Thursday, March 31, 2011

Provisional Population Totals for Census 2011

India's population rose to 1.21 billion people over the last 10 years - an increase by 181 million, according to the new census released today, but significantly the growth is slower for the first time in nine decades.
The population, which accounts for world's 17.5 per cent population, comprises 623.7 million males and 586.5 million females, said a provisional 2011 Census report. China is the most populous nation accounting for 19.4 per cent of the global population.
The country's headcount is almost equal to the combined population of the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together, it said.The population has increased by more than 181 million during the decade 2001-2011, the report said.
The growth rate in 2011 is 17.64 per cent in comparison to 21.15 per cent in 2001.The 2001-2011 period is the first decade - with exception of 1911-1921 - which has actually added lesser population compared to the previous decade, Registrar General of India and Census Commissioner of India C Chandramauli said in presence of Home Secretary Gopal K Pillai.Among the states and Union territories, Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with 199 million people and Lakshadweep the least populated at 64,429.
The combined population of UP and Maharashtra is bigger than that of the US.The highest population density is in Delhi's north-east district (37,346 per sq km) while the lowest is in Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh (just one per sq km).The Census indicated a continuing preference for male children over female children. The latest child sex ratio in is 914 female against 1,000 male - the lowest since Independence."This is a matter of grave concern," Chandramauli said.According to the data, literates constitute 74 per cent of the total population aged seven and above and illiterates form 26 per cent.
The literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent in 2011 showing an increase of 9.21 per cent.Interestingly, the addition of 181 million population during 2001-2011 is slightly lower than the total population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world.While China has 19.4 per cent of the world's total population, India has 17.5 per cent of the world population.However, the percentage decadal growth during 2001-2011 has registered the sharpest decline since independence - a decrease of 3.90 percentage points from 21.54 to 17.64 per cent.Apart from UP, other most populous states are - Maharashtra (112.3 million), Bihar (103.8 million), West Bengal (91.3 million) and Andhra Pradesh (84.6 million).Besides Lakshadweep, smallest UTs and states are - Daman and Diu (2,42,911), Dadra and Nagar Haveli (3,42,853), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (7,79,944) and Sikkim (6,07,688).
The percentage decadal growth rates of the six most populous states have declined during 2001-2011 compared to 1991-2001. Uttar Pradesh (25.85 per cent to 20.09 per cent), Maharashtra (22.73 per cent to 15.99 per cent), Bihar (28.62 per cent to 25.07 per cent), West Bengal (17.77 per cent to 13.93 per cent), Andhra Pradesh (14.59 per cent to 11.10 per cent and Madhya Pradesh (24.26 per cent to 20.23 per cent)."For the first time, there is a significant fall in the growth rate of population in the Empowered Action Group states after decades of stagnation," Chandramouli said.
The EAG states are: UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh and Orissa.


FIGURES AT A GLANCE - INDIA
POPULATION Persons
1,21,01,93,422


Males
62,37,24,248


Females
58,64,69,174

DECADAL POPULATION GROWTH 2001-2011
Absolute
Percentage

Persons
18,14,55,986
17.64

Males
9,15,01,158
17.19

Females
8,99,54,828
18.12

DENSITY OF POPULATION
(per sq. km.)


382

SEX RATIO
(females per 1000 males)

940

POPULATION IN
THE AGE GROUP 0-6

Absolute
Percentage to
total
population

Persons
15,87,89,287
13.12

Males
8,29,52,135
13.30

Females
7,58,37,152
12.93
LITERATES
Absolute
Literacy rate

Persons
77,84,54,120
74.04

Males
44,42,03,762
82.14

Females
33,42,50,358
65.46

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Postponement of the written examination for General Recruitment to the posts of Divisional Accounts Officers

It is hereby informed that in view of the representations received from certain candidates for postponement of the written examination for General Recruitment to the posts of Divisional Accounts Officer (Works) Grade-II in A.P. Works Accounts Service (Notification Nos. 24/2007 & 23/2008) scheduled to be held on18/06/2011 AN and 19/06/2011 FN & AN due to Staff Selection Commission’s Combined Graduate Level Examination scheduled to be held on 19/06/2011, the A.P. Public Service Commission have decided to postpone the D.A.Os. Examination to 02/07/2011 AN and 03/07/2011 FN & AN.

APPSC Royalty Inspectors Recruitment

Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission

Hyderabad
Royalty Inspectors in A.P. Mining Service : 2011

Applications are invited On-line through the proforma Application to be made available on WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) from 23/03/2011 to 23/04/2011 (Note: 20/04/2011 is the last date for payment of fee) for recruitment to the post of ROYALTY INSPECTORS IN A.P. MINING SERVICE.

The Commission has dispensed with the sale of applications through HPOs / Sales Counter of Commission’s office. The desirous eligible Candidates may apply ON-LINE by satisfying themselves with the terms and conditions of this recruitment. The details are as follows:-

PC.
No.
Name of the Post MZ-1 MZ-2 Total Age as on
01.07.2008
Min. – Max.
Scale of
Pay
Rs.
1 Royalty Inspectors in A.P. Mining
Service
11 09 20 18-39 Rs.
14,860-
39,540/-

Educational Qualifications:

  • Must possess a B.Sc., Degree in Geology from any recognized University of India established or incorporated by or under a Central or a State Act or an Institution recognized by the University Grants Commission; and
  • Practical experience for a period of not less than two years in the investigation of mineral deposits and geological mapping or m ining or underground water resources.

AGE LIMIT:

Minimum 18 years & Maximum 39 years as on 01/07/2008

APPLICATION FEES:

(Remittance of Fee) Each applicant must pay Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five Only) towards Application Processing Fee and Examination Fee RS.120/- (RUPEES ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY ONLY) (if Candidates are not exempted from payment of Fee). Payment of Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five only) towards application processing fee is compulsory for all Applicants.

Mode of Payment of Fee:

  • Step1: The Candidate has to logon to the WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) and enter his/her Basic Personal Details like Name, Father’s Name, Date of Birth, and Community.
  • Step2: Immediately on entering the above details the Applicant will get (downloadable)- Challan Form to pay the Fee at AP Online centers /State Bank of India.
  • Step3: The Applicant should pay the prescribed Fee in any one of the A.P. Online centers / State Bank of India and obtain Fee paid c hallan with Journal Number in the first instance.
  • Step4: On the next working day after payment of Fee the Applicant should again visit WEBSITE and enter the Journal Number to get the format of Application. The applicant has to invariably fill all the columns in the Application and should submit ON-Line. Even after making payment of fee, candidate fails to submit the bio-data particulars, such applications shall be rejected without giving any notice.
  • Step5: If any candidate fails to enter “Co mmunity” for any reason, they will be treated as an OC without giving any notice.

HOW TO UPLOAD THE APPLICATION FORM:

The Applicants have to read the User Guide for Online Submission of Applications and then proceed further.

  • I Step: The Candidate has to logon to the WEBSITE and enter his/her Basic Personal Details like Name, Father’s Name, Date of Birth, and Community.
  • II Step: Immediately on entering the above details the Applicant will get (downloadable)- Challan Form to pay the Fee at AP Online centers /State Bank of India.
  • III Step: The Applicant should pay the prescribed Fee in any one of the A.P. Online centers / State Bank of India and obtain Fee paid ch allan with Journal Number in the first instance.
  • IV Step: On the next working day after payment of Fee the Applicant should again visit WEBSITE and enter the Journal Number to get and fill the format of Application and should submit ONLINE.
  • V Step: Affix your recent Colour Passport Size Photograph on a White Paper and then sign below the photograph with Black Pen. Scan the above Photo and Signature and Upload in the appropriate space provided (JPG Format) in Application Form.
  • VI Step: The applicants have to invariably fill all the relevant columns in the Application and should submit ON-LINE.

