India Capital: New Delhi
Located in South Asia, India is the seventh largest, and the second most populous country in the world. Home to the Indus Valley civilisation and known for its historic trade routes and vast empires, India is recognised for its commercial and cultural wealth. It is the centre of amalgamation of many religions and ethnicities which have shaped the country's diverse culture. Colonised by the United Kingdom from early eighteenth century, India became a modern nation state in 1947, after a struggle for independence that was remarkable for its largely non-violent resistance and is the most populous democracy in the world today.
Location: South Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Mynamar and Pakistan.
Geographic Coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Border Countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Coastline: 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Climate: Mainly tropical in southern India but temperatures in the north range from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees celsius. There are well-defined seasons in the northern region: winter (Dec - Feb), Spring (Mar - Apr), Summer (May - Jun), Monsoons (Jul - Sep) and Autumn (Oct - Nov).
Area: total: 3,287,263 sq km
Land: 2,973,193 sq km
Water: 314,070 sq km
Natural Resources: coal (fourth largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land.
Land Use: arable land: 48.83 percent
Irrigated Land: 60.2 million hectares (2005-06)
Political System and Government:
The 1950 Constitution provides for a parliamentary system of Government with a bicameral parliament and three independent branches: the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The country has a federal structure with elected governments in States.
Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories
Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950
Executive Branch: The President of India is the Head of State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the government and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet.
Legislative Branch: The Federal Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
Judicial Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
Chief of State: President Mrs Pratibha Patil (since 25 July 2007)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh (since 22 May 2009)
Population: 1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est.)
Population Growth Rate: 1.548 per cent (2009 est.)
Ethnic Groups: Indo-Aryan 72 per cent, Dravidian 25 per cent, Mongoloid and other 3 per cent (2000)
Religions: Hindu 80.5 per cent, Muslim 13.4 per cent, Christian 2.3 per cent, Sikh 1.9 per cent, other 1.8 per cent, unspecified 0.1 per cent (2001 census)
Languages: Apart from Hindi, which is the Official Union Language and mother tongue of 30 per cent of the people, there are 21 other official languages. English is the preferred language for national, political, and commercial communication.
Literacy: Total population: 64.8 per cent (2001 census)
Male: 75.3 per cent
Female: 53.7 per cent
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Per capita income (average income) of Indians has grown by 10.5 per cent to US$ 947.21 in 2009-10 as against US$ 857.43 in 2008-09, at the current price.
According to the estimates by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, the Indian economy has registered a growth of 7.4 per cent in 2009-10, with 8.6 per cent year-on-year (y-o-y) growth in its fourth quarter. The growth is driven by robust performance of the manufacturing sector on the back of government and consumer spending. GDP growth rate of 7.4 per cent in 2009-10 has exceeded the government forecast of 7.2 per cent for the full year. According to government data, the manufacturing sector witnessed a growth of 16.3 per cent in January-March 2010, from a year earlier.
According to the Central statistical Organisation (CSO), following are the key indicators:
- GDP at factor cost at constant (2004-05) prices in the year 2009-10 is now estimated at US$ 949.1 billion (as against US$ 946.8 billion estimated earlier on 8th February, 2010, showing a growth rate of 7.4 per cent over the Quick Estimates of GDP for the year 2008-09 of US$ 883.4 billion, released on 29th January, 2010. The upward revision in the GDP growth rate is mainly on account of higher performance in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’, ‘mining and quarrying’ and ‘manufacturing’, than anticipated.
- GDP at factor cost at current prices in the year 2009-10 is estimated at US$ 1.25 trillion, showing a growth rate of 12.2 per cent over the Quick Estimates of GDP for the year 2008-09 of US$ 1.11 trillion, released on 29th January 2010.
GDP Composition by Sector in 2009-10 (RBI estimate):
Services: 57.2 per cent
Industry: 28.2 per cent
Agriculture: 14.6 per cent
Forex Reserves (2009-10): US$ 277 billion
Labour Force: 523.5 million (2008 est.)
Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) at current prices: 32.4 per cent of GDP at market prices (April 2009-March 2010)
Industrial output in April 2010: 17.6 per cent
Cumulative Value of Exports: US$ 153 billion (April'09-Feb'10)
Exports Commodities: Petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel
Export Partners: US 12 per cent, UAE 10.8 per cent, China 5.1 per cent, Singapore 4.8 per cent, Hong Kong 3.7 per cent, UK 3.6 per cent (April’08-February’09)
Currency (code): Indian rupee (INR)
Exchange Rates: Indian rupees per US dollar - 1 USD = 47.03 INR (June 01, 2010)
Fiscal Year: 1 April - 31 March
Cumulative FDI Inflows: US$ 33.1 billion (April'09- Feb'10)
Share of Top Investing Countries FDI Equity Inflows: Mauritius, Singapore, US, UK, Netherlands, Cyprus, Japan (as on March 2010)
Major Sectors Attracting Highest FDI Equity Inflows: Services Sector, Computer Software & Hardware, Telecommunications, Housing and Real Estate, Construction Activities, Power (as on March 2010)
Transportation in India
International Airports: Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram
Railways: total: 63,327 route km (31st March, 2007)
Roadways: total: 3,316,452 km
Waterways: 14,500 km (2008)
Major Ports of Entry: Chennai, Ennore, Haldia, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), Kolkata, Kandla, Kochi, Mormugao, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin and Vishakhapatnam.