NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTING
GDP: It in the money value of all the final goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the country during a given period of time.
GNP: It refers to the money value of total output or production of find goods and service produced by the nationals of a country during a given period of time.
GDP Deflator: The ratio of nominal to real GDP.
GDP Deflator = Nominal GDP/Real GDP.
Producers Price Index: it is the cost incurred by the producer in producing single unit in terms of GDP. It does not include any indirect taxes. It is used as early warming. It is having effect on the consumer price.
Blue Book: An annual digest published by the UK office of National Statistics containing the national income and expenditure statistics of the UK.
PLANNING IN INDIA
Open economy: Capitalist or mixed/progressive capitalist economy.
Plan Holidays: It refers to a period which is not covered in any five year plan (period between 1966 to 69 i.e. between 3rd and 4th Five Year Plan).
Inclusive Grown: Faster economic growth is also transferring into more inclusive growth, both in terms of employment generations and poverty reduction.
Export Pessimism: It happens when the government in not confident of getting sufficient amount of exports to finance its imports. India followed during the earlier days of planning era.
Investment Led Growth: It is growth of which a major portion of demand comes from investment. India is facing balanced growth.
Export Led Growth: When exports are a major reason of growth. China and ASEAN tigers are facing export- led growth.
ICOR: Incremental Capital Output Ratio: It refers to the units of capital that have to be employed for raising one unit of output.
Merit Goods: A commodity, the consumption of which is regarded as socially desirable irrespective of consumer's preferences. Governments are readily prepared to suspend consumer's sovereignty by subsidizing the provision of certain goods and services.
White Goods: White goods are luxury goods. After the economic reforms consumption of white goods increased in India, it gives more tax benefit to government.
Wage Goods Strategy: It is a strategy in which the society gives more importance the production of basic necessity like food, shelter and health care. It is contrast with heavy industry.
Competition Act: In 1980, the aforesaid act was passed to withdraw all such restrictions to that retarded competition, so as to encourage a better and effective utilization of the sources and to lower the cost of production and to raise the quality of the produce.
Washington Consensus: It is given by John Williamson in 1989. It gives a prescription on various measures on which developing countries have to take in order to grow in a faster way. The measure includes fiscal policy reform, monitory policy reforms.
MONEY & BANKING
Credit Control: By credit control we mean to regulate the volume of credit created by banks in India. It is the principal function of Reserve Bank of India. The basic objective of credit control mechanism is to realize both price stability and exchange stability in the economy. RBI uses two types of methods to control credit: (i) Quantitative Methods, and (ii) Qualitative Methods.
Quantitative Measures are used to control the volume of credit or indirectly to control inflationary and deflationary pressures caused by expansion and contraction of credit. These are also known as general credit measures. These consist of Bank Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Statutory Liquidity Ratio and Open Market Operations.
Qualitative Measures are used to control the quantum as well as purpose for which credits are given by banks. RBI uses measures like Publicity, Rationing of Credit, Regulation of consumer credit, Moral suasion and Variation in margin requirement for qualitative credit control.
Bank Rate: Bank rate is the rate at which the RBI is prepared to buy or rediscount eligible bills of exchange or other commercial papers. In simple words, bank rate is the rate at which RBI extends advices (Credit) to commercial banks. A change in the bank rate will result in a change in the prime lending rate of banks and thus act as an independent instrument of monetary control. At present it is 6.0%.
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR): Cash reserve ratio is the cash parked by the banks in their specified current account maintained with RBI. In other words, it is the percentage of deposit (both demand and time deposit) which a bank has to keep with the RBI. RBI is empowered to vary the CRR between 3% to 15%. The purpose of reducing CRR is to leave large cash reserve with banks so as to enable them to expand bank credit. Similarly increasing of CRR means squeezing the cash reserve of the banks and limits their credit providing capacity. At present CRR is 6.0%.
Statutory liquidity Ratio (SLR): Statutory liquidity ratio is the liquid assets commercial banks maintain with the RBI in the form of cash (book value), gold (current market value) and balances in unencumbered approved securities. At present SLR is 25% of the total demand and time deposit liabilities of the bank. However, RBI can change SLR from time to time. Both CRR and SLR reduce or increase the capacity to expand credit to business and industry. Thus both of these are anti-inflationary.