Important Dates:

  • Last date for payment of Fee at AP Online/SBI is 20/04/2011.
  • Last date for submission of Application is 23/04/2011.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

APPSC EXAM DATES

ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED IN ANDHRA PRADESH


A P State Agro-Industries Development Corporation - 1968
A P State Co-operative Marketing Federation- 1957
A P State Seeds Development Corporation - 1976
A P State Warehousing Corporation - 1958
Department of Marketing - 1962
The Federation of Sericulturists and Silks Weaver's Co-Op Societies - 1975
The Hyderabad Agricultural Co-Operative Association Ltd (HACA) - 1949
A P Commission for Backward classes - 1994
A P State Civil Supplies Corporation - 1974
A P State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission - 1986
A P E P D C L - 2000
A P Genco - 1999
A P Transco - 1999
A P Administrative Tribunal - 1989
A P Press Academy - 1996
AP Vigilance Commission - 1964
Institution Of A P Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayukta - 1983
A P State Housing Corporation Ltd - 1979
A P Handicrafts Development Corporation - 1982
A P Industrial Development Corporation - 1960
A P Mineral Development Corporation - 1961
A P Trade Promotion Corporation - 1970
A P State Irrigation Development Corporation - 1974
Directorate of Andhra Pradesh Engineering Research Laboratories - 1945
Water and Land Management Training And Research Institute - 1983
AP State Labour Welfare Board - 1988
A P State Minorities Finance Corporation Limited - 1985
A P State Wakf Board - 1955
Andhra Pradesh Industrial Technical Consultancy Organisation Ltd - 1976
A P Beverages Corporation Limited - 1986
Directorate of A P Open School Society - 1991
A P S W R E I Society - 1983
A P Scheduled Castes Co-operative Finance Corporation - 1974
A P Scheduled Tribes Co-operative Finance Corporation - 1976
A P T W R E I Society - 1998
Girijan Co-operative Corporation Ltd - 1956
A P State Road Transport Corporation - 1932
A P State Social Welfare Board - 1954
A P Vikalangula Co-operative Corporation - 1981
A P Women's Co-operative Finance Corporation - 1975
Andhra Pradesh Foods - 1974
Commissionerate of Disabled Welfare - 1983


Friday, March 18, 2011

India's Knowledge Economy

Private higher education is one of the most dynamic and fastest-growing segments of post-secondary education at the turn of the 21st century. A combination of unprecedented demand for access to higher education and the inability or unwillingness of governments to provide the necessary support has brought private higher education to the forefront. Private institutions, with a long history in many countries, are expanding in scope and number, and are increasingly important in parts of the world that have relied on the public sector. A related phenomenon is the "privatization" of public institutions in some countries. With tuition and other charges rising, public and private institutions look more and more similar.

Private higher education has long dominated higher education systems in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines. There has been a dramatic shift from public to private post-secondary education in Latin America, and Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela now have at least half of their students in private universities. Private higher education is the fastest-growing sector in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, as also in India. For the most part, this unprecedented growth in the private sector stems from an inability of the governments to fund expansion.

There is tremendous differentiation in private higher education internationally. Harvard University, with its endowment measured in billions of dollars, could hardly be more different from a newly established "garage university" in El Salvador offering specialized training in a few fields. Some private institutions are highly focused in specific fields, such as the world-renowned INSEAD international management school in Paris. Others are large multipurpose universities like the Far East University in Manila, with more than 100,000 students. Some are among the most prestigious institutions, like Waseda or Keio in Japan, Yale in the United States, the Ateneo de Manila in the Philippines, or Javieriana University in Colombia.

Higher education in India is gasping for breath, at a time when India is aiming to be an important player in the emerging knowledge economy. With about 300 universities and deemed universities, over 15,000 colleges and hundreds of national and regional research institutes, Indian higher education and research sector is the third largest in the world, in terms of the number of students it caters to. However, not a single Indian university finds even a mention in a recent international ranking of the top 200 universities of the world, except an IIT ranked at 41, whereas there were three universities each from China, Hong Kong and South Korea and one from Taiwan.

On the other hand, it is also true that there is no company or institute in the world that has not benefited by graduates, post-graduates or Ph.D.s from India: be it NASA, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Bell, Sun, Harvard, MIT, Caltech, Cambridge or Oxford, and not all those students are products of our IITs, IIMs IISc/TIFR or central universities, which cater to barely one per cent of the Indian student population. This is not to suggest that we should pat our backs for the achievements of our students abroad, but to point out that Indian higher educational institutions have not been able to achieve the same status for themselves as their students seem to achieve elsewhere with their education from here.

The experience over the last few decades has clearly shown that unlike school education, privatization has not led to any major improvements in the standards of higher education and professional education. In higher education and professional courses, relatively better quality teaching and infrastructure has been available only in government colleges and universities, while private institutions of higher education in India capitalized on fashionable courses with minimum infrastructure.

The last decade has witnessed many sweeping changes in higher and professional education: For example, thousands of private colleges and institutes offering professional courses, especially engineering courses, appeared all across the country by the late 1990s and disappeared in less than a decade, with devastating consequences for the students and teachers who depended on them for their careers. This situation is now repeating itself in management, biotechnology, bioinformatics and other emerging areas. No one asked any questions about opening or closing such institutions, or bothered about whether there were qualified teachers at all, much less worry about teacher-student ratio, floor area ratio, class rooms, labs, libraries etc. All these regulations that existed at one time have now been deregulated or softened under the self-financing scheme of higher and professional education adopted by the UGC.

It is not that the other well established departments and courses in government funded colleges and universities are doing any better. Decades of government neglect, poor funding, frequent ban on faculty recruitment and promotions, reduction in library budgets, lack of investments in modernization leading to obsolescence of equipment and infrastructure, and the tendency to start new universities on political grounds without consolidating the existing ones today threatens the entire higher education system.

The economics of imparting higher education are such that, barring a few courses in arts and humanities, imparting quality education in science, technology, engineering, medicine etc. requires huge investments in infrastructure, all of which cannot be recovered through student fees, as high fees will make higher education inaccessible to a large section of students. Unlike many better-known private educational institutions in Western countries that operate in the charity mode with tuition waivers and fellowships (which is one reason why our students go there), most private colleges and universities in India are pursuing a profit motive. This is the basic reason for charging huge tuition fees, apart from forced donations, capitation fees and other charges. Despite huge public discontent, media interventions and many court cases, the governments have not been able to regulate the fee structure and donations in these institutions.

It is not only students but also teachers who are at the receiving end of the ongoing transformation in higher education. The nation today witnesses the declining popularity of teaching as a profession, not only among the students that we produce, but also among parents, scientists, society and the government. The teaching profession today attracts only those who have missed all other "better" opportunities in life, and is increasingly mired in bureaucratic controls and anti-education concepts such as "hours" of teaching "load", "paid-by-the-hour", "contractual" teachers etc. With privatization reducing education to a commodity, teachers are reduced to tutors and teaching is reduced to coaching. The consumerist boom and the growing salary differentials between teachers and other professionals and the value systems of the emerging free market economy have made teaching one of the least attractive professions that demands more work for less pay. Yet, the society expects teachers not only to be inspired but also to do an inspiring job!

On the other hand, many teachers are also exploiting the situation. Due to acute shortage of teachers the Universities, especially the new Universities, are found to be at the receiving end because of constant job hopping by teachers for better pay packets. Sometimes, this job hopping goes to the level of professional black mailing.

Yet another worrisome trend in higher education and research is the emerging government policy of according deemed university status to national labs and research institutes, so that these institutes can award their own Ph.D. degrees, without having to affiliate themselves to a university or fulfilling any other role of being a university. It was expected that these national (or regional) laboratories would employ selected scientific manpower generated from the colleges/universities and nurture their talents towards specific applied goals. But this did not happen, as the national labs became more sophisticated versions of university departments drawing better monetary and infrastructural support and publishing research papers, for which they need research students, who cannot be retained and tapped unless they are promised research degrees.

Traditionally, colleges and universities have been non-profit institutions, operating under legal authority from the State to provide education and engage in research and other education-related activities. These institutions have been owned by non-profit agencies, such as religious organizations, educational societies, and others that have legal authority to own and manage them. For the most part, these arrangements do not permit the institutions to earn a profit, while they are guaranteed a high level of autonomy. In some cases, the university is "owned" by a sponsoring organization, in others by the academic staff and administrators, and in still others by boards of trustees or governors that may be partly composed of academics or dominated by outsiders.

With the stress on cost-recovery measures, many areas of study, including the humanities and social sciences and even the natural and physical sciences, have come under great pressure. Only the marketable areas of study may survive. With the universities emphasizing revenue-generating programs, Darwin's law might come into operation, and other areas of study, however important they may be, could fade away. A significant increase in fees for general education might shift enrollment from general education to professional education.

