Monday, October 31, 2011


EXAM HELD ON : 29-10-2011                                                           


EXAM HELD ON 29-10-2011                                                           

Thursday, October 27, 2011

sushil kumar wins Rs. 5 crore jackpot on Kaun Banega Crorepati 5

KBC 5 has  got its first contestant to win ‘Kaun Banega Crorepati 5′. Sushil kumar from Bihar who is a computer operator and a tutor has won the jackpot amount of Rs 5 crore. Sushil Kumar earns Rs 6000 per month .the episode will be telecated on 2 November.Five months back, he got married.
 Sushil made wise moves while answering the questions. His deftness and presence of mind saw him cross all the hurdles until he got stuck at the thirteenth question, which was about the colonial power that withdrew its involvement from the Nicobar Island in 1968.
Sushil was doubtful about the answer so he made use of two of his lifelines – Phone a Friend and Double Dip – and came up with the answer that won him the dream amount. As a youngster, Sushil wanted to take the civil services exams. He wanted to come to Delhi and prepare for the exams. However, he could not do so as he was unable to afford the expensive coaching classes in the Capital. Now, after having won the bounty, Sushil plans to enroll himself at a prominent coaching institute in Delhi and start preparing for his dream job.

Saturday, October 22, 2011


The Human Development Index (HDI) in the country rose by 21% says a report while cautioning that health, nutrition and sanitation remained key challenges for India. India Human Development Report, 2011, prepared by Institute of Applied Manpower Research, placed Kerala on top of the index for achieving highest literacy rate, quality health services and consumption expenditure of people. Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Goa were placed at second, third and fourth position respectively.

The report was released on October 21 by Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia in the presence of Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh. It said, as on today, two-thirds of the households in the country reside in pucca (cemented) houses and three-fourth of families have access to electricity for domestic use. According to the report, India's HDI has registered an impressive gains in the last decade as the index increased by 21 per cent to 0.467 in 2007-08, from 0.387 in 1999-2000.

However, it noted that Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Assam are those states which continue to lag behind in HDI and remain below the national average of 0.467. At the same time, the quantum of improvement in HDI in some of the poor states was higher than the national average, the report said, citing the cases of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Assam. The overall improvement in the index was largely attributed to the 28.5 per cent increase in education index across the country.

It ranges from 0.92 for Kerala to 0.41 in the case of Bihar. The improvement in the education index was the "greatest" in states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh to name a few, the report said. The analysis also indicates that improvement in the health index, as compared to education, has been lower. It ranges from 0.82 in Kerala to 0.41 in Assam. It observed that despite the Right to Education Act, school education faces challenges of quality and employability. The report also said that despite improvements, health, nutrition and sanitation challenges are most serious.

Stating that open defecation was posing a serious threat to health and nutritional status, the report said even though half of the population had access to sanitation in 2008-09, there was still wide inter-state variation. It said 75% households in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Uttarakhand do not have toilet facilities. The report revealed even in Nirmal Gram Puraskar winning villages, toilets are often being used for storing, bathing and washing purposes. On the issue of right to food and nutrition, the Human Index Report revealed that calorie consumption has been declining and the intake of calories by poor are way below the recommended norm.

The report said Gujarat fares the worst in terms of overall hunger and nutrition among the industrial high per capita income states. The report also noted that "India is the worst performer in terms of low birth weight, underweight and wasting among children in BRIC and SAARC countries”. Reacting to the findings, Ramesh said increased focus should be laid on health and nutrition during the 12th Plan period even as he lauded the growth in the education sector. "On nutrition, I am puzzled as to why high rate of malnutrition continue to persist even in pockets of high economic growth," he said referring to findings of Gujarat. The minister said total expenditure on sanitation has been only one-tenth of the resources allocated for the water sector.

Ramesh attributed the positive growth in education to Central "interventions" like Sarva Sikshya Abhiyan and RTE. The report said between 2002-03 and 2008-09, there has been an improvement in condition of people's housing with 66% population residing in pucca housing. In rural areas, share of household in pucca houses has increased from 36% to 55%. It said a greater proportion of Muslims than the SCs and STs live in pucca houses due to their urban concentration. The report revealed that three-fourths of all households had access to electricity, with 75% households having access to electricity for domestic use. Insofar as tele-density was concerned, the report said it increased at an "impressive pace" over time from 22% in 2008 to 66% till December 2010, largely led by growth in urban tele-density.

It said good governance and social mobilisation by state governments was reflected by the fact that SCs and OBCs in Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala were better off than even the upper castes in Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh in terms of various health outcome indicators. The report also highlighted the fact that 60% of the poor were concentrated in states like Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It said though incidence of poverty declined over the years across states, the above said states performed much worse than others in terms of poverty reduction. Further, asset ownership both in urban and rural areas continued to be highly unequal and concentrated among top five per cent of households.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Monday, October 17, 2011










Friday, October 14, 2011

World Championships, 2011

The IAAF World Championships were held in Daegu, South Korea.

The United States led the team tally with 12 gold and 25 medals in all. Russia was next with nine gold and 19 total, followed by Kenya with seven gold and 17 in all. Jamaica took home nine medals—four of those gold—while Germany and Great Britain & Northern Ireland each won seven medals apiece.

Several multiple medallist emerged from the championships, with Kenyan Vivian Cheruiyot, who took top honors in the 5000 and 10,000m, the lone double champion.

Allyson Felix notched four medal finishes, a pair of golds in the Relays and individual silver (400m) and bronze (200m). Her compatriot Carmelita Jeter collected three, gold in the 100m, the 4x100m Relay, and silver in the 200m.

Jamaica's Yohan Blake won the world championships 100m final after red hot favourite and defending champion Usain Bolt sensationally false started. Bolt, running in lane five, went early, stunning a hugely expectant crowd in Daegu, who looked on shocked as the distraught superstar ripped off his shirt and held his head in disbelief before leaving the track.