Open Market Operations (OMO): The buying and selling of eligible securities in the money market by RBI for the purpose of curtailing or expanding the volume of credit. By selling securities the RBI can absorb funds, and buying the securities can release funds also into the market. The purpose of OMO is to influence the volume of cash reserves with the commercial banks and thus influence the volume of loans and advances they can make to the industrial and commercial sector.
Selective Credit Controls: Under the Banking Regulation Act 1949, section 21 empowers RBI to issue directives to the banking companies regarding their advance in order to check speculation and rising prices. The controls are selective as they are used to control and check the rising tendency of price and hording of certain individual commodities of common use. However, while imposing selective control, RBI takes care that bank credit for production and transportation of commodities and exports is not affected. These are mainly focused on credit to traders who use such credit for financing hoarding and speculation. Since 1956-57 RBI is employing this method.
Prime Lending Rate (PLR): It is rate of interest of which commercial banks lend to their prime high profile blue chip corporate borrowers. (From 1990’s banks are free to determine PLR).
Repo Rate: Repurchasing option is traded in this market for a short time periods. Repo is Repurchasing by RBI.
Priority Sector Lending: It is lending to some particular sector at lower interest rate. RBI orders all public sector banks to give 18% of credit to priority sector.
Market Stabilization Scheme: It is a scheme under which RBI buys and sells Government of India securities in order to control liquidity.
Money in Circulation: Money in use to finance current transactions as distinct from idle money.
Investment Bank: A Bank that provides long term fixed capital for industry, generally by taking up shares in limited companies.
Regional Rural Bank: It was established in 1975 under the provision of RRB Act 1976, with a view to develop rural economy.
Lead Banking Scheme: Under this scheme all the nationalized banks and few private sector banks were allowed specially and were asked to play the “Lead Role”. The lead banks act as a leader to bring about co-ordination of cooperative banks, commercial banks and other financial institutions in their respective demises to bring about rapid economic development.
Call Money: It is a loan that is made for a very short period i.e. for a few days only or for duration of a week. It carries a low rate of interest. In case of a stock exchange market, the duration of call money may be for a fortnight.
LIBOR: London Inter- Bank Offered Rate. An interest rate at which banks can bestow funds, in marketable size, from other banks in London inter- bank market.
MIBOR: Mumbai Inter Banking Operative Rate.
Capital Deepening: It occurs when capital to LIBOR ratio increase in a country, it helps in economic development of the country.
BASEL II: This norms assess the need for risk capital and replaces the minimum 9% capital adequacy norm under BASEL-I. BASEL II enables greater transparency and banks will evaluate themselves.
CAMELS: Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings Liquidity and Systems.
Capital Adequacy Ratio: It is the ratio of total capital fund of a bank to its risk weighted assets. It is an indicator of banks financial health.
Asset Reconstruction Company: Takes over the NPA of banks or financial institutions at cheaper rate, reconstruct it and sells it and makes profit out of it. This helps in clearing the balance sheet of banks.
Universal Banking: It is a banking scheme given by Khan Committee according to which conduction of all financial activities under one roof by a bank or financial institution. In other words, this means integration of roles of bank and other development banks.
Service Area Approach: Under this scheme, branches of commercial banks were allotted certain specific semi-urban and rural areas. These branches were made more responsible for overall development of prescribed areas. It was implemented in 1989.
Merchant Banking: It is an activity under which a bank take up portfolio management (Banks advising their clients about management of fund) as well as banker to the issue of the company.
Greshem’s Law: Bed money (Black Money) pushes good money (White Money) out of circulation.
Bank of International Settlement: Based in Switzerland, gives the statement of international monetary transactions. It is the one which gives CAMELS, BASEL
Demonetization: It takes place, when the society starts using less of currency for transaction with deepening of the financial system.
Tied Loan: A loans made on condition that certain purchases are made from the Lender.
Over Heating of Economy: When the supply is not able to keep phase with demand, it is as called over heating of economy. It leads to inflation and shortage goods.