The trend toward privatization has also created serious problems concerning equity in higher education. While the government is to a great extent able to ensure that protective discrimination policies are followed in government colleges and private aided colleges, resistance to such policies is much higher in the case of self-financing institutions. While the overall elasticity of demand may not be high, such elasticity may certainly be high for the economically weaker sections. In other words, under privatization even if the size of total enrollment does not change, the composition might change in favour of the better-off sections of society.

The government's inability to control the quality of education in private colleges is also being increasingly felt. The first choice of parents and students in general is the government colleges, and when they fail in that endeavour they seek admission in private colleges, where admissions criteria are relaxed for those who can pay the high fees. Unfortunately, even strong proponents of private higher education call for government to take responsibility for regulating quality in the system. But given social, political, and economic factors, the government seems to feel severely handicapped in regulating quality in private institutions. Generally, once recognition is granted to a private institution, which is not a very difficult process, the government is unable to enforce any of its conditions. This is true to some extent even in the case of State-aided private colleges. State grants are rarely delayed for any reason. Massive erosion of quality in private colleges might lower the overall quality of higher education.

Conflicts that arise between national manpower needs and the short-term market signals that influence private higher education institutions have also had serious impacts. The long-term consequences can include manpower imbalances--both shortages and gluts.

In the whole process of privatization, universities might well become more and more efficient, but the important question is: "efficient to do what?" They become financially efficient, generating more and more resources, but in the process lose sight of their main academic goals and objectives. Activities hitherto peripheral to universities tend to become the dominant ones. Universities tend to undertake increasingly more commercial and quasi-commercial activities--such as, consultancy, sale of physical products and services, publication of books, training, and so on. Herein lies the great danger of privatization and to the very development of higher education in India.

Women Empowerment

When it comes to women there have been a few important happenings in the recent past. For the Indian women there were the 73rd and 74th Amendments (1993) to the Constitution, providing for the reservation of seats in the local bodies of panchayats and municipalities and, of course, the post 1995 measures by the government that formed the icing. It is a different issue that the cake was missing.

The government of India had floated zealously its grand ideas for the country by declaring the year 2001 as Women's Empowerment Year, with a focus on achieving the "vision in the new century of a nation where women are equal partners with men". What followed was a spate of programmes and schemes with fine names: Swashakti and Stree Shakti for women's empowerment; Swayam Siddha to benefit nearly a lakh women through micro-credit programmes, Balika Samrudhi Yojana for the girl child and a horde of various other projects, doubtlessly with intentions of going about a greater common good.

Since independence, India has developed several initiatives for guaranteeing education to its people. Although some progress has been achieved, the ever growing population has always come in the way. What is worrisome is the inconsistency that marks the efforts. Every once in a while, when a programme is to be launched or a report released, the activism comes to the fore. For rest of the time the problem exists but is too commonplace and ubiquitous to rouse strong motivation for efforts.

In contrast to the tragedies of the communities affected by drought, flood or civil conflict, the poverty, powerlessness and ill-health, which accompany illiteracy are not easily captured on the camera and brought to the attention of the international public opinion. Today, 125 million primary school age children are not in school; most of them are girls.

The current literacy rate for women in India stands at 54.16 per cent, vis-a-vis that of 75 per cent for males. Efforts are, however, on for raising the standard of the girl child. There are several programmes being undertaken.

It is true that after years of inflicting damage results cannot be achieved in a day. Nonetheless, consistency in efforts will be better than complacency. It will take some time, but the end result will be rewarding. After all, it is not for nothing that it is said that when you educate a boy you educate an individual, but when you educate a girl you educate an entire family.

Economic Status
Women are the major contributors in terms of economic output, but their contribution still remains to be made visible. Men and women are not equally distributed across the types of work. Women are concentrated in the primary sector and in unskilled and marginal work. 95 per cent of women, as against 89 per cent men, are engaged in un-organised sector, and most of them are found in the rural areas. According to the 2001 census, 90 million women constitute the workforce.

Industries that employ more women than men include, processing of edible nuts, domestic services, bidi manufacturing, spinning, weaving, finishing of coir textiles etc. Women also constitute majority of the workforce employed as nurses, ayahs, paramedics and technical workers. Their contribution goes unnoticed as most of the times they are involved as unpaid or home-based workers, who often get counted as non-working housewives.

In her paper on land laws and gender equity, Prof Bina Aggarwal points out the fact that women are much more dependent on land-based livelihoods. Over the years, while the male workers have been moving to non-agricultural arenas, women have remained where they were, owing to their lower mobility, less education and few assets. She notes, "firstly there is systematic bias against the women and female children's sharing of benefits from the male controlled resources—women without independent resources are highly vulnerable to poverty and destitution in case of divorce or widowhood. They often need titles to avail credit facilities."

In last one decade the Union and State governments have envisaged the eradication of poverty through women-oriented programmes, as a major chunk of the population below the poverty line remains the hapless women. The women can also be benefited in a large measure through generating adequate amount of legal awareness and helping them in making efforts to farm collectively, as is being done by the Deccan Development Society (DDS) in Andhra Pradesh.

Marriage and reproductive health
Although the practice of child marriage is history for most, it still continues to be a reality of life in the rural India, especially in the North and West pockets of the country. Every once in a while, there are shocking incidents (which make it to the covers of popular magazines and hit the front pages of newspapers because of the element of horrific unusualness). The news stirs up people, only to fade away in a couple of days when the oddity has turned boring.

Child marriages, banned by law, continue to take place and yet there is no action against this practice. No amount of legislation will be effective as long as the political will to promote gender equity is absent.

The Dowry Prohibition Act has been in force for five decades, and yet, countless atrocities are perpetrated as a result of this despicable practice that finds favour with scores of the households. Marrying off a boy not only marks an easy road to prosperity, but also is seen as redemption of money spent on the daughter's wedding.

Girls in early teens are "traded off" in the name of marriage to men who are older by nothing less than twenty to twenty five years, for a certain amount of money. This saves them the hassle of dowry as well as the search for a groom! The common practice in rural India is to marry the girls around the age of fourteen or fifteen, triggering off an early motherhood for most. Quite the reason for the reproductive health scenario not being so encouraging.

Another complexity that leaves the women at cross roads is fear of the apparent persecution if she bears a daughter. The startling fact is that, on the whole, women themselves prefer a male child despite the negative impact of this mindset on their lives. This seems to be a culturally conditioned choice. This is also the reason why technologies like ultrasound and amniocentesis are being used to determine sex of the child in the womb.

The apathy towards the gender inequities is evident in the classes that are expected to deliver better.


After all these years, it is sad to see the blatant use of woman as a mere "tool" that can be used at will to achieve various ends, and to see it as a much exploited subject for speeches, seminars, schemes and slogans. The crux is that till socio-cultural attitudes are addressed, there can be little meaningful done for achieving gender parity. Women in India are not lacking in self-confidence, but it is important for them to be realising this individually, as well as collectively. Individual self-confidence can be bolstered by the parental confidence, and through approval and appreciation of the community they are a part of.

Domestic violence
The phenomenon of domestic violence is widely prevalent, but has remained largely unseen. Millions of Indian women have, by and large, grown to accept spousal violence and, worse still, being subjected to humiliation and indignity which cripple them mentally. Afraid of the law, men may not commit acts of violence, but, in turn, resort to psychologically pressurising the woman, which has results still worse in nature.

According to the Crime Records Bureau of the Union Home Ministry, of all cases of crime committed against women every year, almost 37 per cent are cases of domestic violence. Then, there are women—especially those belonging to the middle and upper middle classes—who keep quiet for the sake of the family's image.

Most social workers and counsellors agree that the number of domestic violence cases has increased, but attribute the increased reporting to the growing realisation among women that they have to fight back. Domestic violence among the lower class is accepted, and among the upper class it is swept under the carpet. What we get to see is only the emerging middle class, because here the value systems have changed tremendously, whereas the societal systems have not. Sociologist Mohua Bandyopadhyaya also corroborates the facts: "with more and more women in the work place, the modern male feels under siege, and the frustration is taken out on the woman on whom he feels he can assert his will."

There's more to domestic violence than physical abuse. Emotional trauma can be far more crippling.

Legislative Status
Women in India have made major inroads in various male-dominated professions, including the governmental bureaucracy. In the fields of business, medicine, engineering, law, art and culture, women who were given opportunities to acquire the necessary skills and education have proven themselves capable of holding their own, without availing of any special measures to facilitate their entry. But they have failed to gain ground in the field of politics. Moreover, the agenda of women's empowerment seems to have lost the kind of moral and political legitimacy it enjoyed during the freedom movement, as was evident from the ugly scenes in the aftermath of tabling of the Women's Reservation Bill in the Parliament.