Carmelita Jeter of the United States held off a strong field to claim gold in the women's 100m. Jeter, who won bronze at the last two world championships, was locked with defending champion Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce of Jamaica right through until the line.

American Brittney Reese successfully defended her world long jump title with her first and only legitimate jump of 6.82 metres. Reese was the first woman to successfully defend the world title since compatriot Jackie Joyner-Kersee in 1991 and her victory gave the United States their first medal of the championships.

In all, athletes from 41 countries took home medals.

The 2013 edition of the championships will be held in Moscow, Russia.

Switch from coal to natural gas no boon to climate

Relying more on natural gas than on coal would not significantly slow down the effects of climate change, even though direct carbon dioxide emissions would be less, a new study has found.

Burning coal emits far more climate-warming carbon dioxide than natural gas does, but it also releases lots of sulfates and other particles that block incoming sunlight and help cool the Earth.

Using more natural gas for fuel could also produce leaks of methane, a heat-trapping greenhouse gas more than 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide, study author Tom Wigley said in a statement.

A global, partial shift from coal to natural gas would speed up global warming slightly through at least 2050, even with no methane leaks from natural gas operations. If there were substantial methane leaks, the acceleration of climate change would continue through as late as 2140, according to Wigley's computer simulations.

PowerGrid to launch India’s first 1,200-Kv station

India’s power sector witnessed a new era in the transmission segment with the launch a 1,200-Kv ultra-high voltage (UHV) test station along with experimental lines in Bina, Madhya Pradesh, by State-run Power Grid Corp. The investment for the project is estimated at Rs 800 crore.

As of now, the power is being transmitted on 765Kv /800Kv lines. The existing 400Kv line can transfer about 600 Mw power, 800Kv line can do between 1,200 Mw and 2,400 Mw and 1,200-Kv transfer 6,000-8,000 Mw.

With the government’s plan of adding over 100,000 Mw capacity in the coming 12th Plan, coupled with the challenges put up by environment hurdles, right of way and transmission losses, there is a need to develop a more sound transmission system. About 35 manufacturers, including BHEL, Areva, Siemens and Sterlite have joined hands with PowerGrid to establish the 1,200kV test station. The test line in Bina is being constructed with two 1200kV test bays in which the leading manufacturers are providing main equipment such as transformers, surge arresters, circuit breakers, transformers among others. These test bays and test lines shall be used for various field trials initially.

The first 1,200kV system field was tested and commissioned in the former Soviet Union in 1985 after 12 years of research, which was discontinued after the disintegration of the Union. Then, Japan started developing a 1,000kV UHV system in 1978 and tests are still on. China started developmental work on a 1,100 kV UHV system in 2005 and a pilot project is presently under testing.

Space junk reaching "tipping point," report warns

The amount of debris orbiting the Earth has reached “a tipping point” for collisions, which would in turn generate more of the debris that threatens astronauts and satellites, according to a U.S. study.

NASA needs a new strategic plan for mitigating the hazards posed by spent rocket bodies, discarded satellites and thousands of other pieces of junk flying around the planet at speeds of 28,160 km per hour, the National Research Council said in the study.

The council is one of the private, non-profit U.S. national academies that provide expert advice on scientific problems.

Orbital debris poses a threat to the approximately 1,000 operational commercial, military and civilian satellites orbiting the Earth—part of a global industry that generated $168 billion in revenues in 2010, Satellite Industry Association figures show.

The world’s first space smash-up occurred in 2009 when a working Iridium communications satellite and a non-operational Russian satellite collided 788 km over Siberia, generating thousands of new pieces of orbital debris.

The crash followed China’s destruction in 2007 of one of its defunct weather satellites, as part of a widely condemned anti-satellite missile test.

The amount of orbital debris tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network jumped from 9,949 catalogued objects in December 2006 to 16,094 in July 2011, with nearly 20 percent of the objects stemming from the destruction of the Chinese FENGYUN 1-C satellite.

The surveillance network tracks objects approximately 10 centimetres in diameter and larger.

NASA’s GRAIL mission around moon

NASA's GRAIL mission to study the moon from crust to core successfully lifted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Pad SLC-17B on September 9, 2011.

The straight-line distance from Earth to the moon is about 402,336 kilometres. It took NASA’s Apollo moon crews about three days to cover that distance. Each of the GRAIL twin satellites will be taking about 30 times that , and covering more than 4 million kilometres to get there. This low-energy, high-cruise time trajectory is beneficial for mission planners and controllers, as it allows more time for spacecraft checkout. The path also provides a vital component of the spacecraft's single science instrument, the Ultra Stable Oscillator, to be continuously powered for several months, allowing it to reach a stable operating temperature long before beginning the collection of science measurements in lunar orbit.

GRAIL-A will enter lunar orbit on December 31, 2011, and GRAIL-B will follow the next day. When science collection begins, the spacecraft will transmit radio signals precisely defining the distance between them as they orbit the moon. Regional gravitational differences on the moon are expected to expand and contract that distance. GRAIL scientists will use these accurate measurements to define the moon’s gravity field. The data will allow mission scientists to understand what goes on below the surface of our natural satellite.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