Cost-push Inflation: General prices of goods and services in the economy rises due to an increase in production cost. Such types of Inflation are caused by three factors (i) an increase in wages, (ii) an increase in profit and (iii) imposition of heavy tax.
Demand- pull inflation: The most common cause of inflation is the pressure of ever-rising demand on a less rapidly increasing supply of goods and services. The expansion in aggregate demand may be the result of rapidly increasing private investment and/or spending government money for war or for economic development.
Stagflation: Stagflation occurs when inflation rises while output is either falling or at least not rising.
Structural Inflation: When there is a short supply the commodity, prices rise rapidly. It is temporary structure shortage in economy. It is also called bottleneck inflation.
Headline Inflation: It is an inflation which appears in headlines. It does not reflect the core inflation.
Under Lying Inflation: Measure of headline inflation after the removal of volatile items.
Core inflation: This nomenclature is based on the inclusion or exclusion of the goods and services while calculating inflation.
Hyperinflation (or) Galloping Inflation: The main feature of Hyper-Inflation is that money looses almost all of its value. Prices rise to fantastic levels, and the velocity of circulation becomes enormous. Money looses value so rapidly that people are unwilling to hold it for more a few moments.
Fiscal Drag: The effect of inflation upon effective tax rate. In other words, fiscal drag is directly related to inflation and tax rates.
Inflation Targeting: It is the goal of RBI, where RBI focuses as its main goal a particular band of inflation. This helps in expectation building by economic agents.
Administered Price Mechanism: In which the government decides the price of scarce goods and sell them at price less then the cost of its purchase and bears the burden.
Phillips Curve: The relationship between the percentage change of money wage and the level of unemployed is called as Phillips curve. The lower the unemployment, the higher will be the rate of change of wages.
Taylor Rule: A simple rule for setting interest rates with a view to keeping inflation stable.
Zero Coupon Bonds: Zero Coupon Bonds (also called as pure discount bonds) are bonds that pay no periodic interest payments or so called ‘Coupens’. Zero coupon bonds are purchased at a discount from their value at maturity. The holder of a Zero Coupon bond is entitled to receive a single payment, usually of a specified sum of money at a specified time in future. Investors earn interest via difference between the discounted price of the bond and its par (or redemption) value.
Undated Securities: Securities not bearing a redemption date or option.
Tap Issue: An issue of treasury bills to government departments and others at a fixed price stand, without going through the market, as distinct from a tender issue.
Buy Back of Shares: Various individuals, financial institutions, directors of the company, hold company shares. This indicates the ownership of the company, when a company is allowed to buy-back its shares. It means it is increasing its ownership.
Penny Stocks: Penny stocks are securities or stocks which are sold by smaller new companies. They are generally sold because companies are seeking money for expansion, basic operations, and even for the commencement of business.
Participatory notes: These are notes issued by FIIs and some of the Indian based foreign banks.
GDR/ADR: Global Deposit Receipts (GDR) are popularly known as Euro issues i.e. shares of Indian companies sold in the European market. When these shares of Indian companies are sold in the US capital market they are called as American Deposit Receipts (ADR).
Black-Sholes Formula: A formula used to establish a fair price for options in financial markets.
Swap: A transaction in which securities of a certain value are sold to a buyer in exchange for the purchase from the buyer of securities having the same value. The purpose being to obtain an improvement, in the eyes of either of the parties, in the quality of the security or to anticipate a change in yield. Currency as well as securities are swapped in this way.
Screen Based Book- where securities are auctioned through an anonymous screen based system, and the price of which securities are sold is discovered in screen. This eliminates the delays, risks and implementation difficulties associated with traditional procedures.
ESOP: Employee Stock Option.
Market Capitalisation: Total value of the equity in the present market price is called market capitalization.
Hedge Funds: They are basically private investment pools for wealthy, financially sophisticated investors. Traditionally they have been organized as partnership, with the general partner managing the fund’s portfolio.
Mutual Funds: Funds set up on the principal of pooled risk and pooled resources with the purpose of giving them the benefits of share market without exposing individually to the volatility of share market.