Infact, women are moving in the direction of near equal political participation in only a handful of countries, such as Germany, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland. In these societies, women have begun to seriously alter the very nature of politics, making enduring, and substantial gains in every field.

All trends indicate that women's representation in politics requires special consideration, and cannot be left to the forces that presently dominate our parties and government. Today, even the best of female parliamentarians feel sidelined and powerless within their respective parties. Most women in electoral and party politics are an ineffective minority within their own respective political groupings.
The very same male party leaders who compete with each other in announcing their support of special reservations for women, have shown little willingness to include women in party decision-making, or even to help create a conducive atmosphere for women's participation in their own organisations.

In fact, women's marginalisation is even more pronounced in the day-to-day functioning of almost all political parties, than in the Parliament. Therefore, it is urgently required that we take special measures to enhance women's political participation. Our democracy will remain seriously flawed if it fails to yield adequate space to women.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT
The Supreme Court judgement on Sexual Harassment of working women in the case of Vishakha vs. the State of Rajasthan (August 1997) initiated debate on the issue not just among women’s groups, lawyers and activists, but also among women in the workplace. For the first time, behaviour that can be considered sexual harassment has been explicitly legally defined.

“… sexual harassment includes such unwelcome sexually determined behaviour (whether directly or by implication) as:
—Physical contact and advances; a demand or request for sexual favours;
—sexually coloured remarks;
—showing pornography;
—any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature.”

The guidelines are significant in that, for the first time sexual harassment is identified as a separate category of legally prohibitive behaviour. Sexual harassment should be considered a separate legal offence not because it is less serious (as some have argued), but because it is taken less seriously.

Particularly in the absence of witnesses or other concrete proof, it often becomes the complainant’s word against the harasser’s. Further, in addition to sexual harassment being a violation of the right to safe working conditions, the guidelines also proclaim it to be a violation of women’s right to equal opportunity in the workplace.

It is the duty of the employer or other responsible persons in work places or other institutions to prevent sexual harassment and to provide procedures for resolution of complaints. Women who either draw a regular salary, receive an honorarium, or work in a voluntary capacity—in the government; private sector or un-organized sectors—come under the purview of these guidelines.

Main guidelines are:
  • Express prohibition of sexual harassment should be notified and circulated.
  • Prohibition of sexual harassment should be included in the rules and regulations of government and public sector bodies.
  • Private employers should include prohibition of sexual harassment in the standing orders under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946.
  • Appropriate work conditions should be provided for work, leisure, health, and hygiene to further ensure that there is no hostile environment towards women at workplaces and no woman employee should have reasonable grounds to believe that she is disadvantaged in connection with her employment.
  • Sexual harassment should be affirmatively discussed at worker’s meetings, employer-employees meetings and other appropriate forums.
  • Guidelines should be prominently notified to create awareness of the rights of female employers.
  • The employer should assist persons affected in cases of sexual harassment by outsiders or third parties.
  • Central and State governments are required to adopt measures including legislation to ensure that private employers also observe guidelines.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT, 2005
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 was brought into force from October 26, 2006. The Act was passed by the Parliament in August 2005 and assented to by the President in September 2005.

For the purposes of this Act, any conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence if he (a) habitually assaults or makes the life of the aggrieved person miserable by cruelty of conduct even if such conduct does not amount to physical ill-treatment; or (b) forces the aggrieved person to lead an immoral life; or (c) otherwise injures or harms the aggrieved person.

Nothing contained in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall amount to domestic violence if the pursuit of course of conduct by the respondent was reasonable for his own protection or for the protection of his or another’s property.

Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women who are sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

How the nuclear plant crisis happened


The fuel in all the 3 Units is thought to have at least partially melted down despite pumping sea water and boric acid into the Units

The crisis at the three Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations did not come from buildings collapsing due to the March 11 earthquake of magnitude 9 but from power failure following the quake. The tsunami knocked out the generators that produced the power. Lack of power in turn caused the cooling systems of the reactors to fail.

The Fukushima nuclear reactor 1 went critical on March 1971 and is a 460 MW reactor. Unit-2 and Unit-3 are 784 MW each and went critical in July 1974 and March 1976 respectively. All the three are Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and use demineralised water for cooling nuclear fuel.

The fuel, in the form of pellets, is kept inside a casing called cladding. The cladding is made of zirconium alloy, and it completely seals the fuel. Fuel pins in the form of bundles are kept in the reactor core. Heat is generated in the reactor core through a fission process sustained by chain reaction.

The fuel bundles are placed in such a way that the coolant can easily flow around the fuel pins. The coolant never comes in direct contact with the fuel as the fuel is kept sealed inside the zirconium alloy cladding. The coolant changes into steam as it cools the hot fuel. It is this steam that generates electricity by driving the turbines.

All the heat that is produced by nuclear fission is not used for producing electricity. The efficiency of a power plant, including nuclear, is not 100 per cent. In the case of a nuclear power plant the efficiency is 30-35 per cent. “About 3 MW of thermal energy is required to produce 1 MW of electrical energy. Hence for the 460 MW Unit-1, 1,380 MW of thermal energy is produced,” said Dr. K.S. Parthasarathy, former Secretary, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai. “This heat has to be removed continuously.”

In the case of the Fukushima units, demineralised water is used as coolant. Uranium-235 is used as fuel in Unit-1 and Unit-2, and MOX (a mixture of oxides of Uranium-Plutonium-239) is used as fuel in Unit-3.

Coolant flow

Since a very high amount of heat is generated, the flow of the coolant should never be disrupted. But on March 11, pumping of the coolant failed as even the diesel generator failed after an hour's operation.

Though the power producing fission process was stopped by using control rods that absorbed the neutrons immediately after the quake, the fuel still contains fission products such as iodine-131 and caesium-137 and activation products such as plutonium-239.

Decay heat

“These radionuclides decay at different timescales, and they continue to produce heat during the decay period,” Dr. Parthasarathy said.

The heat produced by radioactive decay of these radionuclides is called “decay heat.”

“Just prior to the shut down of the reactor the decay heat is 7 per cent. It reduces exponentially, to about 2 per cent in the first hour. After one day, the decay heat is about 1 per cent. Then it reduces very slowly,” he said.

While the uranium fission process can be stopped and heat generation can be halted, there is no way of stopping radioactive decay of the fission products.

Apart from the original heat, the heat produced continuously by the fission products and activation products has to be removed even after the uranium fission process has been stopped.

Inability to remove this heat led to a rise in coolant temperature. According to the Nature journal, when the temperature reached around 1,000 degree C, the zirconium alloy that encased the fuel (cladding) probably began to melt or split apart. “In the process it reacted with the steam and created hydrogen gas, which is highly volatile,” Nature notes.

Though the pressure created by hydrogen gas was reduced by controlled release, the massive build-up of hydrogen led to the explosion that blew the roof of the secondary confinement (outer buildings around the reactor) in all the three units (Unit-1, Unit-2 and Unit-3). The reactor core is present inside the primary containment.

But the real danger arises from fuel melting. This would happen following the rupture of the zirconium casing. “If the heat is not removed, the zirconium cladding along with the fuel would melt and become liquid,” Dr. Parthasarathy explained. The government has said that fuel rods in Unit-3 were likely already damaged.

Effect of melted fuel

Melted fuel is called “corium.” Since melted fuel is at a very high temperature it can even “burn through the concrete containment vessel.”

According to Nature, if enough melted fuel gathers outside the fuel assembly it can “restart the power-producing reactions, and in a completely uncontrolled way.”

What may result is a “full-scale nuclear meltdown.”

Pumping of sea-water is one way to reduce the heat and avoid such catastrophic consequences. The use of boric acid, which is an excellent neutron absorber, would reduce the chances of nuclear reactions restarting even if the fuel is found loose inside the reactor core. Both these measures have been resorted to in all three Units. Despite these measures, the fuel rods were found exposed in Unit-2 on two occasions.

Fate of reactor core

While the use of sea-water can prevent fuel melt, it makes the reactor core completely useless due to corrosion.

The case of Unit-4 is different from the other three units. Unlike in the case of Unit-1, 2 and 3, the Unit-4 is under maintenance and the core has been taken out, and the spent fuel rods are kept in the cooling pond.