PSLV-C18 puts four satellites in orbit

India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C18) demonstrated its reliability and consistency yet again when it put four satellites in orbit with aplomb on October 12.
The satellites were: Megha-Tropiques, an Indo-French mission to study the weather and climate in the tropical regions of the world; SRMSat, built by students of SRM University, near Chennai; Jugnu, put together by Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur students; and VesselSat from Luxembourg.
The fourth stage fired the four in orbit after 21 minutes of a flawless flight, the 19th consecutive success of the PSLV, prompting P.S. Veeraraghavan, Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, to brand it a “Perfect Satellite LaunchVehicle.”
K. Radhakrishnan, Chairman, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) called the flight “a grand success” and said the information received from the Megha-Tropiques satellite would be useful to the global community for measuring the precipitation in the tropical regions of the world. Twenty-one scientific teams from several countries would use the information for doing research on weather in the tropical countries.
S. Ramakrishnan, Director, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, ISRO, describing it as “a magnificent mission,” said: “Today, with the PSLV, we have an assured access to space. This is something that not many countries can boast of.”
There were patches of clouds above the spaceport as the PSLV-C18 soared from the seaside first launch pad at 11.01 a.m., after a delay of one minute. “We shifted the launch by a minute,” Dr. Radhakrishnan explained, to preclude the “probability of space debris,” smashing into the satellites.
T.K. Alex, Director, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, said space debris travelled at a velocity of eight km a second and so the ISRO did not want to take any chances.
The vehicle lifting majestically quickly disappeared into a bank of clouds. As it knifed out, it looked spectacular, riding on bright yellow flames and climbing nonchalantly into the sky. Clouds blanketed it again but it emerged, gathering velocity. The engines worked with clock-work precision, erupting into life on the dot and jettisoning into the Bay of Bengal after spending themselves out.
After the third stage burn-out, the fourth stage coasted on its own, without any power, that is, without firing. The vehicle was gaining altitude all the time Then, the two engines in the fourth stage started up, and 21 minutes after lift-off, the four satellites were shot into orbit one after the other, at a velocity of 26,000 km an hour.
Megha-Tropiques went into orbit at an altitude of 865 km against the targeted 867 km.


Group-II Services 2008 (11/2009 & 38/2008) are scheduled to be held on 15/10/2011 FN and 16/10/2011 FN & AN. 4.5 lakhs candidates have applied for the examination. The Examination is going to be held at all District Head Quarters at 1064 venues.

Downloading of Hall Tickets is in progress. For the first time in history of APPSC two important changes are being introduced from this examination.
1. The OMR Sheets have to bubbled only by Ball Point Pen (Blue or Black). Bubbling by pencil / Ink Pen / Gel Pen is not permitted in this examination.
2. OMR Sheets supplied to the candidates consist of two copies, the original copy and duplicate copy below. After completion of the examination the candidates should handover the original OMR Answer Sheet (top sheet) to the invigilator and carry the bottom sheet (duplicate) for his / her record.
3. The candidates are also informed under no circumstances should the candidate take away the main Answer Sheet and if he does so he will be disqualified.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Public Private Partnerships (PPP) in India

The most significant criteria for a continued growth rate of an economy is rests on the provision of a quality infrastructure. According to the Planning Commission, an approximation of 8 percent of the Gross Domestic Product or GDP needs to be invested. This would help in acquiring a prospective economy as stated in the 11th Five Year Plan. Fund investment of over US $ 494 billion has been conceived of according to the 11th Five Year Plan with effective from 2007 to 2012. The investment sectors under consideration are inclusive of telecommunications, electric power, water transport, road, rail, air, water supply as well as irrigation amounts to about Rs. 20,27,169 crore according to 2006-07 prices.

In order to meet such demands, various Public Private Partnerships or PPPs are being promoted for implementation of infrastructure projects. PPP is often described as a private business investment where 2 parties comprising government as well as a private sector undertaking form a partnership. The deficit can be overcome by ensuring much more private capital investment. Expert guidance is the only way out for enabling efficiency through subsequent reduction in cost.

Promotion of PPP is therefore necessary since its the most preferred mode. Despite of its benefits, there are some constraints too which can be summarized as:
  • Sufficient instruments as well as the ability to undertake long-term equity cannot be provided by the market in the present financial scenario. Also financial liability required by infrastructure projects would not be sufficed.
  • Most sectors face a lot of hindrance in enabling a regulatory framework as well as a consolidated policy. So its important to convert such policies into PPP friendly. To achieve the desires results, active participation of various state projects are essential.
  • Lack of ability of private sectors to fit into the risk of investing in diversified projects also needs to be overcome. Modernization of new airports, transmission systems and building power generating plants are some of the avenues which required skilled manpower.
  • Ability of public institutions to manage the PPP process should also be subdued. Maximizing the return of the stakeholders needs to be managed due to the involvement of long term deals including the life cycle of the asset infrastructure.
  • Lack of credibility of bankable infrastructure projects used for financing the private sector should also be overcome. Inconsistency is still visible in the limitations of PPP projects, despite of continued initiatives by States and Central ministries.
  • Inadequate support to enable greater acceptance of PPPs by the stakeholders forms another source of constraint.
Several initiatives have been undertaken by Government of India to enable a greater PPP framework in order to eradicate the above mentioned constraints. Various foreign as well as private investments by waving off charges are encouraged. Framing of standardized contractual documents for laying down the terminologies related to risks, liabilities and performance standards have been devised. Approval schemes for PPPs in the central sector has been streamlined through Public Private Partnership Appraisal Committee or PPPAC. A website has been launched for the purpose of virtual PPP market serves as an online database for PPP projects.


PPPs can only be mainstreamed by continuous response to the varying goal of people and economy in general. The boundary domains of PPPs should be increased in order to prosper the infrastructure development of India.

Public Private Partnership (PPP) Concept

“Public Private Partnership” (PPP) Partnership between a public sector entity (Sponsoring (PPP) authority) and a private sector entity (a legal entity in which 51% or more of equity is with the private partner/s) for the creation and/or management of infrastructure for public purpose for a specified period of time (concession period) on commercial terms and in which the private partner has been procured through a transparent and open procurement system

Traditionally, private sector participation has been limited to separate planning, design or construction contracts on a fee for service basis – based on the public agency’s specifications.
Expanding the private sector role allows the public agencies to tap private sector technical, management and financial resources in new ways to achieve certain public agency objectives such as greater cost and schedule certainty, supplementing in-house staff, innovative technology applications, specialized expertise or access to private capital. The private partner can expand its business opportunities in return for assuming the new or expanded responsibilities and risks.
PPPs provide benefits by allocating the responsibilities to the party – either public or private – that is best positioned to control the activity that will produce the desired result. With PPPs, this is accomplished by specifying the roles, risks and rewards contractually, so as to provide incentives for maximum performance and the flexibility necessary to achieve the desired results.