Venture Capital: Risk capital is called venture capital.
Sovereign Wealth Fund: It is state owned fund composed of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, property or other financial investment.
Futures: Contracts made in a future market for the purchased or sale of commodities on a specified future data. Futures provide a convenient mechanism for holding market risk. Future market forms an important part of many organized commodity exchange or market.
NCDEX: National Commodity Derivatives Exchange. It is the largest commodity futures exchange.
Forward Market Commission: It is a regulatory body for commodity futures, and forward trade in India. It was set up under Forward Contract (Regulation) Act 1952. It’s headquarter is in Mumbai.
CARE: Credit Analysis and Research Ltd. It was started in November 1993. It was set up by IDBI.
ICRA: Investment Information and Credit Rating Agents of India Limited. It was established in 1991. It primarily rates short, medium and long debt instruments. But, since 1995 it has been doing equity rating also.
Voting Shares: Equity shares entitling holders to vote in the election of directors of a company. Normally all ordinary shares are voting shares, but sometimes a company may create a class of non-voting ordinary shares.
Tobin Tax: The tax foresighted by James Tobin. It is a tax that should be imposed on portfolio capitals, so that when a foreign investor wants to take out this investment he has to pay tax, which is expected to discourage the tendency to move from one country to another in search of quick gains.
Factoring: The business in which, a firm takes over the collection of trade debts on behalf of others, thereby enabling them to obtain insurance against bad debts. It is a service primarily intended to meet the needs of small and medium-size firms. The procedure is for the factoring company to buy up its client’s invoices and then itself claim payment of them.
Underwriting: Underwriting is the business of insuring against risk.
Counter Guarantee: It is given by an economic agent, another agent will oblige the contract signed with the 3rd party.
NSDL: It is the first registered depository in India set up in November 1996 and has been promoted by IDBI, UTI and NSE.
CDSL: Central Depository Services Limited.
Sub- Prime Loans: It is also called as ‘B’ loans or second chance loans. These are loans originated to borrowers who do not qualify for market interest rates because of problems in their credit history.
Derivative Trading: It is trading on claims, on claims on real producers.
Currency Future: Where in a contract in made between two parties, in which a party agrees to buy or sell a fixed amount of currency at fixed foreign exchange at a later date. It reduces currency volatility rise for both the parties.
Insider Trading: When insider (managers, directors, others) have more information of the companies performance than the external share holders. And they use it to make a profit is called insider trading. It is banned in India by SEBI.
Multi Commodity Exchange (MCE): The trading happening in papers instead of commodities in physical. The largest MCX is in Ahmedabad.
Arbitrage: The act of buying a currency or a commodity in one market and simultaneously selling it for a profit in another market.
Badla: A carrying forward mechanism wherein only some margin is paid for shared, by the delivery of share and settlement could be carried forward for up to two weeks.
Non Tax Receipts: It is revenue receipts of government of India from social services and taxes like dividend from PSU’s, interest on loan given to states and other agencies, fees provided for services etc.
Capital Receipts: Receipts on which the government has repayment obligations: e.g. government borrowing, disinvestment proceeds etc.
Non Debt Capital Receipts: The capital receipts of Government of India agencies which are non debt in nature like selling of PSU’s and foreign aids.
Social Overhead Capital: The capital where the emphasis is on the capital assets that provide the services: house, bridges, roads, railways, school etc.
Primary Deficit: Primary deficit = Fiscal deficit – interest payment. Fiscal deficit is budgetary deficit + market borrowings and other liabilities of the government of India.
Monetized Deficit: The budget deficit can be financed in two ways either borrowing from the public or by borrowing from the RBI. When it is financed through borrowing from the RBI, it is called monetized deficit. In other word, it is increase in the net RBI credit to the Government.
Zero Base Budget: A technique where the budget of each ministry is prepared assuming that there was no budget in the previous years.
Outcome Budget: As par the promise of the annual budget 2005-06 Finance Ministry has come out with an outcome Budget. This will ensure good governance. In simple words, it provides outcome for expenditure provides for in the Budges for a fiscal.
