to people who were not present when the information was given.
(a) What was he second important stage in our pre-history and where did it begin?
(b) What happened in the regions where agriculture was successful ?
(c) What happened in the conflict between the nomads and agriculturists?
(d) What technical advance took place before the period of recorded history and what did it accomplish?
(e) Who considered themselves superior to whom and why ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage, in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided Marks will be deducted for precis not written on the precis-sheets. Marks will also be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter that the prescribed length. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
It has been estimated than the human population of 600 B.C. was about five million people, taking perhaps one million years to get there from two and a half million. The population did not reach 500 million until almost 8,000 years later-about 1650 A.D. This means it doubled roughly once every thousand years or so. It reached a billion people around 1850, doubling in some 200 years. It took on1y 80 years or so for the next doubling, as the population reached two billion around 1930. We have not completed the next doubling to four billion yet, but we now have well over three billion people. The doubling time at present seems to be about 37 years. Quite a reduction in doubling times: 1,000,000 years, 1,000 years, 200 years, 80 years, 37 years.

One of the most ominous facts of the current situation is that roughly 40% of the population of the undeveloped world is made up of people under 15 years old. As that mass of young people moves into its reproductive years during the next decade, we're going to see the greatest baby boom of all time. Those youngsters are the reason for all the ominous predictions for the year 2000. They are the gun-powder for the population explosion.

How did we get into this bind ? It all happened along time ago, and the story involves the process of natural selection, the development of culture, and mans swollen head. The essence of success in evolution is reproduction .... for reproduction is the key to winning the evolutionary game. Any structure. physiological process or pattern of behaviour that leads to greater reproductive success will tend to be perpetuated. The entire process by which man developed involves thousands of millenia of our ancestors being more successful breeders than their relatives. Facet number one of our bind-the urge to reproduce has been fixed in us by billions of years of evolution.

Of course through all those years of evolution. our ancestors were fighting a continual battle to keep the birth rate ahead of the death rate. That they were successful is attested to by our very existence, for, if the death rate had overtaken the birth rate for any substantial period of time, the evolutionary line leading to man would have gone extinct. Among our apelike ancestors, a few million years ago, it was still very difficult for a mother to rear her children successfully. Most of the offspring died before they reached reproductive age. The death rate was near the birth rate. Then another factor entered the picture - cultural evolution was added to biological evolution.

Of course, in the early days the whole system did not prevent a very high mortality among the young, as well as among the older members of the group. Hunting and food-gathering is a risky business. Cavemen had to throve very impressive cave bears out of their caves before the men could move in. Witch doctors and shamans had a less than perfect record at treating wounds and curing disease. Life was short, if not sweet. Man's total population size doubtless increased slowly but steadily as human populations expanded out of the African cradle of our species.

Then about 8,000 years ago a major change occurred - the agricultural revolution. People began to give up hunting food and settled down to grow it. Suddenly some of the risk was removed from life. The chances of dying of starvation diminished greatly in some human groups. Other threats associated with the nomadic life were also reduced, perhaps balanced by new threats of disease and large scale warfare associated with the development of cities. But the overall result was a more secure existence than before and the human population grew more rapidly. Around 1800, when the standard of living in what are today the developed countries was dramatically increasing due to industrialization, population growth really began to accelerate. The development of medical science was the straw that broke the camel's back.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
characterize; coagulant; fright; globe; civilized;
disastrous; move; enthusiasm; pessimistic; philosophizing
(i) The ------------- of clouds leads to changes in the weather.
(ii) Man's continuance on earth is shrouded in ----------- .
(iii) A cosmic -------------- may end life on earth.
(iv) Vitamin K is essential for the ------------ of blood.
(v) Is our ---------- going on the right path
(vi) The economic. ---------- of our country is changing.
(vii) Once in the jungle, the boys were -------------- .
(viii) What does Indian ------------- teach?
(ix) ---------------- is affecting India's economy.
(x) He spoke ------------ about the existence of God.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb. 10
(i) hunt
(ii) wound
(iii) discredit
(iv) team
(v) experience

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) "Shut the door after you," she told him curtly.
(Change into indirect form)
(ii) Did she commit all the mistakes ?
(Change into passive voice)
(iii) Many difficulties are impossible to overcome.
(Use a single word for the underlined phrase)
(iv) Hard as he tried, the old man failed to find a buyer for his bicycle.
(Use "though'')
(v) She is so good that others cannot beat her.
(Replace "so" by "too")

Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) She vividly described about the situation.
(ii) He chose only such men for his company whom he could trust.
(iii) He does not boast his-merits.
(iv) The rich lead a luxuriant life.
(v) The work was hard and exhaustive.
(vi) Sages had prophecied the coming of the prophet.
(vii) Earth may again be hit by a huge meteor.
(viii) He came to the city with a view to get a job.
(ix) He was angry upon me.
(x) Why she is doing this ?