Some of the primary reasons for public agencies to enter into public-private partnerships include:
  • Accelerating the implementation of high priority projects by packaging and procuring services in new ways;
  • Turning to the private sector to provide specialized management capacity for large and complex programs;
  • Enabling the delivery of new technology developed by private entities;
  • Drawing on private sector expertise in accessing and organizing the widest range of private sector financial resources;
  • Encouraging private entrepreneurial development, ownership, and operation of highways and/or related assets; and
  • Allowing for the reduction in the size of the public agency and the substitution of private sector resources and personnel

                                            PPP Models in practice
There are range of PPP models that allocate a responsibilities and  risks between the public and private partners in different ways. The following terms are commonly used to describe typical partnership agreement.
(a)Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) : a contractual arrangement whereby the concessionaire undertakes the construction, including financing, of a given infrastructure facility, and the operation and maintenance thereof. The concessionaire operates the facility over a fixed term during which it is allowed to charge facility users appropriate tolls, fees, rentals, and charges not exceeding these proposed in its bid or as negotiated and incorporated in the contract to enable the concessionaire to recover its investment, and operating and maintenance expenses in the project. The concessionaire transfers the facility to the Government Agency or Local Government unit concerned at the end of the fixed term.
(b)Build-Own-Operate-and-Transfer (BOOT) : a project based on the granting of a concession by a Principal (the Union or Government or a local authority) to the concessionaire, who is responsible for the construction, financing, operation and maintenance of a facility over the period of the concession before finally transferring the facility, at no cost to the Principal, a fully operational facility. During the concession period the promoter owns and operates the facility and collects revenue in order to repay the financing and investment costs, maintain and operate the facility and make a margin of profit.
(c)Build-and-Transfer (BT) : a contractual arrangement whereby the concessionaire undertakes the financing and construction of a given infrastructure or development facility and after its completion turns it over to the Government Agency or Local Government unit concerned, which shall pay the proponent on an agreed Schedule its total investments expended on the project, plus a reasonable rate of return thereon. This arrangement may be employed in the construction of any infrastructure or development project, including critical facilities which, for security or strategic reasons, must be operated directly by the Government.
(d)Build-Own-and-Operate (BOO) : a contractual arrangement whereby a concessionaire is authorized to finance, construct, own operate and maintain an infrastructure or development facility from which the proponent is allowed to recover its total investment , operating and maintenance costs plus a reasonable return thereon by collecting tolls, fees, rentals or other charges from facility users.
(e)Build-Lease-and-Transfer (BLT) : a contractual arrangement whereby a concessionaire is authorized to finance and construct an infrastructure or development facility and upon its completion turns it over to the government agency or local government unit concerned on a lease arrangement for fixed period after which ownership of the facility is automatically transferred to the government agency or local government unit concerned.
(f)Build-Transfer-and-Operate (BTO) : a contractual arrangement whereby the public sector contracts out the building of an infrastructure facility to a private entity such that the concessionaire builds the facility on turn-key basis, assuming cost overrun, delay and specified performance risks. Once the facility is commissioned satisfactorily, title is transferred to the implementing agency. The private entity however, operates the facility on behalf of the implementing agency under an agreement
(g)Design Built Finance Operate (DBFO) : a contractual arrangement whereby the concessionaire is authorized to detailed design work, which will reduce time and money required for project preparation.  The states could then bid the project based on the Feasibility Report instead of the Detailed Project Report.  For this, appropriately drafted TOR for Feasibility Report consultants and also a Manual of Specification and Standard for BOT Projects needed to be adopted by the States.
(h)Contract-Add-and-Operate (CAO): a contractual arrangement whereby the concessionaire adds to an existing infrastructure facility which it is renting from the government. It operates the expended project over an agreed franchise period. There may, or may not be, a transfer arrangement in regard to the facility.
(i)Develop-Operate-and-Transfer(DOT) : a contractual arrangement whereby favourable conditions external to anew infrastructure project which is to be built by a private project proponent are integrated into the arrangement by giving that entity the right to develop adjoining property, and thus, enjoy some of the benefits the investment creates such as higher property or rent values.

(j)Lease Management Agreement : an agreement whereby the State Government, the government agency or the specified agency leases a project owned by the state government, the government agency, or, as the case may be, the specified government agency to the person who is permitted to operate and maintain the project for the period specified in the agreement.

Project Summary(Andhra Pradesh State Level)

Monday, October 10, 2011


The Nobel Prize in Physics
Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, Adam G. Riess
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Bruce A. Beutler, Jules A. Hoffmann, Ralph M. Steinman
The Nobel Prize in Literature
Tomas Tranströmer
The Nobel Peace Prize
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee, Tawakkul Karman
The Prize in Economic Sciences
Thomas J. Sargent, Christopher A. Sims

Fossils of Largest Cheetah Found in the Republic of Georgia

Scientists found the fossils of largest known cheetah which roamed the planet Earth thousands of years ago. Scientists discovered the fossils at a 1.8 million year old site in Dmanisi in the Republic of Georgia.  The cheetah is believed to be weighed about 110 kg, about double the weight of its modern cousin.

The area, where the discovery was made, was once a forested valley floor whose edges blurred into savanna and grasslands.

Chhattisgarh to have 9 New Districts, Taking the Total Number of Districts in the State to 27

Chhattisgarh will have 9 new districts with effect from January 2012, taking the  total number of districts in the state to 27. These districts will be Sukma, Kondagaon, Gariabandh, Balodabazar, Balod, Bemetera, Mungeli, Surajpur and Balrampur. 
This was announced by the  Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh on 15 August 2011 while addressing the people on the occasion of the Independence Day at the police parade ground in Raipur. This step will be a mile stone in the administrative history of the state.