Whatever led to a decrease in water level, the storage pond caught fire on March 15 possibly due to hydrogen explosion. The radioactivity was released directly into the atmosphere.

Spent fuel fate unknown

It is not known if the integrity of the cladding has been already affected and the fuel exposed. Since the core of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is removed only once a year or so, the number of spent rods in the pond will be more.

If the fuel is indeed exposed, the possibility of fuel melt is very likely. Though the fuel will be at a lower temperature than found inside a working reactor, there are chances of the fuel melting.

Since it does not have any containment unlike the fuel found inside a reactor, the consequences of a fuel melt would be really bad. Radioactivity is released directly into the atmosphere. Radioactivity of about 400 milliSv/hour was reported at the site immediately after the fire.

Saturday, March 12, 2011

INDIAN ECONOMY MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. The number of products reserved for small scale industry till October 2008 is—
(A) 35
(B) 21
(C) 81
(D) 106
Ans : (B)

2. From 2nd November, 2010, the Repo Rate has been fixed at—
(A) 3•5%
(B) 5•5%
(C) 4•5%
(D) 6•25%
Ans : (D)

3. The target company of making ‘Cell phone’ in the world is—
(A) Samsung
(B) Panasonic
(C) Nokia
(D) Motorola
Ans : (C)


4. For 2010-11, the CSO has predicted India’s GDP growth at—
(A) below 7%
(B) 8•6%
(C) 8•5%
(D) 9•5%
Ans : (B)

5. Which Indian city has the highest population?
(A) Kolkata
(B) New Delhi
(C) Chennai
(D) Mumbai
Ans : (D)

6. National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) was established in—
(A) 1950
(B) 1951
(C) 1952
(D) 1947
Ans : (A)

7. Which of the following Indian company has been listed at the top in Forbes-2000 list ?
(A) RIL
(B) ONGC
(C) IOL
(D) NTPC
Ans : (A)

8. Which state stands first in the length of roads in the country ?
(A) U. P.
(B) M. P.
(C) Maharashtra
(D) Rajasthan
Ans : (C)

9. On November 2, 2010 the Reserve Bank of India has fixed Reverse Repo Rate at—
(A) 6•25%
(B) 4•25%
(C) 5•0%
(D) 5•25%
Ans : (D)

10. Total receipts from service tax during 2011-12 has been estimated at—
(A) Rs. 58000 crore
(B) Rs. 82000 crore
(C) Rs. 78000 crore
(D) Rs. 88000 crore
Ans : (B)

11. From November 7, 2009, the SLR has been fixed at—
(A) 24%
(B) 26%
(C) 25•5%
(D) 25%
Ans : (D)

12. What minimum support price (per quintal) for the rabi 2010-11. Wheat to be marketed during 2011-12 marketing season has been fixed by the Government ?
(A) Rs. 1080
(B) Rs. 1100
(C) Rs. 1120
(D) Rs. 1180
Ans : (C)

13. On 14 January, 2011 the amount of foreign exchange reserves with RBI was—
(A) $ 183 billion
(B) $ 213 billion
(C) $ 233 billion
(D) $ 268 billion
Ans : (D)

14. Three nationalised public sector banks have joined hands with India Infrastructure Finance Co. Ltd. (IIFCL) for funding large infrastructure funds. The bank not including in this race is—
(A) Canara Bank
(B) Punjab National Bank
(C) Syndicate Bank
(D) Vijaya Bank
Ans : (B)

15. When was Focus Market Scheme introduced ?
(A) 2003-04
(B) 2004-05
(C) 2005-06
(D) 2006-07
Ans : (D)

16. The government has purchased the Reserve Bank of India’s ……… per cent stake in the country’s largest bank, the State Bank of India.
(A) 56•73
(B) 59•73
(C) 61•27
(D) 69•73
Ans : (B)

17. CENVAT is associated with—
(A) Direct Tax
(B) Income Tax
(C) Indirect Tax
(D) Service Tax
Ans : (C)

18. Which of the following occupied the highest place in growth rate during the 10th Plan period 2002-2007 ?
(A) Agricultural Sector
(B) Service Sector
(C) Industrial Sector
(D) Mining
Ans : (B)

19. As per the latest estimates of Petroleum Ministry. India’s refining capacity will be increased to …… million tonne per annum by the end of coming 11th plan, i.e., 2011-12.
(A) 210
(B) 220
(C) 230
(D) 240
Ans : (D)

20. Which one has become the 8th member of SAARC ?
(A) China
(B) Afghanistan
(C) Mauritius
(D) Myanmar
Ans : (B)

21. Agriculture sector registered 1•6% growth in 2008-09 and it is estimated for year 2010-11 at—
(A) 4•00%
(B) 4•30%
(C) 5•4%
(D) 3•61%
Ans : (C)

22. After merger, Tata-Corus has become the …… largest steel producer in the World.
(A) 3rd
(B) 4th
(C) 5th
(D) 6th
Ans : (C)

23. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan Yojana is associated with—
(A) The development of Bihar
(B) Community toilets in slum areas
(C) Construction of houses for low income groups
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)


24. The estimated World Gross Product for 2010 as declared by the recent report of UNO is—
(A) US $ 95•1 Trillion
(B) US $ 62•22 Trillion
(C) US $ 112•0 Trillion
(D) US $ 118•2 Trillion
Ans : (B)

25. “Pure Banking, Nothing Else” is a slogan raised by—
(A) ICICI Bank
(B) HDFC Bank
(C) SBI
(D) UTI Bank
Ans : (C)

26. “Smart Money” is a term used for—
(A) Internet Banking
(B) Credit Card
(C) Cash with Bank
(D) Cash with Public
Ans : (B)

27. Which one of the following stands at first rank in the list of top 10 steel producers in the world ?
(A) Nippon Steels
(B) Tata-Corus
(C) Arcelor-Mittal
(D) Bao Steel
Ans : (C)

28. Which of the following country has decided not to print its king’s photo on national currency ?
(A) Nepal
(B) Japan
(C) Denmark
(D) None of the above
Ans : (A)

29. The rate of Gross Domestic Savings for the 11th Plan as percentage of GDP is fixed at—
(A) 36•7%
(B) 34•8%
(C) 35•8%
(D) 33•8%
Ans : (B)

30. Who is the present (Nobember 2010) Director of Central Bureau Investigation ?
(A) Jyoti Krishna Dutt
(B) Kiran Mazumdar
(C) Amar Pratap Singh
(D) Arun Balkrishnan
Ans : (C)

31. Oil Refinery at Bhatinda is being established by—
(A) IOC
(B) HPCL
(C) Reliance
(D) BPCL
Ans : (B)

32. The maximum limit of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in public sector banking is—
(A) 51%
(B) 50%
(C) 33%
(D) 49%
Ans : (D)

33. Which of the following plan is meant for constructing houses for rural people ?
(A) Indra Avas Yojana
(B) Ambedkar Avas Yojana
(C) PURA
(D) None of the above
Ans : (A)

34. Recently foundation stone of a new rail coach making factory has been laid at—
(A) Saharsa
(B) Rae Bareli
(C) Amethi
(D) Amritsar
Ans : (B)

35. As per the declaration made in Railway Budget 2011-12, how many new Duranto Trains are to be introduced in 2011-12 ?
(A) 15
(B) 12
(C) 11
(D) 9
Ans : (D)

36. As per quick estimate for 2009-010 what is the gross domestic savings (GDS) at market price?
(A) 30•5% of GDP
(B) 33•7% of GDP
(C) 35•5% of GDP
(D) 37•5% of GDP
Ans : (B)

37. Per capita income at factor cost at constant prices (2004-05) for 2009-10 (Revised Estimates) stands at—
(A) Rs. 22580
(B) Rs. 24295
(C) Rs. 38084
(D) Rs. 33731
Ans : (D)

38. As per the latest data released by CSO, what share Indian Agriculture accounts in country’s GDP during 2009-10 ?
(A) 17•1%
(B) 17•6%
(C) 14•1%
(D) 26•6%
Ans : (C)

39. For 11th plan period 2007–2012 savings rate has been targeted at—
(A) 30.8%
(B) 31.6%
(C) 34.8%
(D) 33.6%
Ans : (C)

40. According to Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act, the maximum limit for medium enterprise is—
(A) Rs. 25 lakhs
(B) Rs. 1 crore
(C) Rs. 5 crore
(D) Rs. 10 crore
Ans : (D)