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to till in the blanks : 10
(i) She has the ------------------- to this property.
(wright ; right)
(ii) He has ------------------- his own method for doing the work.
(devised ; deviced)
(iii) Fetch me a ------------------- of water.
(pale ; pail)
(iv) All the --------------- of the airline were grounded.
(aircraft ; aircrafts)
(v) The government has selected the --------------------- for the hospital.
(site ; cite)
(vi) The ------------------- of Kargil have fallen silent.
(canons ; cannons)
(vii) The tropic of --------------------- is an imaginary line.
(Cancer ; cancer)
(viii) The budget ------------------ could not be offset.
(deficit ; deficiency)
(ix) When they came down the hill the ------------------- was steep.
(descent ; decent)
(x) The government collapsed when there was a -------------- in the party.
(fraction ; faction)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning : 5
(i) bring about
(ii) break in
(iii) heart and soul
(iv) lie low
(v) hold one's breath


Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) Power of the press
(b) An ideal college
(c) The technological miracles of the twentieth century
(d) An encounter with an astrologer
(e) "Cowards die many times before their death".

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer in your own language the questions that follow : 75
Forecasting the weather, or trying to find out what it will be like in several day's time, has always been a difficult business. Many different things affect the weather and each one has to be carefully studied before we can make even a fairly accurate forecast. The ancient Egyptians, of course, had no need of this- the weather in the Nile valley hardly ever changes -but people living farther north had to protect themselves and their crops. During a period of drought, when no rain fell for weeks on end, streams and rivers dried up, cattle died from thirst and crops were ruined. A storm could wreck ships and houses, and heavy falls of rain caused rivers to flood a whole countryside. Action in the sky stirred man into action, and in this respect farmers became just as much men of action as were sailors on the high seas. Both had to reckon with the weather - it often upset their plans, sometimes with disastrous results.

In early times, when there were no instruments such as thermometer or barometer, man looked for tell-tale signs in the sky. He made his forecasts by watching the flights of birds or the way smoke rose from a fire. He thought that the moon controlled the weather - that it held a lot of water, especially when as a crescent or sickle-shaped moon it lay on its back. Even today there are people who think that the sight of the moon lying on its back means that the rain is on its way. Many of the weather-sayings are still heard today. I expect you know the one : 'A red sky at night is the shepherd's delight. A red sky in the morning is the shepherd's warning.' Do you believe this ? It's sometimes right but more often wrong. If this and hundreds of other sayings like it were true, there would be no need for weather science or meteorology.

(a) What is drought and what are its consequences?
(b) Does the writer endorse the popular sayings about the red sky ?
(c) Is weather forecasting a science; if so, what is it called ?
(d) Why is it not easy to forecast the weather ?
(e) How would the moon help the people in forecasting weather ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
N.B. Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
Karl Marx was no gentle dreamer about a better life. such as the Utopian socialists have been. He was a fighter. As he examined the relations between the capitalists and labourers of the world, his belief became clearer and sharper, until at last he was sure that he was dealing with a new science - the science of the means of production. He was sure that his ideas were not dreams but solid scientific facts, and he therefore referred to himself as a scientific socialist, so that people would not confuse him with the Utopians.

Marx and a friend named Friedrich Engels were in France during the revolution of 1848, and it was at this time they published a pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto. This was a call to battle for the labouring classes of the world: "Workers of the world, arise: you have nothing to lose but your chains." The last years of Marx were spent in England writing his book Das Kapital ('Capital'). Engels supported Marx and completed the work when the latter died, leaving the book unfinished.