In which country 2011 CLT20 tournament was held?

In which cities 2011 CLT20 matches were played?
Bangalore,Hyderabad and Chennai

Which 3 Indian teams qualified for the main tournament?
Mumbai Indians, Royal Challengers Bangalore and Chennai Super Kings

Which Indian team was knocked out in the Robin Round format of 2011 CLt20?
Kolkata Knight Riders

Who is leading Mumbai Indian team in CLT20 2011?
Harbhajan Singh

Which team were the defending champions?
Chennai Super Kings

Which team had scored the fastest hundred in 2011 CLT20 tournament?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB)

In how many overs RCB team scored the fastest hundred of the tournament?
8.4 overs

Which cricketer holds the record for most runs scored in a CLT20 tournament?
David Warner

Which cricketer had hit six on the last ball of the match to make team RCB qualify for 2011 CLT20 semifinal?
Arun Kartik

In which city the first semi final of 2011 CLT20 was played?

Which two teams played the first semifinal of 2011 CLT20 at Bangalore?
RCB and New South Wales

Which team won the first semifinal played at Bengaluru to qualify for 2011 CLT20 final?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB)

Which cricketer had hit 11 sixes in the first semifinal match against RCB?
David Warner

Who was awarded Man of the Match in first semifinal match played between RCB and NSW?
Virat Kohli for his knock of 84 runs in just 49 balls

In which city was CLT20 second semifinal played?

Which two teams played the second semifinal match of CLT20 2011?
Mumbai Indians and Somerset

Which team won the second semifinal match played at Chennai?
Mumbai Indians

Who was awarded the Man of the match in the second semifinal of 2011 CLT20?
Lasith Malinga for claiming 4 wickets

Which two Indian teams played the 2011 CLT20 final match?
Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) vs Mumbai Indians (MI)

On which date was 2011 CLT20 final match played?
9th October,2011

In which city was the CLT20 2011 final match held?

Who won the CLT20 2011 title?
Mumbai Indians

Who was awarded man of the match in CLT20 2011 finals?
Habhajan Singh

Who was awarded man of the series in CLT20 2011?

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Zonal Councils

The idea of creation of Zonal Councils was mooted by the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru in 1956 when during the course of debate on the report of the States Re-organisation Commission, he suggested that the States proposed to be reorganised may be grouped into four or five zones having an Advisory Council 'to develop the habit of cooperative working” among these States.  This suggestion was made by Pandit Nehru at a time when linguistic hostilities and bitterness as a result of re-organisation of the States on linguistic pattern were threatening the very fabric of our nation. As an antidote to this situation, it was suggested that a high level advisory forum should be set up to minimise the impact of these hostilities and to create healthy inter-State and Centre-State environment with a view to solving inter-State problems and fostering balanced socio economic development of the respective zones.


In the light of the vision of Pandit Nehru, five Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Re-organisation Act, 1956. The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:

    The Northern Zonal Council, comprising the States of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Chandigarh;
    The Central Zonal Council, comprising the States of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh;
    The Eastern Zonal Council, comprising the States of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim and West Bengal;
    The Western Zonal Council, comprising the States of Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and the Union Territories of Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli; and
    The Southern Zonal Council, comprising the States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.

The North Eastern States i.e. (i) Assam (ii) Arunachal Pradesh (iii) Manipur (iv) Tripura (v) Mizoram (vi) Meghalaya and (vii) Nagaland are not included in the Zonal Councils and their special problems are looked after by the North Eastern Council, set up under the North Eastern Council Act, 1972. The State of Sikkim has also been included in the North Eastern Council vide North Eastern Council (Amendment) Act, 2002 notified on 23rd December, 2002. Consequently, action for exclusion of Sikkim as member of Eastern Zonal Council has been initiated by Ministry of Home Affairs.


Each Zonal Council has set up a Standing Committee consisting of Chief Secretaries of the member States of their respective Zonal Councils. These Standing Committees meet from time to time to resolve the issues or to do necessary ground work for further meetings of the Zonal Councils. Senior Officers of the Planning Commission and other Central Ministries are also associated with the meetings depending upon necessity. :


(i)   Chairman
       The Union Home Minister is the Chairman of each of these Councils.
(ii)   Vice Chairman
        The Chief Ministers of the States included in each zone act as Vice-Chairman of the Zonal Council for that zone by rotation, each holding  office for a period of one year at a time.
(iii)   Members
        Chief Minister and two other Ministers as nominated by the Governor from each of the States and two members from Union Territories included in the zone.
(iv)   Advisers
        One person nominated by the Planning Commission for each of the Zonal Councils, Chief Secretaries and another officer/Development Commissioner nominated by each of the States included in the Zone;

Union Ministers are also invited to participate in the meetings of Zonal Councils depending upon necessity.


The Zonal Councils provide an excellent forum where irritants between Centre and States and amongst States can be resolved through free and frank discussions and consultations. Being advisory bodies, there is full scope for free and frank exchange of views in their meetings. Though there are a large number of other fora like the National Development Council, Inter State Council, Governor’s/Chief Minister’s Conferences and other periodical high level conferences held under the auspices of the Union Government, the Zonal Councils are different, both in content and character. They are regional fora of cooperative endeavour for States linked with each other economically, politically and culturally. Being compact high level bodies, specially meant for looking after the interests of respective zones, they are capable of focusing attention on specific issues taking into account regional factors, while keeping the national perspective in view.

The main objectives of setting up of Zonal Councils are as under :

    Bringing out national integration;
    Arresting the growth of acute State consciousness, regionalism, linguism and particularistic tendencies;
    Enabling the Centre and the States to co-operate and exchange ideas and experiences; and
    Establishing a climate of co-operation amongst the States for successful and speedy execution of development projects.