Performance Budget: It emphasizes on the purpose at expenditure rather than the expenditure itself. It presents budget in terms of functions, programmes, activities and projects.
Dalit Budgeting: It is like that of gender budgeting wherein an analysis made on how much resources are allocated for the deprived section in planning, implementation and post-implementation analysis.
Tax Base: The quantity or coverage of what is taxed.
Tax Avoidance: Arranging one's financial affairs within the law so as to minimize taxation liabilities as opposed to tax evasion, which is failing to meet actual tax liabilities through, for example not declaring income or profit.
Specific Tax: It is a tax imposed on the basis of quantity i.e. volume or weight etc. of a commodity.
Advalorem: In this case the duty is imposed on the basis of value of the product.
VAT: Value Added Tax is a multi-point destination based system of taxation, with tax being levied on value addition in each stage of transaction in the production chain.
Turnover Tax: A tax levied as a proportion of the price of a commodity on each sale in the production and distribution chain all so called as cascade tax. Such a tax encourages vertical integration.
Fringe Benefit: Fringe benefits are the low or no tax benefits that companies offer to attract employees in addition to the normally taxed salaries, such as free transportation, health cover etc.
Goods and Services Tax: Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a part of the proposed tax reforms that center round evolving an efficient and harmonized consumption tax system in the country. Presently there are parallel systems of indirect taxation at central and state levels. Each of the systems needs to be reformed to eventually harmonize team.
CENVAT: In Union Budget 200-01 major overhaul at the central excise system was undertaken with innovation of a uniform 16% basic Central Value Added Tax (CENVAT) at production stage.
MODVAT: Tax is levied on final goods and tax on inputs and intermediate goods was abolished. This amended system excluded the possibilities of Double Taxation. It was introduced on the recommendation of L.J. Jha Committee in 1976.
MAT (Minimum Alternative Tax): Normally a company is liable to pay tax on income computed in accordance with the provisions of the IT Act but the profit and loss account of the company is prepared as per provisions of the Company Act. It is called MAT.
Exempt-Exempt Tax: The contributors will be excluded from income for tax purpose; the accruals will also be exempted from tax; and only the terminal benefits will be at the applicable rare in year or receipt.
Presumptive Tax: It refers to the use of appropriate indicators of income, wealth, etc. Instead of actual records of the tax bases. In case of income tax, a presumptive tax is imposed on the basis of an estimated taxable income.
Wind Fall Tax/ Super Profit Tax: Tax on sudden profit or high profit i.e. petroleum industry etc.
Laffer Curve: This curve is given by American economist Prof. Arthur Laffer. It represents relationship between total tax revenue and corresponding tax rate.
External Commercial Borrowings (ECB): It is an additional source of funds to Indian corporate and PSU’s for financing expansion of existing capacity as well as for fresh investment, augmenting the resources available domestically.
Cross Subsidy: The government purchases at a lesser cost and sells at a higher cost, like petrol. In this system government is the sole purchaser of the goods.
Oil Bonds: The bonds issued by Government of India to oil marketing companies to overcome their losses. It is a way of transferring burden of subsidy on the future generations.
Oil Pool Account: It is account through which Government of India issue bonds to oil making companies to cover for the losses because of Administer Price system. It was abolished few years back. Now it has been charged on Consolidated Fund of India.
Financial Inclusion: Delivering financial services (savings, insurance, credit) to the deprived section at an affordable cost. Microfinance, SHG and post office schemes are all examples for financial inclusion.
Industrial Finance Corporation of India: It was set up by Government of India in 1948 July under a special act. The scheduled banks, insurance companies, investment and cooperative banks are share holder of IFCI, to provide medium and long term credit to industry.
FOREIGN TRADE & WTO
Free on Board: A term given to the system of paying for goods shipped from or to another country when the amount is sufficient only to cover the value of the good and excludes insurance and frights.
Quantitative Restrictions: The quantitative limits placed on the importation of specified commodities. For protection, the quota is more certain then a tariff in its effects on the quantity of imports.
Counter Trade: It is exchange in goods and services that are paid for other goods and service. i.e. Barter System, Switch Trading, Buy Bank, Off set.