41. Recently, Ministry of Human Resource Development developed a new index termed as ‘Educational Development Index’ (EDI) related to primary and upper primary education.
The state at the top of this index is—
(A) Delhi
(B) Kerala
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Andhra Pradesh
Ans : (B)

42. India’s mobile market has been ranked at the……largest market of the world.
(A) Second
(B) Third
(C) Fourth
(D) Fifth
Ans : (B)

43. In 2010-11, contribution of service sector in country’s GDP is estimated at about—
(A) 48•6%
(B) 50•6%
(C) 57•3%
(D) 52•6%
Ans : (C)


44. Hutch-Essar has recently been acquired by—
(A) Bharti Airtel
(B) Vodafone
(C) Reliance
(D) Tata Mobile
Ans : (B)

45. In 2010-11 budget, the allocation for National Ganga River Basin Authority has been—
(A) Rs. 100 crore
(B) Rs. 200 crore
(C) Rs. 400 crore
(D) Rs. 500 crore
Ans : (D)

46. The tax-GDP ratio in 2010-11 is estimated at—
(A) 10•12%
(B) 10•38%
(C) 12•3%
(D) 11•98%
Ans : (B)

47. In 2011-12, the maximum limit of custom duty is proposed as—
(A) 11%
(B) 10%
(C) 9%
(D) 8%
Ans : (B)

48. In Human Development Report 2010, India has HDI ranking at—
(A) 126th
(B) 119th
(C) 127th
(D) 129th
Ans : (B)

49. As per the latest available data, in September 2010, India’s total external debt stood at—
(A) $ 122•610 billion
(B) $ 192•610 billion
(C) $ 295•8 billion
(D) $ 233•610 billion
Ans : (C)

50. In New Direct Tax Code for senior citizens, income tax exemption slab has been raised to—
(A) Rs. 2•00 lakh
(B) Rs. 2•00 lakh
(C) Rs. 2•50 lakh
(D) Rs. 3•00 lakh
Ans : (C)

51. Now the latest CRR as declared by RBI w.e.f. April 24, 2010 is—
(A) 6•0%
(B) 5•5%
(C) 5•75%
(D) 6•5%
Ans : (A)

52. As per revised estimates for 2010-11 released by CSO, the growth rate for Indian economy has been estimated to be—
(A) 9•5%
(B) 8•6%
(C) 9•8%
(D) 6•7%
Ans : (B)

53. US-based “Novelis” has recently been acquired by—
(A) Tata Group
(B) Birla Group
(C) Reliance Group
(D) Jointly by Tata and Birla Group
Ans : (B)

54. When was RBI nationalised ?
(A) 1st April, 1935
(B) 1st January, 1949
(C) 1st January, 1935
(D) 1st July, 1969
Ans : (B)

55. According to the latest data published in World Trade Statistics of WTO. India’s share in world trade of goods and services in 2006 was—
(A) 1•0%
(B) 1•1%
(C) 1•2%
(D) 1•5%
Ans : (C)

56. As per quick estimates for the year 2010-11, Indian economy’s GDP at factor cost (at current prices) stood at—
(A) Rs. 3790063 crore
(B) Rs. 4713000 crore
(C) Rs. 4879232 crore
(D) Rs. 6426277 crore
Ans : (C)

57. What is the theme of World Development Report 2010 ?
(A) Poverty and Next Generation
(B) The Real Wealth of Nations : Path Ways to Human Development
(C) Incidence of Rural Poverty
(D) Development and the Next Generation
Ans : (B)

58. How many banks are there in public sector at present ?
(A) 28
(B) 27
(C) 19
(D) 20
Ans : (B)

59. What is the national minimum wage rate fixed under minimum wage legislation on November 2009 ?
(A) Rs. 56
(B) Rs. 60
(C) Rs. 100
(D) Rs. 76
Ans : (C)

60. For attaining 9% growth rate during 11th plan, investment level has been estimated to be—
(A) 31•4% of GDP
(B) 34•8% of GDP
(C) 38•7% of GDP
(D) 36•7% of GDP
Ans : (D)

61. Indian Rupee has got its symbol as This symbol has been designed by—
(A) D. Kumar Raju
(B) Udai D. Raj
(C) D. Udai Kumar
(D) D. Udai Reddy
Ans : (C)

62. Primary gold is a gold of—
(A) 20 carat
(B) 22 carat
(C) 23 carat
(D) 24 carat
Ans : (D)

63. First share market in India was established in—
(A) Delhi
(B) Kolkata
(C) Chennai
(D) Mumbai
Ans : (D)


64. ‘Aam Admi Bima Yojana’ is an insurance scheme for rural landless households executed by the nodal agency—
(A) National Insurance Co.
(B) State Government
(C) LIC
(D) Central Government
Ans : (B)

65. Revenue Deficit as a per cent of GDP in Budget 2011-12 has been estimated at—
(A) 4•2%
(B) 6•8%
(C) 6•0%
(D) 4•6%
Ans : (D)

66. GST would be introduced from—
(A) January 1, 2012
(B) August 1, 2011
(C) April 1, 2012
(D) August 15, 2011
Ans : (C)

67. The rate of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) proposed in the budget 2011-12 is—
(A) 15%
(B) 18•5%
(C) 20%
(D) 22%
Ans : (B)

68. Which of the following is not a financial regulator ?
(A) IRDA
(B) AMFI
(C) PFRDA
(D) SEBI
Ans : (B)

69. Inflation in India is measured on which of the following indexes/indicators ?
(A) Cost of Living Index
(B) Consumer Price Index
(C) Wholesale Price Index
(D) Gross Domestic Product
Ans : (C)

70. As per 13th Finance Commission Recommendations during 2010-15, transfers to the states from the central tax pool are expected to be—
(A) Rs. 44000 crore
(B) Rs. 164832 crore
(C) Rs. 318581 crore
(D) Rs. 107552 crore
Ans : (C)

71. From which of the following taxes, the Central Government will get the maximum revenue in 2011-12 ?
(A) Custom Duties
(B) Income Tax
(C) Excise Duties
(D) Corporation Tax
Ans : (D)

72. How many economists shared Nobel Prize in Economics for the year 2010 ?
(A) 01
(B) 02
(C) 03
(D) 04
Ans : (C)

73. The target for exports in 2013-14 has been fixed at—
(A) $ 300 billion
(B) $ 275 billion
(C) $ 250 billion
(D) $ 450 billion
Ans : (D)

74. Global Hunger Index released by IFPRI in October 2010 places India at—
(A) 58th rank
(B) 64th rank
(C) 67th rank
(D) 74th rank
Ans : (C)

75. When was the first EPZ set-up in Kandla ?
(A) 1965
(B) 1970
(C) 1975
(D) 1995
Ans : (A)

76. For rural development allocation Union Budget 2011-12 is—
(A) Rs. 16,000 crore
(B) Rs. 46,000 crore
(C) Rs. 56,000 crore
(D) Rs. 87,800 crore
Ans : (D)

77. What is true for the service tax in Union Budget 2011-12 ?
(A) It is raised from 10 to 12%
(B) It is left unchanged at 11%
(C) It is left unchanged at 10%
(D) It is reduced from 14% to 12%
Ans : (C)

78. Which part of Indian rupee has been allotted in public expenditure for repaying interest on loans in 2011-12 budget proposals ?
(A) 18 Paise
(B) 21 Paise
(C) 22 Paise
(D) 23 Paise
Ans : (A)

79. In Forbes-2000 list of the year 2010 how many Indian companies got the place ?
(A) 16
(B) 56
(C) 37
(D) 27
Ans : (B)

80. As per the latest data available (for the year 2009). Infant Mortality Rate (per thousand live births) in India is—
(A) 72
(B) 68
(C) 60
(D) 50
Ans : (D)

Indian Economy Objective Questions

1. In which of the following states India’s largest tea is produced ?
(A) Tamil Nadu
(B) Assam
(C) Karnataka
(D) Kerala
Answer: Assam


2. Bilateral trade between India and Europe is expected to touch level of $ …… billion by 2010.
(A) 50
(B) 75
(C) 100
(D) 110
Answer: 100


3. How many members are there in APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation) ?
(A) 20
(B) 21
(C) 25
(D) 27
Answer: 21



4. When did we start our First Five Year Plan ?
(A) August 15, 1947
(B) April 1, 1950
(C) April 1, 1951
(D) January 26, 1952
Answer: April 1, 1951