Each Zonal Council is an advisory body and may discuss any matter in which some or all of the States represented in that Council, or the Union and one or more of the States represented in that Council, have a common interest and advise the Central Government and the Government of each State concerned as to the action to be taken on any such matter.

In particular, a Zonal Council may discuss, and make recommendations with regard to,--

    any matter of common interest in the field of economic and social planning;
    any matter concerning border disputes, linguistic minorities or inter-State transport; and
    any matter connected with, or arising out of, the re-organisation of the States under the States Reorganisation Act.


As per Section 17(1) of States Re-organisation Act, each Zonal Council shall meet at such time as the Chairman of the Council may appoint in this behalf. Since their inception in 1957, the Zonal Councils have met 106 times. The last meetings of the Zonal Councils were held as under:

Name of the Council      Place of  meeting      Date of the meeting

 1.Eastern Zonal Council      Ranchi      30.05.2005

 2.Western Zonal Council      Panaji          20.09.2006

 3.Northern Zonal Council      Shimla      25.10.2005

 4.Southern Zonal Council      Hyderabad      12.02.2007

 5.Central Zonal Council      Bhopal      24.05.2005

Deliberations at Zonal Councils have led to important initiatives in regard to Internal Security, Coastal Security, Mega City Policing, Sharing of information on crime and criminals by the concerned states, Jail Reforms, Communal Harmony and the resolution of the socio-economic problems like trafficking in women and children, National Disaster Management and strengthening the preparedness for disaster management, implementation of Right to information Act, Implementation of National Employment Guarantee Bill, Coastal Secretary and Good Governance etc.


The Secretariat of the Zonal Councils has also been created by the statue itself. Section 19 of the States Re-organisation Act deals with the staff of Zonal Councils whereas Section 20 deals with office of the Council and its administrative expenses.

(i) Office of Zonal Councils:

As per Section 20(1) of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 the office of Zonal Council for each zone shall be located at such place within the zone as may be determined by the Council. However, since 1963, a single Secretariat looking after the affairs of all Zonal Councils is functioning from New Delhi. The Secretariat is located 9/11, Jamnagar House, New Delhi and functioning under administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs.

The Zonal Councils Secretariat explores centre-State, inter-State and zonal issues which are to be deliberated by the Councils or the Standing Committees. The Secretariat also follows up on the recommendations of the Councils/Standing Committees, if necessary drawing the attention of the Chairman and other Central Ministers/Chief Ministers.

(ii) Organisational set up of Zonal Council Secretariat

According to Section 19 (1) of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, each Zonal Council shall have a secretarial staff consisting of a Secretary, a Joint Secretary and such other officers as the Chairman may consider necessary to appoint

The Chief Secretaries of the States represented in such Zonal Councils act as the Secretary of the respective Council by rotation, holding office for a period of one year at a time.

The Joint Secretary of Zonal Councils is as a Director Level officer from All India Services or Central Secretariat Services.

Family Courts

The immediate reason for setting up of family courts was the mounting pressures from several women's associations, welfare organisations and individuals for establishment of special courts with a view to providing a forum for speedy settlement of family-related disputes. Emphasis was laid on a non-adversarial method of resolving family disputes and promoting conciliation and securing speedy settlement of disputes relating to marriage and family affairs.
In 1975, the Committee on the Status of Women recommended that all matters concerning the ‘family' should be dealt with separately. The Law Commission in its 59th report (1974) had also stressed that in dealing with disputes concerning the family, the court ought to adopt and approach radical steps distinguished from the existing ordinary civil proceedings and that these courts should make reasonable efforts at settlement before the commencement of the trial. Gender-sensitized personnel including judges, social workers and other trained staff should hear and resolve all the family-related issues through elimination of rigid rules of procedure. The Code of Civil Procedure was amended to provide for a special procedure to be adopted in suits or proceedings relating to matters concerning the family. However the courts continue to deal with family disputes in the same manner as other civil matters and the same adversary approach prevails. Hence a great need was felt, in the public interest, to establish family courts for speedy settlement of family disputes.
The Family Courts Act which was passed in 1984 was part of the trend of legal reforms concerning women. The President gave his assent to the Family Courts Act on September 14, 1984. The Act provides for a commencement provision which enables the Central Government to bring the Act into force in a State by
a notification in the Official Gazette, and different dates may be appointed for different States. This Act has 6 chapters under various heads such as Preliminary, Family Courts, Jurisdiction, Procedure, Appeals and Revisions and Miscellaneous.

The Family Courts Act, 1984 provides for establishment of Family Courts by the State Governments in consultation with the High Courts with a view to promote conciliation and secure speedy settlement of disputes relating to marriage and family affairs and for matters connected therewith. Under Section 3(1)(a) of
the Family Courts Act, it is mandatory for the State Governments to set up a Family Court for every area in the State comprising a city or a town whose population exceeds one million. In other areas of the States, the Family Courts may be set up if the State Governments deems it necessary. Following are the matters which can be filed in the Family Courts-
1. Decree for nullity of marriage
2. Restitution of Conjugal rights
3. Judicial Separation
4. Divorce
5. Declaration of marital status of any person
6. Matrimonial property matters
7. Claim of maintenance
8. Guardianship
9. Custody of children
10. Access of children
11. Application for injunction in matrimonial matters.

A scheme of Central financial assistance was started in 2002-03 for setting of Family Courts. As per the scheme Rs. 10 lakhs per court are provided by the Department of Justice for setting up of Family Courts with equal matching share from States. Under Non-Plan, funds to the tune of Rs. 5 lakh per court are provided for running expenditure of the Family Court. .

The Parliamentary Committee on Empowerment of Women has recommended that Family Courts may be set up in each district. All the State Governments/UT Administrations have been requested to set up Family Courts in each district.