Social Dumping: It is a practice of exporting goods form a country where the labours are suppressed and labour court is low in order to compete international market.
Appreciation: When the value of currency rises with respect to another currency is said to have appreciated. It also indicates the increase in value of an asset.
Countervailing Tax: It is the duty imposed to raise the price of imported c commodity so that it becomes higher than the price of domestic goods. It is also known as outervailing measure.
Debt Service Ratio: The Ratio of interest and principal payments on debt as a proportion of the country’s total export for a particular year in called debt service ratio. DSR = Interest + Principal/Export.
Visible Balance: The balance of payments in visible trade (imports and exports).
Current Account Deficit: It is the difference between exports and imports of goods and services as well as the transfer on invisibles. It signifies saving investment gap.
FEMA: Foreign Exchange Management Act was introduced in July 1998 in the Parliament to repeal FERA 1973. Under FEMA, 1999 provisions related to foreign exchange have been modified and liberalized so as to simplify foreign trend and payments.
Crawling Peg: When small exchange adjustments in external value of currency of a country is made to rectify and under or over valuation of the home currency in terms of a given foreign currency, it may be called crawling peg.
Currency Board: The exchange rate is fixed, with institutional constraints on monetary policy. The monetary authority can only issue domestic money when it is fully backed by inflows on foreign exchange.
Devaluation: In a fixed exchange rate system, when the country has decided to reduce the value of its currency in comparison with foreign currency. India devalued its currency in the past. It increase exports and reduces imports.
Hard Currency: It refers to the currency of an industrialized country which has general convertibility.
Soft Currency: A currency with limited convertibility into gold and other currencies either because it is of depreciating due to balance of payment, deficit or because cannot have been placed on it.
Exim Bank: It is established for financing, facilitating and promoting foreign trade in India.
Duty Drawback Scheme: It is a scheme in which exporter are allowed to drawback the duties (customs duty, service tax. etc) as a part of an incentive to increase exports.
EPCG Scheme: It is Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme, where in capital goods is imposed 5% rate for export purpose. If the capital is imported for agriculture exports then it is zero percent (0%).
Agri Export Zone: It was setup in EXIM policy 2001-02 for encouraging exports of specific agriculture products from geographically identified areas.
Custom Union: More advanced level of economic integration than the free trade area. It not only eliminates all restrictions on trade among members but also adopts a uniform commercial policy against the non-members.
Mercosur: A customs union of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. In 1996, Bolivia and Chile became associate members.
de minimis support under WTO: It is a support given by government, which does not fall under green, blue, amber box subsidies. They are subject to reduction under WTO.
Amber Box: It comprises all forms of domestic support deemed to be trade distorting, primarily by encouraging excessive production. A market price support mechanism that set no product limit.
GATS: General Agreement of Trade in Services
TRIPS: Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
TRIMS: Trade Related Investment Measures
MIGA: It is set up in 1988 as an agency of the World Bank whose purpose/ objective is to protect the interest of the foreign investors operating in a country against non – commercial risks (communal riots, natural calamities, etc) due to which property of foreign investors may be destroyed.
Tariff Binding and WTO: The maximum Tariff, which country can impose on imports. Indian tariff rates are much below then the binding rates which are prescribed for developing countries.
Special Safeguard Measure under WTO: It is a mechanism which allows developing countries to impose tariff, when the price of agricultural commodities falls by a certain percentage. The amount of percentage is bone of contention in WTO, between India and western countries. India says 10% fall and West says 40% fall.
Multi fiber Agreement: Agreement between developed and developing countries. Where by developed countries imposed a fixed quota on textile exports from developing countries. It has been dismantled.
Asian Development Bank: Set up in 1966 under the recommendation of United Nation Economic Commission for Asia and Pacific. The bank was formed with two fold objectives:
· To inculcate cooperation in the Asia Pacific.
· To accelerate the pace of economic development of the region’s developing countries.
Special Drawing Rights (SDR): The Special Drawing Rights is an international financial assets created by IMF and serves as an international unit of account. A means of payment amount certain eligible official entities.
Double Taxation Avoiding Agreement: When two countries have an agreement to avoid the tax on same goods is called Double Taxation Avoiding Agreement. At present India having this agreement with Mauritius.
