Friday, July 8, 2011
Constitution Assembly - Facts to remember
The constituent assembly was formed on the recommendation of the Cabinet Mission which visited India in 1946.
The Constituent Assembly met for the first time in New Delhi on 9 December, 1946 in the Constitution Hall which is now known as the Central Hall of Parliament House.
Mr. Sachchidanand Sinha was elected provisional chairman of the assembly.
Dr Rajendra Prasad later became the permanent chairman of the constituent assembly.
Dr. BR Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee of the constituent assembly.
The Constituent Assembly took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days to be precise) to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India.
India is governed in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted on 26 November, 1949 and the hon'ble members appended their signatures to it on 24 January, 1950.
The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January, 1950. On that day, the Constituent Assembly ceased to exist, transforming itself into the Provisional Parliament of India until a new Parliament was constituted in 1952
Important Articles of Indian Constitution
Article 12 –35 Specify the Fundamental Rights available
Article 36-50 Specify the Directive Principles of state policy
Article 51A Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen
Article 80 Specifies the number of seats for the Rajya Sabha
Article 81 Specifies the number of seats for the Lok Sabha
Article 343 Hindi as official language
Article 356 Imposition of President’s Rule in states
Article 370 Special status to Kashmir
Article 395 Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935
Facts to remember on Indian Constitution
Indian constitution contains 395 articles in Parts I to XXII, 12 schedules and an appendix to Part IX
First schedule contains the list of states and union territories and their territories
Fourth Schedule contains the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha
Fifth Schedule contains provisions about administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes.
Seventh Schedule contains the Union list, State list and the concurrent list.
Eighth Schedule contains the list of recognised languages.
Important Age Limits
Description Age Limit
Minimum age for election to the post of President/Vice-President/Governor 35 years
Minimum age for election as MP (Lok Sabha)/MLA 25 years
Minimum age for election as MP (Rajya Sabha)/MLC 30 years
Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of Supreme Court, Attorney General, Comptroller General 65 years
Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of High court/ Advocate General 62 years
Minimum age limit for employment in a factory 14 years
Minimum marriage for a male 21 years
Minimum marriage for a female 18 years.
Important Durations in Indian Constitution
Maximum interval between two sessions of Parliament Six months
Maximum life of Presidential Ordinance Six months
Maximum duration for which President’s rule can be imposed in a state Six months extendable upto a maximum of three years
Time after which money bill passed by Lok Sabha is deemed to have been passed by Rajya Sabha when no action is taken by it 14 days
The duration for which the term of a Parliament can be extended while a proclamation of emergency is in operation 1 year at a time
73 Introduction of Panchayati Raj
74 Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities
52 Defection to another party after election made illegal
61 Voting age reduced to 18
71 Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali added as languages in the Eighth Schedule
21 Sindhi added as language in the 8th schedule
42 Fundamental Duties prescribed
8,23,45,62 and 79 Extension of reservation of seats
86 Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years
The 42nd amendment was the most comprehensive amendment which had 59 clauses and carried out so many changes that it has been described as a “Mini Constitution”.
The 52nd amendment was the only amendment to be unanimously adopted by the Parliament.