 As per latest available information, 190 Family Courts have been set up in the country and a statement showing Number of Family Courts functioning in the States is enclosed.

S.No. Name of the State Total number of Family Courts
1. Andhra Pradesh - 8
2. Assam - 5
3. Bihar- 31
4. Chhattisgarh - 11
5. Delhi - 15
6. Gujarat - 7
7. Jammu & Kashmir - 1
8. Jharkhand - 6
9. Karnataka - 12
10. Kerala - 16
11. Madhya Pradesh - 7
12. Maharashtra - 18
13. Manipur - 2
14. Nagaland - 2
15. Orissa - 2
16. Pondicherry - 1
17. Punjab - 2
18. Rajasthan - 6
19. Sikkim - 1
20. Tamil Nadu - 6
21. Tripura - 3
22. Uttar Pradesh - 14
23. Uttaranchal - 7
24. West Bengal -7
Total - 190

Saturday, October 8, 2011


1. Consider the following statements :
1. India’s nuclear power generation is only about 1800 MW against an installed capacity of 4120 MW.
2. The present Indo-US Civil nuclear deal is valid for 40 years and extendable by another 10 years.
3. Out of its 22 operating /under construction nuclear facilities, India will place 14 under IAEA safeguard.
Which of the above statement is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) All of the above

2. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
(a) The Kyoto protocol has put in place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases.
(b) The three mechanisms are joint implementation, Emissions Trading and Clean develoment.
(c) These three mechanism are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of the globe will have the same desired effect on the atmosphere.
(d) None of the above

3. Consider the following statements :
1. The women’s reservation Bill (108th Amendment) a proposed legislation to reserve 33.3% of seats in Parliament and State legislature for women.
2. In case of seats reserved for SC-ST candidates, 33.3% would have to be reserved for women.
3. The reservation of seats is proposed to be on rotation basis, which means that the 33% seats reserved in one election would lease to be reserved in the next election.
4. The provision for reservation is proposed to be in place for 15 years.
Which of the above statement are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) All of the above

4. Consider the following statements :
1. Human Development Index is composed from statistics for life expectancy, education and standard of living.
2. These were devised and launched by pakistani Economist Mahbub-ul in 1990.
3. Human Poverty Index-1 represents a multidimensional alternative to the $1.25 a day poverty measure.

4. The millennium Development Goals(MDGs) are eight turnaround goals that provide concrete, numerical benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 4
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2, and 3
(d) All of the above

5. Which of the statement is incorrect regarding Nuclear Liability Bill 2010?
(a) The nuclear liability Bill 2010 is introduce to define nuclear incidents and nuclear damage, nuclear fuel, material and nuclear installations and also operators of nuclear installations.
(b) It creates authorities who will assess claims and distribute compensation in case of nuclear damage.
(c) The Bill States that the total liability for nuclear incident shall not exceed the rupee equivalent of 300 million special Drawing Rights (Approximately Rs. 2100 crore at current exchange rates.)
(d) The nuclear damage claims commission would be chaired by prime minister of India.

6. Consider the following statements regarding
Common Wealth Games :
1. The Commonwealth Games are a unique, world class, multi-sport event held once every four years amongst the member countries and territories of the Commonwealth.
2. The three core value of the commonwealth games are humanity, equality and destiny.
3. The Commonwealth Games Federation has 71 member nations and territories called Commonwealth Games Association which include India.
4. The Commonwealth Games formerly known as the British Empire Games, were first held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 4
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 3 and 4
(d) All of the above

7. Consider the following statements regarding Commonwealth Games :
1. Queen’s Baton Relay is first started in 1958 in Cardiff, Wales and has since then been the curtain raiser to every Commonwealth Game.
2. The Queens Baton Relay 2010 Delhi started from Buckingham Palace on 29 October, 2009 and end 340 days later at the opening ceremony of the XIX commonwealth Games 2010 Delhi on 3 October 2010.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

8. Consider the following statements regarding Direct
Tax Code :
1. In the Union Budget 2005-06, the Government had announced its intention to revise, simplify, rationalize and consolidate laws and procedure relating to direct taxes.
2. Direct tax include income tax, dividend distribution tax, fring benefit tax and wealth tax.
Which of the above statements is/ae correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

9. The Government has constituted a unique Identification Authority of India as an attached office under?
(a) Home Ministry
(b) Planning commission
(c) Prime Minister Office
(d) Human Resource Development Ministry

10. Consider the following statements :
1. Some 600 million Indians do not have access to electricity and about 700 million Indian use biomass as their primary energy resource for cooking and ensuring life line.
2. since India is short of uranium, the first phase plants cannot exceeds 10,000MW unless imported uranium is available.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

11. The Integrated Energy policy report is bought out by?
(a) Ministry of petroleum and Natural Gas.
(b) Ministry of power.
(c) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
(d) Planning Commission.

12. Consider the following statements regarding India’s Energy Security.
1. The Integrated energy policy report estimates
that in an 8% GDP growth Scenario, India’s total commercial energy requirments would be in the range of 1514mtoe (million tones of oil equivalen)t to 1856 Mtoe by 2031.
2. TERI estimates indicate an import dependency of 78% for coal, 91% for oil and 34% for gas by year 2031.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

13. Which of the statement is incorrect regarding Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuti Karan Yojna (RGGVY).
(a) RGGVY was launched in 2005.
(b) It aim for electrification of about 1.15 lakh unelectrified villages.
(c) To provide free electricity connection to 2.34 crore Below Poverty House hold (BPL).
(d) The target year of achieving these targets is 2015.