Das Kapital is one of the most important books ever written. In it Marx expressed some astonishing and radical ideas. According to his economic theory, all the wealth in the world is produced by human labour. This is true of not only the goods turned out by factories and of the money received for such goods, but is true as well of the factories themselves, which were also built by human toil, and therefore represent a type of frozen and stored up labour. It is the workers, said Marx, rather than the capitalists, who have supplied this labour, and therefore the wealth should belong to them. They do not receive it, but are paid instead only a small fee for their efforts. The great difference between what the workers produce and what they are paid is surplus wealth, which goes to the owners of the factory, when it should go to the workers. Hence the workers are being exploited, or robbed, and the capitalists are growing wealthy. So said Marx.
Das Kapital also included Marx's philosophy of history. According to this theory, in every age the social class that controls the source of wealth also controls the government and has power over the people. There is, however, a considerable overlapping. As the sources of wealth change, the, old group in power tends to hang on to its control of the government. For example, the nobles of the Middle Ages owned the land which was the key source of wealth at that time, and they also controlled the government.

With the coming of factories as the chief producers of wealth, the nobles retained their control of the various governments of Europe for many years. Finally, the businessmen, or capitalists, who controlled the new source of wealth gained control of the government. They still control it, said Marx, but it is an unfair situation, and will not continue. In time, the workers, who really produce the wealth, will get the power. As wealth piles up, the factories and other means of production will fall into fewer and fewer hands as the rich grow steadily richer. The poor, at the same time, will grow steadily poorer and more numerous until at last a point will be reached is which almost everybody will be living in misery to support a few fabulously wealthy individuals.

This situation will be so intolerable and so ridiculous that the great masses of the workers will rise up, take industry away from its owners, and run it for the benefit of the workers.

We now know that many of Karl Marx's ideas were wrong, and that many of his predictions have not come true. Wealth has become more widely distributed rather than less, and the standard of living of the workers has gone up rather than down. Capitalists have proved not to be the evil ogres that Mary pictured them. Nevertheless, the ideas of Karl Marx have had a strong appeal for many people and a profound effect upon the history of the world. Communism. one of the greatest forces in the twentieth century, had its origins in the writings of Karl Marx.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
stay; reality; health; pertinent; proof; post; stretched; accident; rouse; provision
(i) I am not his ................... brother.
(ii) He got up with a .................. and a yawn.
(iii) Keep him ................. with the latest news about his mother.
(iv) He fell into the gorge ..................... .
(v) I have sold off my farm-house and the land ....................... to it.
(vi) Demagogues try ................... the masses.
(vii) The new typist .................... to be useless.
(viii) I will go ...................... that my expenses are paid.
(ix) .................. you have forgotten one thing.
(x) Had you taken the medicine, the wound ........................ by now.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb : 10
(i) dog
(ii) freeze
(iii) spoon
(iv) book
(v) refuse

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) Einstein was the greatest scientist of our century.
(Use the comparative degree)
(ii) Let us have a cup of coffee now.
(Use the right tag question)
(iii) She said. "Darling, why are you looking so pale ? Cheer up, please."
(Change the mode of narration)
(iv) The fact is so evident that it requires no proof.
(Replace 'so' by 'too')
(v) He has to do his job well. (Change the voice)

Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) You are a mechanic; isn't it ?
(ii) I have already availed of all the casual leave due to me.
(iii) The health of my brother is better than me.
(iv) He insisted to leave immediately.
(v) She congratulated him for his success.
(vi) The choice lies between honour or dishonour.
(vii) If it will rain, we shall stay back.
(viii) The ship was drowned in the sea.
(ix) By studying hard, his grades improved.
(x) I have to give my examination in April.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that, you think, is appropriate to fill in the blanks : 10
(i) The book has been ................... for the Indian readership.
(adapted; adopted)
(ii) The case has been hanging fire because the judge is ................. .
(disinterested; uninterested)
(iii) Trespassers will be .................... .
(persecuted; prosecuted)
(iv) He is a man of .................. .
(principal; principle)
(v) Justice should be ................ with mercy.
(tampered; tempered)
(vi) The condition of homeless people becomes .................... in winter.
(pitiful; pitiable)
(vii) He led a ................ life.
(sensuous; sensual)
(viii) I vowed to ............... myself for the death of my cousin.
(avenge; revenge)
(ix) I have ................ him a job in our company.
(assured; ensured)
(x) Aren't you tired of this .................. rain ?
(continual; continuous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
(i) to lead by the nose
(ii) pell- mell
(iii) gift of the gab
(iv) to make a dash
(v) to fish in troubled waters