5. Which of the following states in India has produced maximum foodgrains ?
(A) Punjab
(B) Andhra Pradesh
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Haryana
Answer: Uttar Pradesh


6. Who has written the book “My Country My Life” ?
(A) Indira Gandhi
(B) Rajgopalachari
(C) Baljeet Singh
(D) Lal Krishna Advani
Answer: Lal Krishna Advani


7. Who was the Chairman of 13th Finance Commission?
(A) Vijay L. Kelkar
(B) C. Rangrajan
(C) Deepak Pareek
(D) Indira Bhargava
Answer: Vijay L. Kelkar


8. RBI holds……equity in National Housing Bank.
(A) 50%
(B) 60%
(C) 75%
(D) 100%
Answer: 100%


9. The most active and sensitive part of the organised money market is the—
(A) Call money market
(B) Treasury bill market
(C) Commercial bill market
(D) Gilt-edged market
Answer: Call money market


10. Reserve Bank of India, established on 1st April, 1935, was originally constituted as a shareholders, institution with a share capital of—
(A) Rs. 5 crore
(B) Rs. 7 crore
(C) Rs. 9 crore
(D) Rs. 10 crore
Answer: Rs. 5 crore


11. Which one of the following countries has achieved growth rates exceeding 9% for the last two to three decades ?
(A) India
(B) China
(C) USA
(D) None of the above
Answer: China


12. Which of the following is not a Tax ?
(A) MAT
(B) SAT
(C) GST
(D) VAT
Answer: SAT


13. “The Future of India” book is written by—
(A) R. N. Malhotra
(B) Jagdish Mukhi
(C) M. S. Ahluwalia
(D) Bimal Jalan
Answer: Bimal Jalan


14. The National Stock Exchange functions from—
(A) Mumbai
(B) Kolkata
(C) New Delhi
(D) Chennai
Answer: Mumbai


15. For a study of the long-term growth of the economy we use—
(A) Personal Income
(B) Disposable Income
(C) Money GNP
(D) Real GNP
Answer: Real GNP


16. What is the purpose of the India Brand Equity Fund ?
(A) To make ‘Made in India’ a label of quality
(B) To promote in bound tourism
(C) To organise trade fairs
(D) To provide venture capital to IT sector
Answer: To make ‘Made in India’ a label of quality


17. Under the Gadgil-Mukherjee Formula, which criterion gets highest weight ?
(A) Population
(B) Tax Effort and Fiscal Discipline
(C) Income Distance
(D) Area
Answer: Income Distance


18. How much amount has been proposed for defence expenditure in the budget for 2011-12?
(A) Rs. 164000 crore
(B) Rs. 141703 crore
(C) Rs. 157344 crore
(D) Rs. 137344 crore
Answer: Rs. 164000 crore


19. How many additional services have been brought under service tax in the budget for 2011-12 ?
(A) 06
(B) 07
(C) 04
(D) 10
Answer: 04


20. How much custom duty is to be paid on 10 gram of gold as per 2010-11 budget ?
(A) Rs. 100
(B) Rs. 200
(C) Rs. 300
(D) Rs. 500
Answer: Rs. 300


21. ‘Innovation Lab’ has been launched by—
(A) Tata Consultancy Services
(B) Infosys Tech
(C) Reliance Industries
(D) Anil’s Reliance Communications
Answer: Tata Consultancy Services


22. “Development and Climate Change” is the theme of—
(A) Human Development Report 2010
(B) World Development Report 2010
(C) World Development Report 2009
(D) World Development Report 2008
Answer: World Development Report 2010


23. As per the latest WTO report, the biggest exporter country in the world during 2007 was—
(A) Germany
(B) USA
(C) China
(D) Japan
Answer: USA



24. As per the latest WTO report, the biggest importer country in the world during 2007 was—
(A) Germany
(B) USA
(C) China
(D) Japan
Answer: USA


25. The state having the lowest Maternal Mortality Rate is—
(A) Tamil Nadu
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Kerala
(D) Gujarat
Answer: Kerala


26. Which of the following organisation publishes World Investment Report ?
(A) WTO
(B) UNCTAD
(C) IMF
(D) IFC
Answer: UNCTAD


27. The proposed Steel Plant of POSCO (Pohang Steel Company) is to be established in Jagatsinghpur distt. of Orissa. To which country POSCO belongs ?
(A) USA
(B) South Africa
(C) South Korea
(D) China
Answer: South Korea


28. Who is the richest Resident Indian in the latest estimates of Economic Magazine ‘Forbes’ 2010 released in April 2010 ?
(A) Azim Premji
(B) Mukesh Ambani
(C) Anil Ambani
(D) Luxmi Mittal
Answer: Mukesh Ambani


29. When was National Saving Scheme (NSS)-92 abolished ?
(A) Nov. 1999
(B) Nov. 2002
(C) Nov. 1, 2001
(D) Nov. 2003
Answer: Nov. 1, 2001


30. In which nation, the two day summit of Finance Ministers of G-20 nations was held in October 2010 ?
(A) India
(B) China
(C) South Korea
(D) Canada
Answer: South Korea


31. Which is correct for Foreign Trade Policy 2009-14 ?
(A) The benefit of ECGC Plan is extended till 2010
(B) DEPB Scheme extended till May 2012
(C) Export Target has been set for 2010-11 at $ 260 billion
(D) None of the above
Answer: The benefit of ECGC Plan is extended till 2010


32. ‘Micro-finance Bill’ 2007 is concerned with—
(A) Regional Rural Banks
(B) Co-operative Banks
(C) NABARD
(D) All the above
Answer: NABARD


33. Moradabad has retaining its first rank in handicrafts exports. Which city comes at second rank ?
(A) Ludhiana
(B) Tirupur
(C) Panipat
(D) Jodhpur
Answer: Jodhpur


34. According to China’s Xinhua News agency, China earned $ 33•5 billion from tourism during 2006 and acquired……place in earning the highest tourism revenue in the world.
(A) Second
(B) Fourth
(C) Sixth
(D) Tenth
Answer: Sixth


35. Former President Mr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam gave a call for…… per cent GDP growth rate to uplift Indian population below the poverty line.
(A) 9%
(B) 10%
(C) 11%
(D) 12%
Answer: 10%


36. OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is an organisation of how many countries ?
(A) 13
(B) 12
(C) 11
(D) 10
Answer: 11


37. Which of the following Five Year Plan has achieved its growth targets ?
(A) 8th Plan
(B) 9th Plan
(C) 10th Plan
(D) None of the above
Answer: 8th Plan


38. Capital Output Ratio of a commodity measures—
(A) Its per unit cost of production
(B) The amount of capital inverted per unit of output
(C) The ratio of capital deficiency to quantity of output
(D) The ratio of working capital employed to quantity of output
Answer: The amount of capital inverted per unit of output


39. Name the company which has signed a production sharing contract with the government for exploratory rights to two new land blocks in Tripura and Cavery Basin.
(A) OIL
(B) IOC
(C) GAIL
(D) ONGC
Answer: ONGC


40. As per 2011-12 budget the CENVAT has been fixed at—
(A) 8%
(B) 9%
(C) 10%
(D) 12%
Answer: 10%

Friday, March 11, 2011

APPSC B.C., SOCIAL, TRIBAL WELFARE RECRUITMENT

Applications are invited On-line through the proforma Application to be made available on WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) from 08/03/2011 to 08/004/2011 (Note: 06/04/2011 is the last date for payment of fee) for recruitment to the posts of Assistant B.C. Welfare Officer, Assistant Social Welfare Officer, and Assistant Tribal Welfare Officer.

The Commission has dispensed with the sale of applications through HPOs / Sales Counter of Commission’s office. The desirous eligible Candidates may apply ON-LINE by satisfying themselves with the terms and conditions of this recruitment. The details are as follows:-

Assistant B.C. Welfare Officer:

  • Number of Posts: 08

  • Age: Minimum 18 years & Maximum 39 years as on 01/07/2011

  • Qualification: Must posses a Bachelor’s Degree of a University in India established or Incorporated by or under a Central Act, State Act or a Provincial Act or an Institution recognized by the University Grants Commission or an equivalent qualification

Assistant Social Welfare Officer:

  • Number of Posts: 13

  • Age: Minimum 18 years & Maximum 39 years as on 01/07/2011

  • Qualification: Must posses a Bachelor’s Degree of a University in India established or Incorporated by or under a Central Act, State Act or a Provincial Act or an Institution recognized by the University Grants Commission or an equivalent qualification

Assistant Tribal Welfare Officer

  • Number of Posts: 11

  • Age: Minimum 18 years & Maximum 34 years as on 01/07/2011.