Soft Loan: It is given by IDA to under developed country for long duration and zero interest.
Physical Quality of Life Index: Given by Morris, which means 1/3 of life expectancy index + infant mortality index + Basic literary index.
PQLI = 1/3 (LQI + IMI + BLI)
Human Poverty Index: Human Development Report 1997 introduced the concept of Human Poverty Index, which concentrates on deprivation in three essential elements of human life already reflected in HDI. (i) Longivity, (ii) Knowledge, (iii) Living Standard. It is released by UNDP.
GDI: Gender Related Development Index: It is a composite index measuring average achievement in the three dimensions captured in the Human Development Index.
· A long and healthy life.
· Knowledge and decent standard of living.
· Adjusted to account for inequalities between men and women.
GEM (Gender Empowerment Measure): Composite index measuring gender inequalities in three basic dimensions of empowerment – economic participation and decision making, political participation and decision making and power over economic resources.
Technology Index: Based on observed data and survey results, the index measures the value of technology in a country. It takes into account country’s involvement in innovation and import of technology from abroad.
Green Index: A measure of nation’s wealth by using produced assets, natural resources and human resources each being allocated specific value to see whether the development is sustainable or not.
Millennium Development Goods: Adopted by U.N. General Assembly in 2000; it prescribes the goals to achieve by year 2015. It has 8 goods to be achieved.
POVERTY & UNEMPLOYMENT
Poverty Line: The per capital expenditure on certain minimum needs of a person including food intake of a daily average of 2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas.
Poverty Gap: It is calculated as the total shortfall of consumption below the poverty line, divided by the total population. This per capital shortfall in consumption below the poverty line is then expressed on a percentage of the poverty line.
Poverty Gap Index: Poverty ratio × (Poverty line = per capita conception of the poor) / poverty link × 100.
Relative Poverty: It indicates inequality in the income of the people. May not be absolutely poor in terms of calories but income wise.
Lorenz Curve: Cumulative frequency curve showing the distribution of a variable such as population against an independent variable such as income. In cumulative % of income less than a given value are plotted against the cumulative % of persons.
Gini-coefficient: It represents the measurement of inequality derived from the “Lorenz curve”. With every increase in the degree of inequality, the curvature of the Lorenz curve also increase and the area between the curve and 450 line becomes larger. The Gini – coefficient is measured as:
G = Area between Lorenz-curve & 450 line / Area above the 450 line.
Frictional Employment: Temporary unemployment caused by incessant changes in the economy. It takes time, for example for new workers to search among different job possibilities, even experienced workers often spend a minimum period of unemployment time moving from one job to another.
Unemployment trap: The existence of social security benefits for the out of work that erode an incentive for the unemployed to take a job.
Current Daily Status of Unemployment: It considers the activity status of a person for each day of the preceding seven days. A person who works for one hour but less than 4 hours is considered having worked for half a day. If he works for 4 hours or more during a day, it is considered whole day.
Demographic Divided: It is being enjoyed by India and if it is not managed properly it become demographic nightmare. It occurs when the countries working population (16-64year of age) is very large when compared to rest of the population.
Misery Index: Index combining unemployment rate and inflation rate: It is measured for practical significance of condition of economy, as well as consumer confidence.
CAPART: The Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology. It is autonomous organization under the Ministry of Rural Development set up in 1986 as a supporting and funding agency to the voluntary organization.
TRYSEM: Training to Rural Youth for Self Employment is an integral part of Integrated Rural Development Programme. Since April 1, 1999, TRYSEM has been merged with newly introduced programme namely, Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana. Since the launching of MGNREGA, it has become a part of it.
AGRICULTURE & INDUSTRY
Second Green Revolution: It aims at efficient use of resources and conservation of soil, water and ecology on sustainable basis and in a holistic framework.
· Over 4% annual growth rate in agriculture.
· Greater private sector participation through farming
· Price protection for farmers
· National Agriculture Insurance Scheme to be lowered for all farmers and all crops.
· Dismantling movement and agriculture commodity throughout the country.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme: It is started in 1995 by government of India to complete incomplete projects of states in which central funds flow on.