14. Consider the following statements :
1. Lighting a Billion lives compaign aims to bring light into the live of one billion rural people by replacing the Kerosene and Paraffin lanterns with solar lighting devices.
2. Over 1.6 billion people in the World lac access to electricity, roughly 25% are in India alone.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

15. Consider the following statements regarding biofuels in India.
1. In the National Biofuel policy the Government of India has set a target of a minimum 20% ethanol blended petrol and diesel across the country by 2017.
2. Biofuel development in India centers mainly around the cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds to give biodiesel and producing ethanol from Sugarcane.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

16. Consider the following statements :
1. India’s forest cover accounts for 20.6% of the total geographical are of the country as of 2005.
2. Estimates show that the annual CO2 removals by India’s forest and tree cover is enough to neutralize 11.25% of India’s total GHG emissions (CO2 equivalent) at 1994 levels.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

17. Which of the statement is incorrect?
(a) India has the 2nd largest arable land (184 million hectares) in the world.
(b) India also has the third largest irrigated land (55 million hectares) in the world.
(c) India is the largest producer of wheat (72 million tones) accounting for nearly 15% of global wheat production.
(d) India is also the largest producer of pulses (15 million tones) according for nearly 21% of global pulse production.

18. The largest livestock population in the world is in which country?
(a) India
(b) China
(c) Pakistan
(d) USA

19. Which of the statement is incorrect?
(a) India is the largest producer of milk (90 million tones).
(b) India is the largest producer of tea, accounting for nearly 28% of the global tea production.
(c) India is the largest producer of rice (92 million tones) accounting for nearly 22% of global rice production.
(d) India is the second largest producer of fruits
(50 million tones) and vegetables (100 million tones).

20. Which country is the largest producer of world’s best basmati rice?
(a) India
(b) Pakistan
(c) China
(d) Bangladesh

21. Consider the following statements.
1. India is the second largest producer of Sugarcane, accounting for nearly 21% of the global sugarcane production.
2. India is the largest producer and exporter of spices.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
22. Who was headed the National knowledge commission (NKC) that have dealt with various issues affecting the higher education system in the country?
(a) Sam Pitroda
(b) Professor Yashpal
(c) Kapil Sibbal
(d) Professor B. K. Pal

23. Consider the following statements.
1. Indian economy in terms of purchasing power parity with an equivalent GDP of US $3.666 trillion is the fourth largest economy in the world after USA, China and Japan.
2. In US dollar terms, it is the twelfth largest economy in the world.
3. The Indian economy is expected to grow with more than or about 5% growth till 2050 as projected by BRIC report.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of the above

24. Consider the following statements :
1. Agriculture in India accounts for 52% of employment 12% of national export and 17.8% of GDP.
2. As per the 2001 census India has a BPL population of roughly 260 million and 300 million school droup out in the age group of 6 to 16.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor2

25. Consider the following statements :
1. According to the 11th five year plan document, only 2% existing workshop in India has skill training, while in Korea it is 90%.
2. Government has set a target of creating 500 million skilled person by 2022.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

26. Match the following :
List-I (Project) List-II (State)
A. Akshay 1. Karela
B. Bhoomi 2. Karnataka
C. Digital Gangetic Plane 3. Uttar Pradesh
D. Drishtee 4. Haryana and Punjab
Codes :
     A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 2 3 1
(d) 4 1 3 2

27. Match the following :
List-I (Project) List-II (State)
A. E-Choupal 1. Punjab
B. Gyandoot 2. Andhra Pradesh
C. Rural e-seva 3. Madhya Pradesh
D. TARA haat 4. Karnataka
Codes :
      A B C D
(a) 4 3 2 1
(b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 4 2 1 3
(d) 3 4 1 2

28. Consider the following statements :
1. Tourism sector accounts for 5.92% of India’s GDP, provides employment to 49.8 million people.
2. AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
29. Sasan, Tilaiyadam and Krishnapatnam, Ultra Megha Power Project is constructed by which company?
(a) Reliance Power
(b) Tata Power
(c) NTPC
(d) NHPC

30. Match the following :
List-I (UMPP) List-II (States)
A. Sasan 1. maharastra
B. Sunderharh 2. Madhya Pradesh
C. Mundra 3. Gujrat
D. Girye     4. Orissa
Codes :
     A B C D
(a) 2 3 4 1
(b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 2 4 3 1
(d) 4 1 2 3

31. Match the following :
List-I (UMPP) List-II (States)
A. Tadri                   1. Karnataka
B. Krishnapatnam    2. Andhra Pradesh
C. Akal tara             3. Chattisgarh
Codes :
     A B C
(a) 1 2 3
(b) 3 2 1
(c) 2 3 1
(d) 1 3 2

32. Match the following :
List-I (E-Government  List-II (State)
A. Akashganga             1. Maharastra
B. Tata Kisan Sansars   2. Himachal Pradesh
C. Gyandoot               3. Madhya pradesh
D. Lokmitra                 4. Gujrat
Codes :
     A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 1 3 2
(d) 4 2 3 1

33. Which company has the largest market share in the Indian mobile market?
(a) Bharti Airtel
(b) Vodafone
(c) Idea
(d) Reliance

34. In India the game of snakes and Ladders was created in the 13th century by?
(a) Poet Kalidas
(b) Saint Gyandev
(c) Poet Surdas
(d) Poet Tulsidas

35. Consider the following statements :
1. Governments has set a target for providing mobile coverage to 90% geographical area and setting up 500 million connections by the year 2010.
2. The India Telecommunication network with 430 million connection is the third largest in the world.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

1. (d) 11. (d) 21. (c) 31. (a)
2. (d) 12. (c) 22. (a) 32. (c)
3. (d) 13. (d) 23. (d) 33. (a)
4. (d) 14. (c) 24. (c) 34. (b)
5. (d) 15. (c) 25. (c) 35. c)
6. (d) 16. (c) 26. (a)
7. (d) 17. (b) 27. (a)
8. (c) 18. (a) 28. (c)
9. (b) 19. (c) 29. (a)
10. (c) 20. (a) 30. (c)