  • Qualification: Must posses a Bachelor’s Degree of a University in India established or Incorporated by or under a Central Act, State Act or a Provincial Act or an Institution recognized by the University Grants Commission or an equivalent qualification

Fee:

Each applicant must pay Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five Only) towards Application Processing Fee and Examination Fee RS.120/- (RUPEES ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY ONLY) (if Candidates are not exempted from payment of Fee). Payment of Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five only) towards application processing fee is compulsory for all Applicants.

Selection Procedure:

The Selection of candidates for appointment to the posts will be made in two successive stages

  1. Written Examination (Objective Type) and

  2. Oral Test in the shape of Interview only for those qualified as per Rules.

For Details :

http://website.apspsc.gov.in/Documents/NOTIFICATIONS/108.pdf

APPSC Technical Assistant in Archaeology and Museums Subordinate Service


Applications are invited On-line through the proforma Application to be made available on WEBSITE (www.apspsc.gov.in) from 08/03/2011 to 08/04/2011 (Note: 06/04/2011 is the last date for payment of fee) for recruitment to the post of Technical Assistant in Archaeology and Museums Subordinate Service.

Technical Assistant in Archaeology and Museums Subordinate Service

Number of Posts: 15

  • Age: Minimum 18 years & Maximum 38 years as on 01/07/2009.

  • Pay Scale: 16,150- 42,590/-

Qualification:

Applicants must possess the qualifications from a recognized University as detailed below or equivalent thereto, subject to various specifications in the relevant Service Rules and as indented by the department as on the date of Notification, as on 22/02/2011.

Must possess a First or Second Class Post Graduate Degree in Archaeology or History or Indology or Anthropology or Museology or Sanskrit or Persian from any University in India established or incorporated by orunder Central Act, or Provincial Act or a State Act or an Institute recognized by the University Grants Commission. OR Must possess 1st or 2nd class in Siromani (Final) examination conducted by Sri Venkateswara University , Tirupathi or any other examination equal to the above conducted by the Universities in Andhra Pradesh.

Fee:

(Remittance of Fee) Each applicant must pay Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five Only) towards Application Processing Fee and Examination Fee RS.80/- (EIGHTY ONLY) (if Candidates are not exempted from payment of Fee). Payment of Rs. 25/- (Rupees Twenty Five only) towards application processing fee is compulsory for all Applicants.

Selection Procedure:

The Selection of candidates for appointment to the posts will be made in two successive stages

  1. Written Examination (Objective Type) and

  2. Oral Test in the shape of Interview only for those qualified as per Rules

Last Date: On 08/04/2011 on-line submission closes by 5.00 P.M

Click Here For Full Details: http://website.apspsc.gov.in/Documents/NOTIFICATIONS/109.pdf

FORBS LIST

Monday, March 7, 2011

Performance of SEZs

In addition to seven Central Government Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and 12 State/Private Sector SEZs set up prior to the enactment of SEZ Act, 2005, formal approval has been accorded to 582 proposals out of which 374 SEZs have been notified. A total of 130 SEZs have commenced export. Statements containing state-wise and sector-wise distribution of SEZs are enclosed.

As on 31st December, 2010, an investment of Rs. 1,95,348 crore has been made in SEZs and the total direct employment in SEZs is 6,44,073 persons. The total physical Exports of Rs. 2,20,711 crore approximately have been made from SEZs during the year 2009-10 registering a growth of about 121.40% over the exports for the previous financial year. A statement showing sector-wise distribution of exports for the financial year 2009-10 is also enclosed. Exports from SEZs have been 26.10% of the total exports of the country during the said financial year. The total physical exports from SEZs as on 31st December, 2010 i.e. in the first three quarters of the current financial year, has been to the tune of Rs. 2,23,132 crore approximately registering a growth of 46.7% over the exports of corresponding period of the previous financial year. Total land area of notified SEZs is 44,414 hectares. SEZ being set up under the SEZ Act, 2005 are primarily private investment driven. The fiscal concessions and duty benefits allowed to SEZs are in built into the SEZ Act, 2005.

The Approval Committees under the Development Commissioners constituted for each Zone, which comprise representatives from Customs, Income-tax, State Governments etc. have been directed to monitor the performance of the SEZ Units. This includes scrutiny of Annual Performance Report (APR), Quarterly Performance Report (QPR) and details of rent recovery. Failure to meet the requirements of the scheme or any violation attracts action under Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992.

On a request received from the developer, Board of Approval considers the request of extension of formal approval beyond the period of initial three years on case to case basis.

Citing global economic slowdown as the main reason, the requests for de-notification have been received from the developers. The Board of Approval has allowed 23 such requests in respect of SEZs located in various states and Union Territories. However, the final denotification is allowed only on receipt of certificate from the respective Development Commissioner that the Developer has refunded the duties/benefits, if any, availed by him.

State-wise distribution of approved Special Economic Zones

State

Formal Approval

Notified SEZs

Operational SEZs (Central Govt. + State Govt./Pvt. SEZs + notified SEZs under the Act, 2005)

Andhra Pradesh

109

74

32

Chandigarh

2

2

1

Chhattisgarh

2

1

0

Delhi

3

0

0

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

3

1

0

Goa

7

3

0

Gujarat

45

29

13

Haryana

45

34

3

Himachal Pradesh

0

0

0

Jharkhand

1

1

0

Karnataka

57

36

20

Kerala

28

17

7

Madhya Pradesh

15

6

1

Maharashtra

104

63

16

Nagaland

2

1

0

Orissa

11

6

1

Puducherry

1

0

0

Punjab

8

2

0

Rajasthan

10

8

3

Tamil Nadu

71

57

22

Uttar Pradesh

33

20

6

Uttarakhand

3

2

0

West Bengal

22

11

5

GRAND TOTAL

582

374

130

Sector-wise Distribution of approved Special Economic Zones


Sectors

Formal approvals

Notified SEZs

Operational SEZs (Central Govt. + State Govt./Pvt. SEZs + notified SEZs under the Act, 2005)


Agro

6

4

0


Airport based multiproduct

3

0

0


Auto and related

3

1

1


Aviation/Aerospace/ Animation & Gaming/ Copper

3

2

2


Beach & mineral/ metals

2

2

0


Bio-tech

33

18

2


Building prod./mal./ transport equt.

1

1

2


Electronic prod/ind

3

3

1


Engineering

21

16

7


Footwear/Leather

7

5

2


Food Processing

5

4

2


FTWZ

11

6

0


Gems and Jewellery

13

6

3


Handicrafts & Carpets

4

2

2


IT/ITES/Electronic Hardware/Semiconductor

353

233

75



Metal/Stain. Steel/Alum/Foundry

9

5

0


Metallurgical Engineering

1

0

0


Multi-Product

23

15

16


Multi-Services/Services

16

8

0


Non-Conventional Energy

5

4

2


Plastic processing

0

0

0


Petrochemicals & petro.

4

2

0


Pharma/chemicals

23

20

5


Port-based multi-product

8

2

2


Power/alternate energy/ solar

3

1

1


Textiles/Apparel/Wool

19

12

5


Writing and printing paper mills

2

1

0


Strategic Manufacturing

0

0

0


Granite processing Industries and other allied machinery/ manufacturing

1

1

0


GRAND TOTAL

582

374

130


Sector-wise Exports during the financial year 2009-10

( In Rs. Crore)

Sl. No.

Sector

2009-10

1

Multi Product SEZs

144971.77

2

IT/ITES

52995.16

3

Pharmaceuticals

1505.74

4

Engineering

4165.45

5

Gem and Jewellery

14984.41

6

Handicraft

41.77

7

Auto and related items

226.07

8

Apparel/Textiles/Wool

625.36

9

Footwear and Leather Products

253.05

10

Food Processing

2.16

11

Biotechnology

456.48

12

Port Based

0.48

13

Animation & Gaming

0.45

14

Aluminium & Aluminium related Industries

8.78

15

Non-conventional Energy

450.03

16

Transport equipment

24.15


Total

220711.31

This information was given by Shri Jyotiraditya M Scindia, Minister of State for Commerce and Industry, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.