Debt Swap Scheme: It is a scheme through which farmers get loan from bank with minimum rate of interest to pay back loan from local money center, PNB launched it first.
Social Forestry: Involving the local community in preservation and rejuvenation of forest resources including wild life and etc.
Contract Forming: It is a new way of farming in which big corporates sign contract with farmers making provision for the production of farm goods and delivery at a later date at a price signed in the contract. This helps farmers get a fixed amount for the goods. It stabilizes the farmer’s income.
Footloose Industry: These industries are mobile industry which are not based in a particular area and can be seen anywhere for performing their activities.
Sunrise Industries: Industries in the forefront of development which have immense future potential. e.g. IT, Biotechnology, Pharma.
Index of Industrial Production: It is used to measure the growth rate of industry in India. It is the weighted average of mining, manufacturing and electricity. The base year of IIP is 1993-94.
Green Field Investment: In software engineering jargon Greenfield is a project which lacks any constraints imposed by prior work. The image is that of construction on Greenfield land. Where there is no need to remodel or demolish an existing structure.
Brown Field Investment: Those facilities which are modified/ upgraded are called Brown Field Projects.
Cortel: An association of producers in a given industry whose purpose is to restrict or bar competition in the industry.
Special Economic Zone (SEZ): Introduced in the EXIM policy of 2000-01 with a view to provide internationally competitive and haste free environment for export. They are free from taxes and duties. Such area is considered as foreign territory for the purpose of trade operations and tariffs.
Special Purpose Vehicle: It is introduced outside control and obligation of the government involved in setting up of new firms like DMRC. SPV is used by government in order to enhance public private partnership (PPP).
Golden Hand Shake: Voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) in Industrial Policy Resolution 1991 for reducing the pressure of employees on public sector enterprises.
Exit Policy: it is a part of liberation policy adopted by the government. It was adopted in 1991 which aimed at closing down the sick and inefficient industries and making handshakes with excess employees so as to reduce the financial burden on the economy.
Capital Widening: It is a phenomenon of growth in which capital to labour ratio is constant. When capital ratio is constant then wage rate is also constant.
Tournament theory: The piece of economic thinking that suggests rewards can usefully be based upon the relative performance of economic agents, rather than on their absolute performance.
Yield Curve: A graphical representation of the relationship between the annual return on an asset and the number of years the asset has to run before expiring. Long term assets usually offer some premium over short-term ones and yield curves, thus typically slop upwards.
Zero sum game: A game in which one players gain is equal to other player's losses.
Window Dressing: Financial adjustments made solely for the purpose of accounting presentation normally at the time of auditing of company accounts.
Essential Commodities Act (1955): This act was introduced for ensuring supply of essential commodities to the consumers at fair prices and to save them from seller’s exploitation.
Book Building: This is the first draft or preliminary prospects, which carries the information of company and the project.
Micro Finance: Financial services offered to rural and urban poor. Its include insurance, credits and savings.
Swayam Sidha: it is centrally sponsored scheme for holistic empowerment of women, through mobilization and formation of women, into- Self Help Group (SHG).
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF): It was set up under NABARD in 1995-96. Its main function is to improve rural roads and bridges, to remove inter regional, rural - urban or inter-state disparities to help the new agriculture policy to release more than 4% growth rate.
Carbon tax: it is tax on emission. New Zeland introduced it first.
Reverse Mortgage: Scheme started in 2007 wherein the older people are paid a pension by the bank till their death. And after their death the banks takes hold of house and ask legal heir to pay the amount or forbid the house. This is the way of ensuring constant support to elders.
Procurement Price: It is final price a company pays for procuring goods. It includes insurance transportation in addition to the production cost.
Bandwagen Effect: It is an observation of people to do and believe, what other people do.
Back Wash Effect: Where in people move from poorer region to richer (Industrial) region, which will undercut the industry and development of poorer region.
Pump Priming: The infection of small amounts of government spending into a depressed economy with the aim of boosting business confidence and encouraging large scale private sector investment.
Amovtization: It refers to repayment of loan principle.